Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health



Page Path
HOME > Search
4 "Menopause"
Article category
Publication year
Original Articles
Effects of Smoking on Menopausal Age: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012
Hee Jung Yang, Pae Sun Suh, Soo Jeong Kim, Soon Young Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(4):216-224.   Published online July 27, 2015
  • 11,649 View
  • 145 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Decreased fertility and impaired health owing to early menopause are significant health issues. Smoking is a modifiable health-related behavior that influences menopausal age. We investigated the effects of smoking-associated characteristics on menopausal age in Korean women.
This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Menopausal age in relation to smoking was analyzed as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 11 510 women (aged 30 to 65 years). The risk of entering menopause and experiencing early menopause (before age 48) related to smoking were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model.
The menopausal age among smokers was 0.75 years lower than that among non-smokers (p<0.001). The results of the Cox proportional hazards model showed pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for entering menopause related to smoking of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.46) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.47), respectively, and pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for experiencing early menopause related to smoking of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.80) and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.85), respectively.
Smokers reached menopause earlier than non-smokers, and their risk for experiencing early menopause was higher.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Thermotherapy as an alternative to exercise for metabolic health in obese postmenopausal women: focus on circulating irisin level
    Seung-Jea Lee, Tae-Wook Kim, Tae-Hwan Park, In-Ho Lee, Eun-Chul Jang, Soon-Chan Kwon, Hye-Jin Lee, Jeong-Hwan Choi, Jeong-Beom Lee
    The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology.2022; 26(6): 501.     CrossRef
  • Potential Disruption of Systemic Hormone Transport by Tobacco Alkaloids Using Computational Approaches
    Mohd Rehan, Ummer R. Zargar, Ishfaq A. Sheikh, Saif A. Alharthy, Majed N. Almashjary, Adel M. Abuzenadah, Mohd A. Beg
    Toxics.2022; 10(12): 727.     CrossRef
  • Premature menopause among women in India: Evidence from National Family Health Survey‐IV
    Trupti Meher, Harihar Sahoo
    Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research.2021; 47(12): 4426.     CrossRef
  • Association between body mass index, waist circumference, and age at natural menopause: a population-based cohort study in Chinese women
    Yan Li, Dong Zhao, Miao Wang, Jia-yi Sun, Jun Liu, Yue Qi, Yong-chen Hao, Qiu-ju Deng, Jue Liu, Jing Liu, Min Liu
    Women & Health.2021; 61(9): 902.     CrossRef
  • Clinical management of vaginal bleeding in postmenopausal women
    J. Carugno
    Climacteric.2020; 23(4): 343.     CrossRef
  • Mapping premature ovarian insufficiency and potential environmental factors: A tool for triggering in-depth research of the problem in Slovenia
    Živa Miriam Geršak, Ksenija Geršak, Tanja Rejc, Lucija Perharič, Lijana Zaletel-Kragelj, Andreja Kukec
    Geospatial Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Vaginal bleeding during menopause hormone therapy. Is it always endometrial cancer? How to choose the appropriate tactics for examination and management of patients?
    Anna E. Protasova, Irina A. Solntseva, Ekaterina N. Vandeeva
    Gynecology.2020; 22(5): 37.     CrossRef
  • Factors associated with age at natural menopause among elderly women in São Paulo, Brazil
    Alejandra Andrea Roman Lay, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte, Alexandre Dias Porto Chiavegatto Filho
    Menopause.2019; 26(2): 211.     CrossRef
  • The Effect of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Quality of life in Perimenopausal Women
    Behnaz Enjezab, Mina Zarehosseinabadi, Banafsheh Farzinrad, Ali Dehghani
    Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hubungan Olahraga, Kopi dan Merokok dengan Kualitas Hidup Wanita Menopause yang Tinggal Di Wilayah Pedesaan
    Aprilia Nurtika Sari, Nining Istighosah
    Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan (Journal of Ners and Midwifery).2019; 6(3): 326.     CrossRef
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Associates With Increased Overall Mortality and Death From Cancer, Cardiovascular Disease, and Liver Disease in Women but Not Men
    You-Cheol Hwang, Hong-Yup Ahn, Sung-Woo Park, Cheol-Young Park
    Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.2018; 16(7): 1131.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of sex differences in the relationship between diastolic dysfunction and thromboembolism using propensity score analysis
    Mi‐Na Kim, Jae‐Min Shim, Jong‐il Choi, Seong‐Mi Park, Young Hoon Kim, Wan Joo Shim
    Echocardiography.2018; 35(6): 817.     CrossRef
  • Relationships between intensity, duration, cumulative dose, and timing of smoking with age at menopause: A pooled analysis of individual data from 17 observational studies
    Dongshan Zhu, Hsin-Fang Chung, Nirmala Pandeya, Annette J. Dobson, Janet E. Cade, Darren C. Greenwood, Sybil L. Crawford, Nancy E. Avis, Ellen B. Gold, Ellen S. Mitchell, Nancy F. Woods, Debra Anderson, Daniel E. Brown, Lynnette L. Sievert, Eric J. Brunne
    PLOS Medicine.2018; 15(11): e1002704.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women aged 30-49 years in Gulele sub-city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    Engida Yisma, Natnael Eshetu, Stephanie Ly, Berhanu Dessalegn
    BMC Women's Health.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association of Selected Medical Conditions With Breast Cancer Risk in Korea
Sun Jae Jung, Minkyo Song, Ji-Yeob Choi, Nan Song, Sue Kyung Park, Keun-Young Yoo, Daehee Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(6):346-352.   Published online November 28, 2013
  • 9,977 View
  • 94 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

To estimate the effect of medical conditions in the population of Korea on breast cancer risk in a case-control study.


The cases were 3242 women with incident, histologically confirmed breast cancer in two major hospitals interviewed between 2001 and 2007. The controls were 1818 women each admitted to either of those two hospitals for a variety of non-neoplastic conditions. Information on each disease was obtained from a standardized questionnaire by trained personnel. Odds ratios (ORs) for each disease were derived from multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, age of menarche, pregnancy, age of first pregnancy, and family history of breast cancer.


Among all of the incident breast cancer patients, pre-existing diabetes (OR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99 to 1.78), hypertension (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.83), thyroid diseases (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.58), and ovarian diseases (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.35) were associated with an increased risk of breast cancer when other factors were adjusted for. In a stratified analysis by menopausal status, pre-existing hypertension (pre-menopause OR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.48 to 1.34 vs. post-menopause OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.43; p-heterogeneity <0.01) and ovarian disease (pre-menopause OR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.91 to 9.24 vs. post-menopause OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.91; p-heterogeneity 0.01) showed significantly different risks of breast cancer.


Our results suggest the possibility that medical conditions such as hypertension affect breast cancer development, and that this can differ by menopausal status. Our study also indicates a possible correlation between ovarian diseases and breast cancer risk.



Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diabetes and incidence of breast cancer and its molecular subtypes: A systematic review and meta‐analysis
    Fanxiu Xiong, Qichen Dai, Sihan Zhang, Stephen Bent, Peggy Tahir, Erin L. Van Blarigan, Stacey A. Kenfield, June M. Chan, Gabriela Schmajuk, Rebecca E. Graff
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Reverse Onco-Cardiology: What Is the Evidence for Breast Cancer? A Systematic Review of the Literature
    Ioannis Boutas, Adamantia Kontogeorgi, Sophia N. Kalantaridou, Constantine Dimitrakakis, Panagiotis Patsios, Maria Kalantzi, Theodoros Xanthos
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2023; 24(22): 16500.     CrossRef
  • Association of Hypertension and Organ-Specific Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
    Morgan Connaughton, Mahsa Dabagh
    Healthcare.2022; 10(6): 1074.     CrossRef
  • Association between blood pressure and risk of cancer development: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
    Aristeidis Seretis, Sofia Cividini, Georgios Markozannes, Xanthippi Tseretopoulou, David S. Lopez, Evangelia E. Ntzani, Konstantinos K. Tsilidis
    Scientific Reports.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Risk of breast cancer among women with benign ovarian tumors: a Danish nationwide cohort study
    Mathilde Gottschau, Allan Jensen, Kristian Reinholdt, Sonia Guleria, Christian Munk, Lene Mellemkjær, Susanne K. Kjær
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment.2019; 178(1): 199.     CrossRef
  • Detection of human papillomavirus DNA in tumors from Rwandese breast cancer patients
    Thierry Habyarimana, Mohammed Attaleb, Jean Baptiste Mazarati, Youssef Bakri, Mohammed El Mzibri
    Breast Cancer.2018; 25(2): 127.     CrossRef
  • Association between glutathione peroxidase 1 codon 198 variant and the occurrence of breast cancer in Rwanda
    Thierry Habyarimana, Youssef Bakri, Pacifique Mugenzi, Jean Baptiste Mazarati, Mohammed Attaleb, Mohammed El Mzibri
    Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine.2018; 6(2): 268.     CrossRef
  • Hypertension and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Hedong Han, Wei Guo, Wentao Shi, Yamei Yu, Yunshuo Zhang, Xiaofei Ye, Jia He
    Scientific Reports.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cancer du sein et diabète de type 2 : des interactions complexes
    L. Bernard, N. Reix, J.-C. Benabu, V. Gabriele, C. Mathelin
    Gynécologie Obstétrique & Fertilité.2016; 44(12): 701.     CrossRef
  • Associations between Medical Conditions and Breast Cancer Risk in Asians: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan
    Shu-Chun Chuang, Guo-Jie Wu, Yen-Shen Lu, Ching-Hung Lin, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Pei-Yi Chu
    PLOS ONE.2015; 10(11): e0143410.     CrossRef
  • Detection of MMTV-Like sequences in Moroccan breast cancer cases
    Meriem Slaoui, Mohammed El Mzibri, Rachid Razine, Zineb Qmichou, Mohammed Attaleb, Mariam Amrani
    Infectious Agents and Cancer.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Insulin therapy and colorectal cancer risk among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: a systemic review and meta-analysis
    Shinan Yin, Hua Bai, Danqing Jing
    Diagnostic Pathology.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
A Case-control Study of the Relationships between Reproductive Factors and Degree of Dysplasia of the Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer.
Se Young Lee, Won Chul Lee, Kyu Yong Choi, Mi Kyung Kim, Jin Hee Lee, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):279-288.
  • 32,114 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Evidence for an effect of reproductive factors on colorectal carcinogenesis is not yet consistent. Little research has been conducted to investigate whether reproductive factors were associated with colorectal adenomas that are the precursors of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the relationships between reproductive factors and the degree of dysplasia of the colorectal adenoma and cancer as colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. METHODS: For this study, 241 adenoma cases with histo-pathologically confirmed incident colorectal adenoma, 76 cancer cases with colorectal cancer and 1677 controls were collected from Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, during 1994-1999. Before colonoscopy, information on demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, life style habits and dietary intake were obtained by interviewed questionnaire. Adjusted OR and 95% CI were estimated by using polytomous logistic regression model. Potential confounders that were selected based on the goodness of fit statistics and interaction between risk factors were considered in this adjustment. The Wald statistic was calculated to test the heterogeneity of the odds ratios for each case. RESULTS: Postmenopausal women with natural menopause were found to be positively associated with the risk of mild dysplasia adenoma (multivariate-adjusted OR : 2.59, 95% CI=1.1-6.2). Parity was found to be negatively associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (age-adjusted OR : 0.40, 95% CI=0.2-0.9), but did not significantly decrease the risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate-adjusted OR : 0.95, 95% CI=0.3-2.9). No associations were seen between age at menarche, breast feeding, induced abortion, oral contraceptive use, menopausal types, menopausal age or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the degree of dysplasia of the colorectal adenoma and cancer. However, none of these associations differed significantly between the degree of dysplasia of the colorectal adenoma and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that postmenopausal women with natural menopause may experience increased risk of mild dysplasia adenoma among colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
Cohort Study on Age at Menopause and Mortality- Kangwha Cohort Study -.
Jae Seok Hong, Sang Wook Yi, Sun Ha Jee, Tae Yong Sohn, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):323-330.
  • 2,434 View
  • 28 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
To examine the association between age at menopause and mortality in a population-based sample of women in Kangwha, Korea. METHODS: From the Kangwha Cohort, followed-up from 1985 to 1999, the data of the over 55 year old female group(n=3,596) was used in this study to examine the association between age at menopause and mortality. We calculated the all causes mortality risk ratio and the cancer mortality risk ratio by age at menopause grouping using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model with adjustments for age, BMI, smoking, education, chronic disease, self-rated health status, alcohol consumption and age at first birth. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the all causes mortality risk ratio was 1.24 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=1.01-1.53) and 1.05 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.92-1.20). Also, compared to women who had menopause at 45-49 years, the cancer mortality risk ratio was 1.53 for women with menopause at less than 40 years(95% CI=0.78-2.98) and 1.17 for women with menopause at over 50 years(95% CI=0.77-1.80).

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health