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Original Article
Age-period-cohort Analysis of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan
Tasuku Okui
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(6):409-418.   Published online August 13, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.159
  • 8,442 View
  • 219 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study conducted an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of trends in healthy lifestyle behaviors in Japan.
Methods
We used National Health and Nutrition Survey data on salt intake and prevalence of smoking, drinking, and physical activity between 1995 and 2018 in Japan. Age groups were defined from 20 years to 69 years old in 10-year increments. Cohorts were defined for each age group of each year with a 1-year shift, and cohorts born in 1926-1935 (first cohort) until 1989-1998 (last cohort) were examined. We conducted a Bayesian APC analysis, calculating estimated values for each behavior by age group, period, and cohort.
Results
Estimated salt intake decreased from cohorts born in the 1930s to the 1960s, but increased thereafter in both genders, and the magnitude of increase was larger for men. Estimated smoking prevalence increased in the cohorts starting from the 1930s for men and the 1940s for women, and then decreased starting in the cohorts born in the 1970s for both genders. Although estimated drinking prevalence decreased starting in the cohorts born in approximately 1960 for men, for women it increased until the cohorts born in approximately 1970. Estimated physical activity prevalence decreased starting in the cohorts born in the 1940s in both genders, but the magnitude of decrease was larger for women.
Conclusions
Trends in cohort effects differed by gender, which might be related to changes in the social environment for women. Improvements in dietary and exercise habits are required in more recently born cohorts of both genders.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Evaluating trends in cigarette and HTP use in Japan and measurement issues in the National Health and Nutrition Survey
    David T Levy, Mona Issabakhsh, Kenneth E Warner, Alex Liber, Rafael Meza, Michael Cummings
    Tobacco Control.2024; : tc-2023-058526.     CrossRef
  • Old story, new twist: reducing salt and increasing potassium intake as a social issue according to the INTERMAP Japan
    Junichi Yatabe, Kazuya Ishida, Midori Sasaki Yatabe
    Hypertension Research.2023; 46(2): 526.     CrossRef
  • Subtype prevalence and baseline visual acuity by age in Japanese patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration
    Tomoko Sawada, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Hiroko Imaizumi, Hisashi Matsubara, Kazuhiro Kimura, Hiroto Terasaki, Hiroto Ishikawa, Tomoya Murakami, Masaru Takeuchi, Yoshinori Mitamura, Yutaro Mizusawa, Yoshihiro Takamura, Toshinori Murata, Jiro Kogo, Masahito Ohji
    Japanese Journal of Ophthalmology.2023; 67(2): 149.     CrossRef
  • Age, Period, and Cohort Analysis of Smoking Intensity Among Current Smokers in Malaysia, 1996–2015
    Chien Huey Teh, Sanjay Rampal, Kuang Hock Lim, Omar Azahadi, Aris Tahir
    Nicotine and Tobacco Research.2023; 25(7): 1340.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Secular Trends in Esophageal Cancer Mortality in China and Japan during 1990–2019: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis
    Ruiqing Li, Jinyi Sun, Tong Wang, Lihong Huang, Shuwen Wang, Panglin Sun, Chuanhua Yu
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(16): 10302.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of the Effect of Salt-Intake Reduction on Cardiovascular Mortality Decline between 1950 and 2017 in Japan: A Retrospective Simulation Study
    Takehiro Sugiyama, Nayu Ikeda, Kazuko Minowa, Nobuo Nishi
    Nutrients.2022; 14(18): 3747.     CrossRef
  • An analysis of predictors for heavy alcohol drinking using nationally representative survey data in Japan
    Tasuku Okui
    BMC Public Health.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Prevalence and Consultation Rate for Dyslipidemia in Japan
    Tasuku Okui
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2021; 33(1): 46.     CrossRef
  • An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Biomarkers of Lifestyle-Related Diseases Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 1973–2018
    Tasuku Okui
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(21): 8159.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Disparities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Rates among Municipalities in Japan, 1999–2019
    Tasuku Okui
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(24): 9213.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Age-period-cohort Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Japan, 1995-2018
Tasuku Okui
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(3):198-204.   Published online April 14, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.20.037
  • 5,020 View
  • 168 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study aimed to analyze the mortality of heart disease (HD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) through an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis.
Methods
We used data on mortality due to cardiovascular disease from 1995 to 2018 in Japan, as determined by Vital Statistics. Age groups from 0 years to 99 years were defined by 5-year increments, and cohorts were defined for each age group of each year with a 1-year shift. We used Bayesian APC analysis to decompose the changes in the diseases’ mortality rates into age, period, and cohort effects.
Results
The period effects for all diseases decreased during the analyzed periods for both men and women. The cohort effects for men increased substantially in cohorts born from around 1940 to the 1970s for all types of cardiovascular diseases. The cohort effects of HD decreased in the cohorts born in the 1970s or later for both men and women. Regarding IHD and CeVD, either a non-increase or decrease of cohort effects was confirmed for cohorts born in the 1970s or later for men, but the effects for women showed a continuously increasing trend in the cohorts born in the 1960s or later.
Conclusions
The cohort effects for IHD and CeVD showed increasing trends in younger generations of women. This suggests that preventive approaches against cardiovascular diseases are needed, particularly for women.
Summary

Citations

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  • Secular trends of asthma mortality in China and the United States from 1990 to 2019
    Xiaochen Li, Mingzhou Guo, Yang Niu, Min Xie, Xiansheng Liu
    Chinese Medical Journal.2024; 137(3): 273.     CrossRef
  • Editorial comment equal access for health care for unequal outcome
    Lena Barrera
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology.2023; 30(14): 1524.     CrossRef
  • Clinical significance of atherosclerotic risk factors differs in early and advanced stages of plaque formation: A longitudinal study in the general population
    Satoko Ojima, Takuro Kubozono, Shin Kawasoe, Takeko Kawabata, Anwar Ahmed Salim, Yoshiyuki Ikeda, Masaaki Miyata, Hironori Miyahara, Koichi Tokushige, Mitsuru Ohishi
    International Journal of Cardiology.2023; 379: 111.     CrossRef
  • Exploring factors related to heart attack complicated with hypertension using a Bayesian network model: a study based on the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
    Haifen Zhang, Xiaotong Zhang, Xiaodong Yao, Qiang Wang
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hospital-level characteristics of the standardised mortality ratio for ischemic heart disease: a retrospective observational study using Japanese administrative claim data from 2012 to 2019
    Ryo Onishi, Yosuke Hatakeyama, Kunichika Matsumoto, Kanako Seto, Koki Hirata, Yinghui Wu, Tomonori Hasegawa
    PeerJ.2022; 10: e13424.     CrossRef
  • Cardiovascular Mortality Gap Between the United States and Other High Life Expectancy Countries in 2000–2016
    Enrique Acosta, Neil Mehta, Mikko Myrskylä, Marcus Ebeling, Deborah S Carr
    The Journals of Gerontology: Series B.2022; 77(Supplement): S148.     CrossRef
  • Relationship Between Prognostic Nutrition Index and New York Heart Association Classification in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: A RCSCD-TCM Study
    Mei Ma, Yijia Liu, Fanfan Liu, Zhu Li, Qi Cheng, Zhao Liu, Rongrong Yang, Chunquan Yu
    Journal of Inflammation Research.2022; Volume 15: 4303.     CrossRef
  • The burden of endometriosis in China from 1990 to 2019
    Yan Wang, Xiaoyan Wang, Kaijun Liao, Baoqin Luo, Jiashou Luo
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Workcation Improves Cardiac Parasympathetic Function during Sleep to Decrease Arterial Stiffness in Workers
    Hideyuki Negoro, Ryota Kobayashi
    Healthcare.2022; 10(10): 2037.     CrossRef
  • Long-term trends in the incidence of endometriosis in China from 1990 to 2019: a joinpoint and age–period–cohort analysis
    Jinhui Feng, Shitong Zhang, Jiadong Chen, Jie Yang, Jue Zhu
    Gynecological Endocrinology.2021; 37(11): 1041.     CrossRef
  • Incorporating Medical Supply and Demand into the Index of Physician Maldistribution Improves the Sensitivity to Healthcare Outcomes
    Atsushi Takayama, Hemant Poudyal
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2021; 11(1): 155.     CrossRef
  • An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Biomarkers of Lifestyle-Related Diseases Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan, 1973–2018
    Tasuku Okui
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(21): 8159.     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic Disparities in All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Rates among Municipalities in Japan, 1999–2019
    Tasuku Okui
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(24): 9213.     CrossRef
  • Age-period-cohort Analysis of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan
    Tasuku Okui
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(6): 409.     CrossRef
Original Article
Incidence of Scarlet Fever in Children in Jeju Province, Korea, 2002-2016: An Age-period-cohort Analysis
Jinhee Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, Jong-Myon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):188-194.   Published online April 24, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.299
  • 5,757 View
  • 151 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Outbreaks of scarlet fever in Mexico in 1999, Hong Kong and mainland China in 2011, and England in 2014-2016 have received global attention, and the number of notified cases in Korean children, including in Jeju Province, has also increased since 2010. To identify relevant hypotheses regarding this emerging outbreak, an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of scarlet fever incidence was conducted among children in Jeju Province, Korea.
Methods
This study analyzed data from the nationwide insurance claims database administered by the Korean National Health Insurance Service. The inclusion criteria were children aged ≤14 years residing in Jeju Province, Korea who received any form of healthcare for scarlet fever from 2002 to 2016. The age and year variables were categorized into 5 groups, respectively. After calculating the crude incidence rate (CIR) for age and calendar year groups, the intrinsic estimator (IE) method was applied to conduct the APC analysis.
Results
In total, 2345 cases were identified from 2002 to 2016. Scarlet fever was most common in the 0-2 age group, and boys presented more cases than girls. Since the CIR decreased with age between 2002 and 2016, the age and period effect decreased in all observed years. The IE coefficients suggesting a cohort effect shifted from negative to positive in 2009.
Conclusions
The results suggest that the recent outbreak of scarlet fever among children in Jeju Province might be explained through the cohort effect. As children born after 2009 showed a higher risk of scarlet fever, further descriptive epidemiological studies are needed.
Summary
Korean summary
제주도 아동의 성홍열 발생건수의 증가는 출생코호트 효과에 기인한 것으로, 특히 2009년도 이후 출생자의 발생률 증가가 있었다. 기존 연구와 다른 점은, 성홍열 환자 발생률이 가장 높은 연령대가 0-2세라는 점이다. 이에 대한 추가적인 기술역학연구가 필요하다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Epidemiological analysis of Group A streptococcus infection diseases among children in Beijing, China under COVID-19 pandemic
    Hongxin Li, Lin Zhou, Yong Zhao, Lijuan Ma, Haihua Zhang, Yan Liu, Xiaoyan Liu, Jin Hu
    BMC Pediatrics.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Outbreaks of scarlet fever in kindergartens in Belgrade
    Sonja Giljača, Slavica Maris, Nataša Rančić, Milutin Mrvaljević, Zorica Mrvaljević
    Zdravstvena zastita.2022; 51(1): 57.     CrossRef
  • Forecasting the monthly incidence of scarlet fever in Chongqing, China using the SARIMA model
    W. W. Wu, Q. Li, D. C. Tian, H. Zhao, Y. Xia, Y. Xiong, K. Su, W. G. Tang, X. Chen, J. Wang, L. Qi
    Epidemiology and Infection.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Recent increase in pertussis incidence in Korea: an age-period-cohort analysis
    Chanhee Kim, Seonju Yi, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021053.     CrossRef
  • Analysis of Epidemiological Characteristics of Scarlet Fever in Zhejiang Province, China, 2004–2018
    Qinbao Lu, Haocheng Wu, Zheyuan Ding, Chen Wu, Junfen Lin
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(18): 3454.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality in Korea, 1985-2009: An Age-period-cohort Analysis
Hye Ah Lee, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(5):323-328.   Published online September 28, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.5.323
  • 9,339 View
  • 93 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Economic growth and development of medical technology help to improve the average life expectancy, but the western diet and rapid conversions to poor lifestyles lead an increasing risk of major chronic diseases. Coronary heart disease mortality in Korea has been on the increase, while showing a steady decline in the other industrialized countries. An age-period-cohort analysis can help understand the trends in mortality and predict the near future.

Methods

We analyzed the time trends of ischemic heart disease mortality, which is on the increase, from 1985 to 2009 using an age-period-cohort model to characterize the effects of ischemic heart disease on changes in the mortality rate over time.

Results

All three effects on total ischemic heart disease mortality were statistically significant. Regarding the period effect, the mortality rate was decreased slightly in 2000 to 2004, after it had continuously increased since the late 1980s that trend was similar in both sexes. The expected age effect was noticeable, starting from the mid-60's. In addition, the age effect in women was more remarkable than that in men. Women born from the early 1900s to 1925 observed an increase in ischemic heart mortality. That cohort effect showed significance only in women.

Conclusions

The future cohort effect might have a lasting impact on the risk of ischemic heart disease in women with the increasing elderly population, and a national prevention policy is need to establish management of high risk by considering the age-period-cohort effect.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Age-period-cohort Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Japan, 1995-2018
    Tasuku Okui
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(3): 198.     CrossRef
  • Trends in Incidence and Case Fatality Rates of Heart Disease and Its Subtypes in Korea, 2006–2015
    Su Ra Seo, Shin Yi Jang, Sung-il Cho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(22): 8451.     CrossRef
  • Age-period-cohort Analysis of Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors Using the National Health and Nutrition Survey in Japan
    Tasuku Okui
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(6): 409.     CrossRef
  • Analyzing Age-Period-Cohort Data: A Review and Critique
    Ethan Fosse, Christopher Winship
    Annual Review of Sociology.2019; 45(1): 467.     CrossRef
  • Bounding Analyses of Age-Period-Cohort Effects
    Ethan Fosse, Christopher Winship
    Demography.2019; 56(5): 1975.     CrossRef
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    Bumjo Oh, Joohon Sung, Sohyun Chun
    Lipids in Health and Disease.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jie Chang, Boyang Li, Jingjing Li, Yang Sun
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2017; 14(1): 50.     CrossRef
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    Epidemiology and Health.2017; 39: e2017056.     CrossRef
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    Jubert Marquez, Sung Ryul Lee, Nari Kim, Jin Han
    Korean Circulation Journal.2016; 46(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Ricardo Ocaña-Riola, José María Mayoral-Cortés, Alberto Fernández-Ajuria, Carmen Sánchez-Cantalejo, Piedad Martín-Olmedo, Encarnación Blanco-Reina
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    Mirae Lee, Sung-A Chang, Eun Jeong Cho, Sung-Ji Park, Jin-Oh Choi, Sang-Chol Lee, Jae K. Oh, Seung Woo Park
    The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging.2015; 31(3): 547.     CrossRef
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    Yoon Jung Choi, Jin-Bae Kim, Su-Jin Cho, Jaelim Cho, Jungwoo Sohn, Seong-Kyung Cho, Kyoung Hwa Ha, Changsoo Kim
    Yonsei Medical Journal.2015; 56(4): 895.     CrossRef
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    Michael R. Kramer, Amy L. Valderrama, Michele L. Casper
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health