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8 "Risk assessment"
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Original Article
Decomposition of Socioeconomic Inequality in Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence in the Adult Population: A Cohort-based Cross-sectional Study in Northwest Iran
Farhad Pourfarzi, Telma Zahirian Moghadam, Hamed Zandian
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):297-306.   Published online May 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.051
  • 3,173 View
  • 91 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is increasing in developing countries. This study aimed to decompose the socioeconomic inequality of CVD in Iran.
Methods
This cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on 20 519 adults who enrolled in the Ardabil Non-Communicable Disease cohort study. Principal component analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used, respectively, to estimate socioeconomic status and to describe the relationships between CVD prevalence and the explanatory variables. The relative concentration index, concentration curve, and Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition model were used to measure and decompose the socioeconomic inequality.
Results
The overall age-adjusted prevalence of CVD was 8.4% in northwest Iran. Multivariable logistic regression showed that older adults, overweight or obese adults, and people with hypertension and diabetes were more likely to have CVD. Moreover, people with low economic status were 38% more likely to have CVD than people with high economic status. The prevalence of CVD was mainly concentrated among the poor (concentration index, -0.077: 95% confidence interval, -0.103 to -0.060), and 78.66% of the gap between the poorest and richest groups was attributed to differences in the distribution of the explanatory variables included in the model.
Conclusions
The most important factors affecting inequality in CVD were old age, chronic illness (hypertension and diabetes), marital status, and socioeconomic status. This study documented stark inequality in the prevalence of CVD, wherein the poor were more affected than the rich. Therefore, it is necessary to implement policies to monitor, screen, and control CVD in poor people living in northwest Iran.
Summary
Special Articles
General Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, So-Yeon Kim, Sun-Ja Kim, Kyung-Eun Lee, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Eun-Hye Kim, Kyung-Ho Choi, Young-Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):7-17.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.7
  • 13,268 View
  • 144 Download
  • 26 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Risk assessment considers the situations and characteristics of the exposure environment and host. Various physiological variables of the human body reflects the characteristics of the population that can directly influence risk exposure. Therefore, identification of exposure factors based on the Korean population is required for appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that a handbook about general exposure factors will be used by professionals in many fields as well as the risk assessors of the health department. The process of developing the exposure factors handbook for the Korean population will be introduced in this article, with a specific focus on the general exposure factors including life expectancy, body weight, surface area, inhalation rates, amount of water intake, and soil ingestion targeting the Korean population. The researchers used national databases including the Life Table and the 2005 Time Use Survey from the National Statistical Office. The anthropometric study of size in Korea used the resources provided by the Korean Agency for Technology and Standards. In addition, direct measurement and questionnaire surveys of representative samples were performed to calculate the inhalation rate, drinking water intake, and soil ingestion.

Summary

Citations

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    Aerosol Science and Technology.2024; 58(3): 309.     CrossRef
  • Occurrence, time trends, and human exposure of siloxanes and synthetic musk compounds in indoor dust from Korean homes
    Wenming Chen, Jin-Su Oh, Jae-Eun Lim, Hyo-Bang Moon
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.2023; 266: 115538.     CrossRef
  • Updated general exposure factors for risk assessment in the Korean population
    Hyojung Yoon, Jungkwan Seo, Sun-Kyoung Yoo, Pil-Je Kim, Jinhyeon Park, Youngtae Choe, Wonho Yang
    Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology.2023; 33(6): 1013.     CrossRef
  • Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Bisphenol Analogues Through Different Types of Drinking Water in Korea
    Jae-Eun Lim, Chunyang Liao, Hyo-Bang Moon
    Exposure and Health.2023; 15(1): 185.     CrossRef
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    Wenting Wang, Sangmin Park, Byeong-gyu Choi, Jeong-Eun Oh
    Environmental Pollution.2023; 316: 120563.     CrossRef
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    Louis Kumi, Jaewook Jeong, Jaemin Jeong
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(12): 7332.     CrossRef
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    SSRN Electronic Journal .2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Zhi Yuan Yong, Ki Yong Kim, Jeong-Eun Oh
    Environmental Pollution.2021; 268: 115395.     CrossRef
  • Development of a Method for Simultaneous Analysis of Allergenic Flavoring Agents in Cigarettes and Quantitative Risk Assessment for Consumer Safety
    Dae Yong Jang, Hyung Soo Kim, Eun Chul Pack, Ye Ji Koo, Kyung Min Lim, Dal Woong Choi
    Toxics.2021; 9(4): 87.     CrossRef
  • Concentrations and distributions of neonicotinoids in drinking water treatment plants in South Korea
    Jiwon Kim, Wenting Wang, Soohyung Lee, Ju-Hyun Park, Jeong-Eun Oh
    Environmental Pollution.2021; 288: 117767.     CrossRef
  • Development of General Exposure Factors for Risk Assessment in Korean Children
    Hyojung Yoon, Sun-Kyoung Yoo, Jungkwan Seo, Taksoo Kim, Pyeongsoon Kim, Pil-Je Kim, Jinhyeon Park, Jung Heo, Wonho Yang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(6): 1988.     CrossRef
  • Seasonal occurrence and removal of organophosphate esters in conventional and advanced drinking water treatment plants
    Gyojin Choo, Jeong-Eun Oh
    Water Research.2020; 186: 116359.     CrossRef
  • Health risk assessment of trihalomethanes in water treatment plants in Jiangsu Province, China
    Yumin Wang, Guangcan Zhu, Bernard Engel
    Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety.2019; 170: 346.     CrossRef
  • Stabilization of fluorine in soil using calcium hydroxide and its potential human health risk
    Seulki Jeong, Doyoung Kim, Hye-On Yoon
    Environmental Engineering Research.2019; 24(4): 654.     CrossRef
  • Tối ưu quá trình nuôi cấy nấm mốc Aspergillus niger thu nhận enzyme lipase và ứng dụng trong tiền xử lý nước thải sữa tổng hợp
    Đào Thị Mỹ Linh, Nguyễn Thị Quỳnh Mai, Trần Thị Mỹ Thảo, Lý Thị Diễm Trang, Lê Thị Mỹ Trinh, Võ Thị Thúy Vân
    Can Tho University Journal of Science.2019; 55(Công ng: 277.     CrossRef
  • Mixture risk assessment of selected mainstream cigarette smoke constituents generated from low-yield cigarettes in South Korean smokers
    Eun Chul Pack, Dae Yong Jang, Hyung Soo Kim, Seung Ha Lee, Hae Young Kim, Seok Ho Song, Hoon Sik Cho, Kyeng Hee Kwon, Kun Ho Park, Kyung Min Lim, Dal Woong Choi
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology.2018; 94: 152.     CrossRef
  • Measurement of Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Health Risk Assessment of Cooking-Generated Particles in the Kitchen and Living Rooms of Apartment Houses
    Hyungkeun Kim, Kyungmo Kang, Taeyeon Kim
    Sustainability.2018; 10(3): 843.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the current contamination status of PFASs and OPFRs in South Korean tap water associated with its origin
    Heejeong Park, Gyojin Choo, Hyerin Kim, Jeong-Eun Oh
    Science of The Total Environment.2018; 634: 1505.     CrossRef
  • Health risk assessment by CRPS and the numerical model for toluene in residential buildings
    Haneul Choi, Hyungkeun Kim, Taeyeon Kim
    KIEAE Journal.2017; 17(5): 33.     CrossRef
  • Health risk assessment of occupants through exposure scenarios of daily indoor air pollutants
    Himchan Kim, Hooseung Na, Hyungkeun Kim, Taeyeon Kim
    KIEAE Journal.2017; 17(6): 279.     CrossRef
  • Species-specific accumulation of methyl and total mercury in sharks from offshore and coastal waters of Korea
    Sang-Jo Kim, Hyun-Kyung Lee, Abimbola C. Badejo, Won-Chan Lee, Hyo-Bang Moon
    Marine Pollution Bulletin.2016; 102(1): 210.     CrossRef
  • Occurrence and exposure assessment of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) through the consumption of drinking water in Korea
    Sunggyu Lee, Woochang Jeong, Kurunthachalam Kannan, Hyo-Bang Moon
    Water Research.2016; 103: 182.     CrossRef
  • Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments
    Rosemary Zaleski, Peter Egeghy, Pertti Hakkinen
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 744.     CrossRef
  • Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: review of influencing factors
    N. Hodas, M. Loh, H.‐M. Shin, D. Li, D. Bennett, T. E. McKone, O. Jolliet, C. J. Weschler, M. Jantunen, P. Lioy, P. Fantke
    Indoor Air.2016; 26(6): 836.     CrossRef
Activity Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, Soo-Nam Jo, So-Yeon Kim, Kyung-Eun Lee, Kyung-Ho Choi, Young-Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):27-35.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.27
  • 9,163 View
  • 100 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Exposure factors based on the Korean population are required for making appropriate risk assessment. It is expected that handbooks for exposure factors will be applied in many fields, as well as by health department risk assessors. The present article describes the development of an exposure factors handbook that specifically focuses on human activities in situations involving the possible risk of exposure to environmental contaminants. We define majour exposure factors that represent behavioral patterns for risk assessment, including time spent on routine activities, in different places, on using transportation, and engaged in activities related to water contact including swimming, bathing and washing. Duration of residence and employment are also defined. National survey data were used to identify recommended levels of exposure factors in terms of time spent on routine activities and period of residence and employment. An online survey was conducted with 2073 subjects who were selected using a stratified random sampling method in order to develop a list of exposure factors for the time spent in different places and in performing water-related activities. We provide the statistical distribution of the variables, and report reference levels of average exposure based on the reliable data in our exposure factors handbook.

Summary

Citations

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  • Updated general exposure factors for risk assessment in the Korean population
    Hyojung Yoon, Jungkwan Seo, Sun-Kyoung Yoo, Pil-Je Kim, Jinhyeon Park, Youngtae Choe, Wonho Yang
    Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology.2023; 33(6): 1013.     CrossRef
  • Exposure parameters and health risk of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the recreational water activities for urban residents in China
    Chong-Miao Zhang, Peng-Cheng Xu, Wei-Wei Du, Xiaochang C. Wang
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research.2022; 29(1): 1573.     CrossRef
  • Spatio-temporal variations of emerging sites infested with schistosome-transmitting Oncomelania hupensis in Hunan Province, China, 1949–2016
    Shengming Li, Ying Shi, Weicheng Deng, Guanghui Ren, Hongbin He, Benjiao Hu, Chunlin Li, Na Zhang, Yingyan Zheng, Yingjian Wang, Shurong Dong, Yue Chen, Qingwu Jiang, Yibiao Zhou
    Parasites & Vectors.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Characteristics and health effects of PM2.5 emissions from various sources in Gwangju, South Korea
    Injeong Kim, Kwangyul Lee, Sunhong Lee, Sang Don Kim
    Science of The Total Environment.2019; 696: 133890.     CrossRef
  • Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments
    Rosemary Zaleski, Peter Egeghy, Pertti Hakkinen
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 744.     CrossRef
  • Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: review of influencing factors
    N. Hodas, M. Loh, H.‐M. Shin, D. Li, D. Bennett, T. E. McKone, O. Jolliet, C. J. Weschler, M. Jantunen, P. Lioy, P. Fantke
    Indoor Air.2016; 26(6): 836.     CrossRef
Food Ingestion Factors of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, Soo-Nam Jo, Sun-Ja Kim, Hyung-Nam Myung, Cho-Il Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):18-26.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.18
  • 9,943 View
  • 76 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The purpose of this study was to establish food ingestion factors needed to assess exposure to contaminants through food ingestion. The study reclassified the raw data of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2001 into 12 subcategories including grain products, meat products, fish and shellfish, and vegetables for international comparability of exposure evaluation. The criteria for food intake calculation were unified according to the characteristics of food groups, and recommended values for food ingestion factors were calculated through moisture correction and recategorization of cooked, processed, and mixed foods for each group. The average intake rate for grain and grain products was 6.25 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was approximately 8% higher than that of the women. The average intake rate of meat and meat products was 1.62 g/kg-d per capita and the men's intake rate was 30% higher than that of the women, on average. The average intake rate of fish and shellfish was 1.53 g/kg-d per capita, and the age groups of 1 to 2 and 3 to 6 recorded higher capita intake rates than other age groups, 2.62 g/kg-d and 2.25 g/kg-d, respectively. The average intake rate of vegetables was 6.47 g/kg-d per capita, with the age group of 1 to 2 recording the highest per capita intake rate of 9.79 g/kg-d and that of 13 to 19 recording the lowest mean. The study also offers recommended values for food ingestion factors of other food groups by gender, age, and region. The food ingestion exposure factors will need future updates in consideration of ongoing changes in food consumption behavior.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Updated general exposure factors for risk assessment in the Korean population
    Hyojung Yoon, Jungkwan Seo, Sun-Kyoung Yoo, Pil-Je Kim, Jinhyeon Park, Youngtae Choe, Wonho Yang
    Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology.2023; 33(6): 1013.     CrossRef
  • Heavy metal accumulation in and food safety of shark meat from Jeju island, Republic of Korea
    Sang Wha Kim, Se Jin Han, Yonggab Kim, Jin Woo Jun, Sib Sankar Giri, Cheng Chi, Saekil Yun, Hyoun Joong Kim, Sang Guen Kim, Jeong Woo Kang, Jun Kwon, Woo Taek Oh, Jehyun Cha, Seunghee Han, Byeong Chun Lee, Taesung Park, Byung Yeop Kim, Se Chang Park, Yi H
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    Journal of UOEH.2018; 40(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • The association of total blood mercury levels and overweight among Korean adolescents: analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2013
    Yi-Yeon Shin, In-Kyung Ryu, Mi-Jung Park, Shin-Hye Kim
    Korean Journal of Pediatrics.2018; 61(4): 121.     CrossRef
  • Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments
    Rosemary Zaleski, Peter Egeghy, Pertti Hakkinen
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 744.     CrossRef
Overview of the Development of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook
Jae-Yeon Jang, Soo-Nam Jo, So-Yeon Kim, Hyung-Nam Myung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(1):1-6.   Published online January 29, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.1.1
  • 11,644 View
  • 95 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

A set of exposure factors that reflects the characteristics of individual behavior capable of influencing exposure is essential for risk and exposure assessment. In 2007, the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook was, therefore, issued, driven by the need to develop reliable exposure factors representing the Korean population. The purpose of this study was to overview the development process of the Korean Exposure Factors Handbook and major recommended exposure values for the Korean population to allow information exchanges and comparison of recommended values among nations. The researchers reviewed the domestic data that could be used in the development of exposure factors, confirmed a knowledge gap, and set a priority of development by phases. A methodology to measure exposure factors was established to develop measuring techniques and test their validity. Data were processed or a survey was conducted according to the availability of data. The study thus produced recommended values for 24 exposure factors grouped by general exposure factors, food ingestion factors, and activity factors by setting up a database of exposure factors and carrying out statistical analysis. The study has significantly contributed to reducing the potential uncertainty of the risk and exposure assessment derived by the application of foreign data or research findings lacking representativeness or grounds by developing a set of exposure factors reflecting the characteristics of the Korean people. It will be necessary to conduct revisions in light of the changing statistical values of national data and the exposure factors based on Korean characteristics.

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Citations

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  • A SWOT analysis of contemporary gaps and a possible diagnostic tool for environmental health in an upper-middle income country: a case study of South Africa
    Setlamorago Jackson Mbazima, Thokozani Patrick Mbonane, Masilu Daniel Masekameni
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    IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.2020; 459(3): 032018.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(1): 144.     CrossRef
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    Guozhi Cao, Jun Bi, Zongwei Ma, Zhijuan Shao, Jinnan Wang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(6): 1066.     CrossRef
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    E R Valeeva, G A Ismagilova, N V Stepanova
    IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.2019; 272(3): 032016.     CrossRef
  • Combined Assessment of Preschool Childrens’ Exposure to Substances in Household Products
    Joo-hyon Kim, Kwangseol Seok
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(5): 733.     CrossRef
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    IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science.2018; 107: 012079.     CrossRef
  • Health Risk Assessment on Hazardous Ingredients in Household Deodorizing Products
    Minjin Lee, Joo-Hyon Kim, Daeyeop Lee, Jaewoo Kim, Hyunwoo Lim, Jungkwan Seo, Young-Kwon Park
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2018; 15(4): 744.     CrossRef
  • Exploring Global Exposure Factors Resources for Use in Consumer Exposure Assessments
    Rosemary Zaleski, Peter Egeghy, Pertti Hakkinen
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(7): 744.     CrossRef
  • Risk assessment of gastric cancer associated with asbestosis: a case report
    Soo-Hong Park, Dong-Mug Kang, Bon-Hak Koo, Young-Ki Kim, Jong-Eun Kim
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review
Risk Assessment and Pharmacogenetics in Molecular and Genomic Epidemiology.
Sue K Park, Ji Yeob Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(6):371-376.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.6.371
  • 5,105 View
  • 60 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
In this article, we reviewed the literature on risk assessment (RA) models with and without molecular genomic markers and the current utility of the markers in the pharmacogenetic field. Epidemiological risk assessment is applied using statistical models and equations established from current scientific knowledge of risk and disease. Several papers have reported that traditional RA tools have significant limitations in decision-making in management strategies for individuals as predictions of diseases and disease progression are inaccurate. Recently, the model added information on the genetic susceptibility factors that are expected to be most responsible for differences in individual risk. On the continuum of health care, from diagnosis to treatment, pharmacogenetics has been developed based on the accumulated knowledge of human genomic variation involving drug distribution and metabolism and the target of action, which has the potential to facilitate personalized medicine that can avoid therapeutic failure and serious side effects. There are many challenges for the applicability of genomic information in a clinical setting. Current uses of genetic markers for managing drug therapy and issues in the development of a valid biomarker in pharmacogenetics are discussed.
Summary

Citations

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  • Selected LDLR and APOE Polymorphisms Affect Cognitive and Functional Response to Lipophilic Statins in Alzheimer’s Disease
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Original Articles
Risk-Based Damage Cost Estimation on Mortality Due to Environmental Problems.
Ye Shin Kim, Yong Jin Lee, Hoa Sung Park, Dong Chun Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):230-238.
  • 2,185 View
  • 35 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To estimate the value of statistical life (VSL) and health damage cost on theoretical mortality estimates due to environmental pollution. METHODS: We assessed the health risk on three environmental problems and eight sub-problems. Willingness to pay (WTP) was elucidated from a questionnaire survey with dichotomous contingent valuation method and VSL (which is the division of WTP by the change of risk reduction) calculated from WTP. Damage costs were estimated by multiplying VSL by the theoretical mortality estimates. RESULTS: VSLs from death caused by air pollution, indoor air pollution and drinking water contamination were about 0.3, 0.5 and 0.3 billion won, respectively. Damage costs of particulate matters (PM10) and radon were higher in the sub-problems and were above 100 billion won. Because damage cost depends on theoretical mortality estimate and WTP, its uncertainty is reduced in the estimating process. CONCLUSION: Health damage cost or risk benefit should be considered as one scientific criterion for decision making in environmental policy.
Summary
Risk Assessment on Carcinogenic Pesticides of Vegetables in Korea.
Jae Hong Yoon, Jong Tae Lee, Yong Chung, Dongchun Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):155-161.
  • 2,138 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The study was conducted to estimate the carcinogenic risks from the ingestion of some carcinogenic pesticides (CPs) in vegetables sampled at a local agricultural product market in Seoul. METHODS: After applying a hazard identification step, we selected four pesticides, such as DDT, dieldrin, folpet, and heptachlor epoxide, for this risk assessment. Concentrations of each pesticide were measured from randomly sampled vegetables. In order to estimate the human exposure levels, we combined the concentration of pesticides in the vegetables with consumption rate of those vegetables. Three scenarios were hypothesized for human exposure assessment. Scenario I was the most conservative which supposed the undetected CPs would be the detection limit values. Scenario II was assumed that the undetected CPs would be a half of the detection limit values, and finally scenario III merely considered only values greater than the detection limit values. We finally presented the estimated carcinogenic risks on the basis of the traditional risk assessment procedure suggested by U.S. EPA. RESULTS: Pesticides including DDT, dieldrin, folpet and heptachlor epoxide were detected in 9 samples (6%) in the range of 0.0006~0.09ppm. The daily intake levels of carcinogenic pesticides were estimated in the range of 0.0009~0.0079 microgram/day. As we expected, excess cancer risks based on scenario I was also the highest (1.1x10-8~ 5.5x10-5). CONCLUSIONS: We found that the estimated risks from the pesticides we investigated were not serious. We, however, propose that a continuos monitoring is needed to make sure for the protection of public health.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health