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1 "Prolactin"
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Original Article
Correlations Among Maternal and Infant Factors, Lead Exposure, and Serum Prolactin Levels During Lactation: A Cross-sectional Study in Indonesia
Linda Ratna Wati, Djanggan Sargowo, Tatit Nurseta, Lilik Zuhriyah, Bambang Rahardjo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):422-430.   Published online August 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.238
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Prolactin is vital for breastfeeding and milk production, and its secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment. To date, no study has concurrently investigated the correlation of these factors with serum prolactin levels during lactation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation.
Methods
A cross-sectional approach was employed in Surabaya, Indonesia, among 110 exclusively lactating mothers. The mothers’ daily diets were determined using multiple 24-hour recalls, while blood lead levels were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum prolactin levels were assessed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For bivariate analysis, we employed the Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, while for multivariate analysis, we utilized multiple linear regression.
Results
The average serum prolactin level of the lactating mothers was 129.19±88.96 ng/mL. Positive correlations were found between serum prolactin levels and breastfeeding frequency (p < 0.001), protein intake (p < 0.001), and calcium intake (p = 0.011) but had negative correlation with blood lead levels (p < 0.001) and vitamin B6 intake (p = 0.003). Additionally, prolactin levels were not significantly associated with maternal age; parity; intake of calories, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, folic acid, magnesium, or iron; infant age; or infant sex.
Conclusions
Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.
Summary
Key Message
Prolactin secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment, and this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation. In total 110 exclusively lactating mothers were included, with information on their socio-demographic, daily diet, blood lead level, prolactin level, and infant characteristics. Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health