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Special Article
National Cancer Control Plan of the Korea: Current Status and the Fourth Plan (2021-2025)
Kyu-Tae Han, Jae Kwan Jun, Jeong-Soo Im
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(3):205-211.   Published online May 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.115
  • 1,178 View
  • 125 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Cancer management has become a major policy goal for the government of the Korea. As such, the government introduced the National Cancer Control Plan (NCCP) to reduce the individual and social burdens caused by cancer and to promote national health. During the past 25 years, 3 phases of the NCCP have been completed. During this time, the NCCP has changed significantly in all aspects of cancer control from prevention to survival. The targets for cancer control are increasing, and although some blind spots remain, new demands are emerging. The government initiated the fourth NCCP in March 2021, with the vision of “A Healthy Country with No Concerns about Cancer Anywhere at Any Time,” which aims to build and disseminate high-quality cancer data, reduce preventable cancer cases, and reduce gaps in cancer control. Its main strategies include (1) activation of cancer big data, (2) advancement of cancer prevention and screening, (3) improvement in cancer treatment and response, and (4) establishment of a foundation for balanced cancer control. The fourth NCCP has many positive expectations, similar to the last 3 plans; however, cross-domain support and participation are required to achieve positive results in cancer control. Notably, cancer remains the leading cause of death despite decades of management efforts and should continue to be managed carefully from a national perspective.
Summary
Korean summary
- 기존 1~3차 국가암관리계획의 전반적인 성과를 소개합니다. - 제4차 국가암관리계획의 목표 및 내용을 기존 계획과 비교하여 설명합니다.
Perspective
Gender in Climate Change: Safeguarding LGBTQ+ Mental Health in the Philippine Climate Change Response From a Minority Stress Perspective
Rowalt Alibudbud
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(2):196-199.   Published online March 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.501
  • 2,439 View
  • 110 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Climate-related events unevenly affect society, worsening mental health disparities among vulnerable populations. This paper highlights that lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender, queers, and other individuals identifying as sexual and gender minorities (LGBTQ+) could be considered a climate-vulnerable population in the Philippines, one of the most climate-vulnerable countries. As such, this paper elucidated that LGBTQ+ Filipinos can be marginalized in climate response efforts due to their sexual orientation and gender minority identities. According to the minority stress theory, discrimination against LGBTQ+ individuals may predispose them to mental health problems. Thus, there is a need to institute an LGBTQ+ inclusive mental health response for climate-related events to address discrimination against LGBTQ+ individuals and uphold their mental health.
Summary

Citations

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  • A human rights‐based approach to climate injustices at the local, national, and international levels: Program and policy recommendations
    Sheri R. Levy, Meroona Gopang, Luisa Ramírez, Allan B. I. Bernardo, Martin D. Ruck, Anni Sternisko
    Social Issues and Policy Review.2024; 18(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Leveraging critical race theory to produce equitable climate change adaptation
    Kieren Rudge
    Nature Climate Change.2023; 13(7): 623.     CrossRef
  • Mental health service, training, promotion, and research during typhoons: Climate change experiences from the Philippines
    Rowalt Alibudbud
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry.2023; 86: 103673.     CrossRef
  • Geopsychiatry and political determinants of mental health in the Philippines
    Rowalt Alibudbud
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
In-depth Correlation Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Effective Reproduction Number and Mobility Patterns: Three Groups of Countries
Mounir Ould Setti, Sylvain Tollis
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):134-143.   Published online February 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.522
  • 5,232 View
  • 157 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Many governments have imposed—and are still imposing—mobility restrictions to contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, there is no consensus on whether policy-induced reductions of human mobility effectively reduce the effective reproduction number (Rt) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Several studies based on country-restricted data reported conflicting trends in the change of the SARS-CoV-2 Rt following mobility restrictions. The objective of this study was to examine, at the global scale, the existence of regional specificities in the correlations between Rt and human mobility.
Methods
We computed the Rt of SARS-CoV-2 using data on worldwide infection cases reported by the Johns Hopkins University, and analyzed the correlation between Rt and mobility indicators from the Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports in 125 countries, as well as states/regions within the United States, using the Pearson correlation test, linear modeling, and quadratic modeling.
Results
The correlation analysis identified countries where Rt negatively correlated with residential mobility, as expected by policymakers, but also countries where Rt positively correlated with residential mobility and countries with more complex correlation patterns. The correlations between Rt and residential mobility were non-linear in many countries, indicating an optimal level above which increasing residential mobility is counterproductive.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that, in order to effectively reduce viral circulation, mobility restriction measures must be tailored by region, considering local cultural determinants and social behaviors. We believe that our results have the potential to guide differential refinement of mobility restriction policies at a country/regional resolution.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The effect of social movements on COVID-19 case increases and death in Turkey
    Mehmet Akif Gun, Onder Hanci
    Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.2023; 20: 101260.     CrossRef
  • The effects of weather and mobility on respiratory viruses dynamics before and during the COVID-19 pandemic in the USA and Canada
    Irma Varela-Lasheras, Lilia Perfeito, Sara Mesquita, Joana Gonçalves-Sá, Ryan S. McGinnis
    PLOS Digital Health.2023; 2(12): e0000405.     CrossRef
Social and Policy Determinants of COVID-19 Infection Across 23 Countries: An Ecological Study
Kyungsik Kim, Young-Do Jeung, Jeoungbin Choi, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):144-152.   Published online February 10, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.396
  • 3,170 View
  • 132 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the social and policy determinants of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection across 23 countries.
Methods
COVID-19 indicators (incidence, mortality, and fatality) for each country were calculated by direct and indirect standardization. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify the social and policy determinants of COVID-19 infection.
Results
A higher number of doctors per population was related to lower incidence, mortality, and fatality rates of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=-0.672, -0.445, and -0.564, respectively). The number of nurses/midwives per population was associated with lower mortality and fatality rates of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=-0.215 and -0.372, respectively). Strengthening of policy restriction indicators, such as restrictions of public gatherings, was related to lower COVID-19 incidence (β=-0.423). A national Bacillus Calmette–Guérin vaccination policy conducted among special groups or in the past was associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 in 23 countries (β=0.341). The proportion of the elderly population (aged over 70 years) was related to higher mortality and fatality rates (β=0.209 and 0.350, respectively), and income support was associated with mortality and fatality rates (β=-0.362 and -0.449, respectively).
Conclusions
These findings do not imply causality because this was a country-based correlation study. However, COVID-19 transmission can be influenced by social and policy determinants such as integrated health systems and policy responses to COVID-19. Various social and policy determinants should be considered when planning responses to COVID-19.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 23개국의 코로나 19 감염 지표 (발생, 사망, 치명)과 관련있는 사회적, 정책적 요소를 확인하고자 하는생태학적 연구이다. 이는 코로나 19 감염 지표에 대한 인과성을 제시하는 연구가 아니기에 주의 깊은 해석이 필요하며 본 연구에서 제시한 사회적, 정책적 요소를 통해 코로나 19 감염에 대한 국가적인 정책을 고려할 수 있을 것으로 기대된다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • COVID 19 mortality as a reflection of the quality of health in EU countries
    Beáta Stehlíková, Zuzana Vincúrová, Ivan Brezina, Ilona Švihlíková
    Economics & Sociology.2023; 16(3): 138.     CrossRef
  • Social and Policy Determinants of COVID-19
    Rujittika Mungmunpuntipantip, Viroj Wiwanitkit
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(3): 307.     CrossRef
  • Social and Policy Determinants of COVID-19 Infection Across 23 Countries: An Ecological Study
    Kyungsik Kim, Sue K. Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(3): 308.     CrossRef
  • Country-level and regional COVID-19 burden and determinants across OECD member states and partner countries
    Nlandu Roger Ngatu, Kazuto Tayama, Kanae Kanda, Tomohiro Hirao
    Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine.2022; 27: 41.     CrossRef
  • The association between tobacco or nicotine product use behaviors and non-compliance with mask-wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study in Korea
    Da-eun Lee, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022087.     CrossRef
Special Articles
Measuring Trends in the Socioeconomic Burden of Disease in Korea, 2007-2015
Tae Eung Kim, Ru-Gyeom Lee, So-Youn Park, In-Hwan Oh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(1):19-27.   Published online January 31, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.594
  • 3,622 View
  • 139 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
This study estimated the direct and indirect socioeconomic costs of 238 diseases and 22 injuries from a social perspective in Korea from 2007 to 2015. The socioeconomic cost of each disease group was calculated based on the Korean Standard Disease Classification System. Direct costs were estimated using health insurance claims data provided by the National Health Insurance Service. The numbers of outpatients and inpatients with the main diagnostic codes for each disease were selected as a proxy indicator for estimating patients’ medical use behavior by disease. The economic burden of disease from 2007 to 2015 showed an approximately 20% increase in total costs. From 2007 to 2015, communicable diseases (including infectious, maternal, pediatric, and nutritional diseases) accounted for 8.9-12.2% of the socioeconomic burden, while non-infectious diseases accounted for 65.7-70.7% and injuries accounted for 19.1-22.8%. The top 5 diseases in terms of the socioeconomic burden were self-harm (which took the top spot for 8 years), followed by cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, ischemic heart disease, and upper respiratory infections in 2007. Since 2010, the economic burden of conditions such as low back pain, falls, and acute bronchitis has been included in this ranking. This study expanded the scope of calculating the burden of disease at the national level by calculating the burden of disease in Koreans by gender and disease. These findings can be used as indicators of health equality and as useful data for establishing community-centered (or customized) health promotion policies, projects, and national health policy goals.
Summary
Korean summary
2007년에서 2015년 기간의 건강보험 자료 등을 이용하여, 해당기간의 경제적 질병부담을 측정하였으며, 해당 기간동안 경제적 질병부담은 20%의 증가를 나타내었다. 동 기간동안 비감염성 질환의 경제적 질병부담의 비율은 약 70%로 나타났으며, 감염성 질환은 약 10%, 손상은 20%로 나타났다. 한편 개별 질병군 기준으로는 자살을 포함한 자해가 1위를 차지한 해가 가장 많았다.

Citations

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  • Time Trend Analysis of Comorbidities in Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Population-Based Study from 53,142 Hospitalizations in Poland
    Katarzyna Helon, Małgorzata Wisłowska, Krzysztof Kanecki, Paweł Goryński, Aneta Nitsch-Osuch, Krzysztof Bonek
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(2): 602.     CrossRef
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    Sung Cheol Park, Min-Seok Kang, Jae Hyuk Yang, Tae-Hoon Kim
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2023; 38(1): 16.     CrossRef
  • Therapeutic Duplication as a Medication Error Risk in Fixed-Dose Combination Drugs for Dyslipidemia: A Nationwide Study
    Wonbin Choi, Hyunji Koo, Kyeong Hye Jeong, Eunyoung Kim, Seung-Hun You, Min-Taek Lee, Sun-Young Jung
    Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy.2023; 33(3): 168.     CrossRef
  • Effects of a Senior Musical Program on the Physical Function and Cognitive Abilities of Older Women in the Community
    Byeong-Soo Kim, Ji-Youn Kim, Sam-Ho Park, Myung-Mo Lee
    Healthcare.2023; 11(8): 1174.     CrossRef
Measuring the Burden of Disease in Korea, 2008-2018
Yoon-Sun Jung, Young-Eun Kim, Hyesook Park, In-Hwan Oh, Min-Woo Jo, Minsu Ock, Dun-Sol Go, Seok-Jun Yoon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(5):293-300.   Published online September 30, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.478
  • 6,778 View
  • 375 Download
  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
The study aims to examine the current status and differences in the burden of disease in Korea during 2008-2018. We calculated the burden of disease for Koreans from 2008 to 2018 using an incidence-based approach. Disability adjusted life years (DALYs) were expressed in units per 100 000 population by adding years of life lost (YLLs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). DALY calculation results were presented by gender, age group, disease, region, and income level. To explore differences in DALYs by region and income level, we used administrative district and insurance premium information from the National Health Insurance Service claims data. The burden of disease among Koreans showed an increasing trend from 2008 to 2018. By 2017, the burden of disease among men was higher than that among women. Diabetes mellitus, low back pain, and chronic lower respiratory disease were ranked high in the burden of disease; the sum of DALY rates for these diseases accounted for 18.4% of the total burden of disease among Koreans in 2018. The top leading causes associated with a high burden of disease differed slightly according to gender, age group, and income level. In this study, we measured the health status of Koreans and differences in the population health level according to gender, age group, region, and income level. This data can be used as an indicator of health equity, and the results derived from this study can be used to guide community-centered (or customized) health promotion policies and projects, and for setting national health policy goals.
Summary
Korean summary
이 논문에서는 장애보정생존년수라는 지표를 활용하여 2008-2018년 한국인의 질병부담 산출결과를 제시하였으며, 성별·연령군별·질환별 질병부담 수준의 차이 뿐만 아니라 지역 및 소득수준의 사회경제적 수준에 따른 질병부담의 격차도 함께 제시하였다.

Citations

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  • Prioritization of Injury Prevention and Management Programs and Research and Development (R&D) Projects: Survey Using the Delphi Technique and Analytic Hierarchy Process
    Won Kyung Lee, Minsu Ock, Ju Ok Park, Changsoo Kim, Beom Sok Seo, Jeehee Pyo, Hyun Jin Park, Ui Jeong Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Shinyoung Woo, Hyesook Park
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    I. Hwang, S.Y. Kim, Y.Y. Kim, J.H. Park
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  • Trends in Healthy Life Expectancy (HALE) and Disparities by Income and Region in Korea (2008–2020): Analysis of a Nationwide Claims Database
    Yoon-Sun Jung, Young-Eun Kim, Minsu Ock, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Measuring the Burden of Disease in Korea Using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (2008–2020)
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    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Opioid Prescription and Long-term Survival Outcomes in Adults: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Korea
    Tak Kyu Oh, In-Ae Song
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes in tuberculosis burden and its associated risk factors in Guizhou Province of China during 2006–2020: an observational study
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    Junghyun Kwon
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    Yoon-Sun Jung, Seok-Jun Yoon
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  • Relevance Index Regional Variation by Each Disease and Its Essential Medical Field: A Retrospective Data Analysis From 2016-2020 in Korea
    Young-Eun Kim, Jeehee Pyo, Haneul Lee, HyeRan Jeong, Young-Kwon Park, Jeong-Wook Seo, Minsu Ock, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Min Ji Koo, Seong Ho Cho
    Life Cycle.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Trend of Women’s Health Research in Korea, 2012–2020: Topic and Text Network Analysis
    Ji Eun Park, Saerom Kim, Myoung-Hee Kim, Taemi Kim, Seung-Ah Choe, Hye Sook Min
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Outbreak of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales at a long-term care facility in Seoul, Korea: surveillance and intervention mitigation strategies
    Yoojin Park, Euncheol Son, Young June Choe, Cho Ryok Kang, Sangmi Roh, Young Ok Hwang, Sung-il Cho, Jihwan Bang
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023057.     CrossRef
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    Gi Won Choi, Sun Ju Chang
    BMC Geriatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Min Ji Koo, Seong Ho Cho, Stephen Turner, Jung-Hyun Kim, Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos
    Life Cycle.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hee-kyoung Nam, Jungmi Park, Sung-il Cho
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Huiyeon Song, Boyoung Park
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  • Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke in Korea, 2011-2020
    Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Kyu Sun Yum, Young Dae Kim, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyeon Chang Kim
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  • DALY Estimation Approaches: Understanding and Using the Incidence-based Approach and the Prevalence-based Approach
    Young-Eun Kim, Yoon-Sun Jung, Minsu Ock, Seok-Jun Yoon
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  • A Review of the Types and Characteristics of Healthy Life Expectancy and Methodological Issues
    Young-Eun Kim, Yoon-Sun Jung, Minsu Ock, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(1): 1.     CrossRef
  • Measuring Trends in the Socioeconomic Burden of Disease in Korea, 2007-2015
    Tae Eung Kim, Ru-Gyeom Lee, So-Youn Park, In-Hwan Oh
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(1): 19.     CrossRef
  • Burden of Cancer Due to Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption in Korea
    Yoon-Sun Jung, Seok-Jun Yoon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(6): 3493.     CrossRef
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    Hyunkyu Kim, Seung Hoon Kim, Sung-In Jang, Eun-Cheol Park
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  • Active Surveillance Versus Immediate Surgery for Low-Risk Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma Patients in South Korea: A Cost-Minimization Analysis from the MAeSTro Study
    Kyungsik Kim, June Young Choi, Su-jin Kim, Eun Kyung Lee, Young Ki Lee, Jun Sun Ryu, Kyu Eun Lee, Jae Hoon Moon, Young Joo Park, Sun Wook Cho, Sue K. Park
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    Youjin Hong, Sangjun Lee, Sungji Moon, Soseul Sung, Woojin Lim, Kyungsik Kim, Seokyung An, Jeoungbin Choi, Kwang-Pil Ko, Inah Kim, Jung Eun Lee, Sue K. Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(6): 529.     CrossRef
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    Roma Seol, Jin-Ho Chun
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Trends of the Global Hepatitis C Disease Burden: Strategies to Achieve Elimination
Nathalie Brunner, Philip Bruggmann
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(4):251-258.   Published online June 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.151
  • 3,763 View
  • 117 Download
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatitis C infection is responsible for high morbidity and mortality rates globally as well as for significant indirect costs. The disease burden caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is comparable to the one caused by human immunodeficiency virus or tuberculosis. Today, simple detection methods, highly effective and easy to administer therapies and efficient preventative measures are available to combat hepatitis C. Nevertheless, in most countries around the world, the World Health Organization target of eliminating this infectious disease and its consequences by 2030 are not being met. Significant gaps in care for hepatitis C sufferers still exist, the shortcomings ranging from education and treatment to aftercare. Hepatitis C infection was and still is not on the radar of most politicians and health authorities. National programmes and strategies to combat the disease exist or are being developed in many countries. However, for these to be implemented efficiently and successfully, clear political commitment, strong civil society actors, well-functioning public health structures and the relevant support from global donors are needed.
Summary

Citations

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The National Health Plan 2030: Its Purpose and Directions of Development
Yumi Oh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(3):173-181.   Published online May 7, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.198
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
The National Health Plan 2030 (HP2030) started to be prepared in 2017 and was completed and announced in December 2020. This study presents an overview of how it was established, the major changes in policies, its purpose, and future directions. This study analyzed the steps taken in the past 4 years to establish HP2030 and reviewed major issues at the international and governmental levels based on an evaluation of HP2020 and its content. HP2030 establishes 6 divisions and 28 topic areas, and it will continue to expand investments in health with a total budget of 2.5 trillion Korean won. It also established goals to enhance health equity for the first time, with the goal of calculating healthy life expectancy in a way that reflects the circumstances of Korea and reducing the gap in income and healthy life expectancy between regions. The establishment of HP2030 is significant in that it constitutes a sustainable long-term plan with sufficient preparation, contains policy measures that everyone participates in and makes together, and works towards improvements in universal health standards and health equity. With the announcement of HP2030, which includes goals and directions of the national health policy for the next 10 years, it will be necessary to further strengthen collaboration with relevant ministries, local governments, and agencies in various fields to concretize support for prevention-centered health management as a national task and to develop a health-friendly environment that considers health in all policy areas.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 지난 17년부터 4년간 준비한 국민건강증진종합계획2030이 발표됨에 따라 수립경과와 주요 변화정책을 분석하고, 수립의 의의를 검토하여 향후 추진방향을 제시하고자 한다. 국민건강증진종합계획2030의 수립은 충분한 준비기간을 통한 지속가능한 중장기 계획의 수립, 모든 사람에 함께 참여하고 만들어가는 정책으로서의 전환, 보편적인 건강수준 향상과 건강형평성 제고를 했다는데 그 의의가 있다 향후 10년간의 국가 건강정책의 목표와 방향을 담은 HP2030 발표를 계기로, 모든 정책 영역에서 건강을 고려하는 건강친화적 환경 구축을 위해 관련 부처와 지자체, 다양한 분야의 주체들과 협력을 강화해야 하겠다.

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COVID-19: Special Article
Mainstreaming of Health Equity in Infectious Disease Control Policy During the COVID-19 Pandemic Era
Hongjo Choi, Seong-Yi Kim, Jung-Woo Kim, Yukyung Park, Myoung-Hee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2021;54(1):1-7.   Published online January 15, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.593
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  • 8 Web of Science
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
The Korean government’s strategy to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has focused on non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as social distancing and wearing masks, along with testing, tracing, and treatment; overall, its performance has been relatively good compared to that of many other countries heavily affected by COVID-19. However, little attention has been paid to health equity in measures to control the COVID-19 pandemic. The study aimed to examine the unequal impacts of COVID-19 across socioeconomic groups and to suggest potential solutions to tackle these inequalities. The pathways linking social determinants and health could be entry points to tackle the unequal consequences of this public health emergency. It is crucial for infectious disease policy to consider social determinants of health including poor housing, precarious working conditions, disrupted healthcare services, and suspension of social services. Moreover, the high levels of uncertainty and complexity inherent in this public health emergency, as well as the health and socioeconomic inequalities caused by the pandemic, underscore the need for good governance other than top-down measures by the government. We emphasize that a people-centered perspective is a key approach during the pandemic era. Mutual trust between the state and civil society, strong accountability of the government, and civic participation are essential components of cooperative disaster governance.
Summary
Korean summary
"이 연구는 코로나19 대유행이 건강불평등에 미치는 영향을 검토하고, 불평등 완화 방안을 제시하고자 한다. 건강의 사회적 결정요인은 코로나19와 건강불평등을 이해하기 위한 출발점이다. 건강의 사회적 결정요인은 코로나19 감염과 그로 인한 사망 등 직접영향 경로와 코로나19 대응과정의 문제로 건강불평등을 야기하는 간접영향 경로에 모두 관여한다. 공중보건위기로 인한 건강불평등을 줄이기 위해서는 시민참여를 통한 협력적 거버넌스 강화와 모든 건강정책에서 사람중심돌봄의 관점을 견지하는 것이 필요하다."

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COVID-19: Brief Report
The Evolving Policy Debate on Border Closure in Korea
Su JIn Kang, Jihyun Moon, Heewon Kang, Heekyoung Nam, Sangwoo Tak, Sung-Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(5):302-306.   Published online September 11, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.213
  • 4,055 View
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  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
In this paper, we aimed to investigate the evolving debate over border closure in Korea during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to address the main themes associated with border closure, and to discuss the factors that need to be considered when making such decisions.
Methods
We collated and reviewed previously conducted review studies on border closures during infectious disease outbreaks to derive relevant themes and factors.
Results
According to our systematic review on border closures and travel restrictions, the effects of such containment efforts are limited. We suggest considering the following factors when determining whether to impose border closure measures: (1) disease characteristics, (2) timeliness of implementation, (3) transmission delay and the basic reproduction number, (4) globalization and pandemics, and (5) social and economic costs.
Conclusions
Our assessment indicates that the effects of border closures are at best temporary and limited. Alternative measures must be contemplated and implemented to suppress the spread of COVID-19 in particular and infectious diseases more broadly.
Summary

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Original Article
The Association Between the Basic Old-Age Pension and Depression of the Older Adults in Korea
Jaewon Kim, Tae-Jin Lee, Cheong-Seok Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(5):332-341.   Published online July 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.024
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the Basic Old-Age Pension (BOP), which is a noncontributory pension, and depression in BOP beneficiaries in Korea.
Methods
We used the second and third waves (2007-2008) of the Korea Welfare Panel Study to identify the effect of the BOP on mental health in the year of its introduction. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, applied in a Korean context, was used to evaluate mental health. To analyze the effect of the BOP, a difference-in-difference approach was used in analyses of all subjects and subgroups.
Results
For this study population of 760 adults, the BOP did not have a statistically significant relationship with depression in its beneficiaries. After controlling for type of household, the BOP was still not associated with lower reporting of depression, either in singlebeneficiary or double-beneficiary households, in the year of the benefit.
Conclusions
The BOP policy had no significant relationship with the level of depression among recipients. However, this should not be interpreted as implying that income subsidy programs for older adults, such as the BOP, do not affect mental health, considering the importance of economic hardship in this population and the program’s socioeconomic effects.
Summary

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COVID-19: Perspective
A Hidden Key to COVID-19 Management in Korea: Public Health Doctors
Sejin Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(3):175-177.   Published online April 14, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.105
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Public health doctors of Korea contributed significantly to massive coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) testing. They were immediately dispatched to epicenters of the COVID-19 pandemic, and have run tests at screening centers, airport quarantines and hospitals. However, their expertise from in-field experience has been often neglected. It is time to reorganize public health doctor system to better prepare for future epidemics. Transforming and strengthening their roles as public health experts through systematic training is crucial.
Summary

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Climate Change: Review
Research Trends in Agenda-setting for Climate Change Adaptation Policy in the Public Health Sector in Korea
Su-Mi Chae, Daeeun Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(1):3-14.   Published online January 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.326
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Many studies have been conducted to assess the health effects of climate change in Korea. However, there has been a lack of consideration regarding how the results of these studies can be applied to relevant policies. The current study aims to examine research trends at the agenda-setting stage and to review future ways in which health-related adaptation to climate change can be addressed within national public health policy. A systematic review of previous studies of the health effects of climate change in Korea was conducted. Many studies have evaluated the effect of ambient temperature on health. A large number of studies have examined the effects on deaths and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, but a limitation of these studies is that it is difficult to apply their findings to climate change adaptation policy in the health sector. Many infectious disease studies were also identified, but these mainly focused on malaria. Regarding climate change-related factors other than ambient temperature, studies of the health effects of these factors (with the exception of air pollution) are limited. In Korea, it can be concluded that studies conducted as part of the agenda-setting stage are insufficient, both because studies on the health effects of climate change have not ventured beyond defining the problem and because health adaptation to climate change has not been set as an important agenda item. In the future, the sharing and development of relevant databases is necessary. In addition, the priority of agenda items should be determined as part of a government initiative.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국에서 수행된 기후변화에 따른 건강영향 연구의 동향을 살펴봄으써, 기후변화 건강 적응이 보건 정책의 어젠다로 자리 잡기 위한 연구 방향을 검토했다. 향후 국가는 기후변화 적응을 위한 우선순위 건강 문제를 검토해야 하며, 관련된 연구의 양과 질을 확보해 국가 전략의 기초가 될 수 있도록 해야 한다.

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  • Heat impacts on human health in the Western Pacific Region: an umbrella review
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Climate Change: Perspective
Characteristics of Heat Waves From a Disaster Perspective
Do-Woo Kim, Chaeyoung Kwon, Jineun Kim, Jong-Seol Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(1):26-28.   Published online January 31, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.315
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
In September 2018, heat waves were declared to be a type of natural disaster by the Framework Act on the Management of Disasters and Safety. The present study examined the characteristics of heat waves from the perspectives of meteorological phenomena and health damage. The government’s efforts to minimize the damages incurred by heat waves are summarized chronologically. Furthermore, various issues pertaining to heat waves that are being raised in our society despite the government’s efforts are summarized by analyzing big data derived from reported news and academic articles.
Summary
Korean summary
2018년 9월, 폭염이 재난 및 안전 관리 기본법 상 자연재난의 한 유형으로 명시되었다. 본 연구는 다른 자연재난들과 구별되는 폭염 재난의 특징들을 기상학적과 보건학적 측면으로 나누어 제시하였다. 또한 폭염 피해를 줄이기 위한 그간 정부의 각종 노력들을 시간순서대로 정리하였으며, 뉴스와 논문 빅데이터 분석을 통해 최근에 우리사회에서 폭염과 관련된 어떤 이슈들이 떠오르고 있는지도 살펴보았다.

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Brief Report
Monitoring Compliance and Examining Challenges of a Smoke-free Policy in Jayapura, Indonesia
Wahyuti Wahyuti, Suci Hasairin, Sherly Mamoribo, Abdillah Ahsan, Dian Kusuma
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(6):427-432.   Published online November 22, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.240
  • 5,811 View
  • 140 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
In Indonesia, 61 million adults smoked in 2018 and 59 million were exposed to secondhand smoke at offices or restaurants in 2011. The Presidential Decree 109/2012 encouraged local governments to implement smoke-free policy (SFP) with Jayapura city enacted a local bill (1/2015) in 2015. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the compliance and explore the challenges in implementing. Methods: We conducted a mixed-methods study. The quantitative method assessed the compliance to six criteria (as per the bill) including having signage, no smoking activity, no selling, no advertisement, no smoke, and no ashtray at SFP facilities. We surveyed 192 facilities including health facilities, educational facilities, places of worship, government offices, and indoor/outdoor public facilities. The qualitative method explored challenges in implementing through by interviewing 19 informants (government officers, students and community). Results: The compliance rate to all six criteria was 17% overall, ranging from 0% at outdoor public facilities to 50% at health facilities. We found no spatial patterning as shown by similar compliance rates between SFP facilities within and outside of 1-kilometer around the provincial and city health offices. Implementation challenges included (a) limited budget for enforcement, (b) lack of support from local non-government organizations and universities, (c) lack of public awareness at facilities, and (c) lack of examples from local leaders. Conclusion: The overall compliance was low in Jayapura city due to many challenges. This provides lessons learnt for tobacco control policy in the areas that are least developed and farthest from the central government.
Summary

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health