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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

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10 "Kun Sei Lee"
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Original Articles
Public Participation in the Process of Local Public Health Policy, Using Policy Network Analysis
Yukyung Park, Chang-yup Kim, Myoung Soon You, Kun Sei Lee, Eunyoung Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(6):298-308.   Published online November 11, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.14.029
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To assess the current public participation in-local health policy and its implications through the analysis of policy networks in health center programs.
Methods
We examined the decision-making process in sub-health center installations and the implementation process in metabolic syndrome management program cases in two districts (‘gu’s) of Seoul. Participants of the policy network were selected by the snowballing method and completed self-administered questionnaires. Actors, the interactions among actors, and the characteristics of the network were analyzed by Netminer.
Results
The results showed that the public is not yet actively participating in the local public health policy processes of decision-making and implementation. In the decision-making process, most of the network actors were in the public sector, while the private sector was a minor actor and participated in only a limited number of issues after the major decisions were made. In the implementation process, the program was led by the health center, while other actors participated passively.
Conclusions
Public participation in Korean public health policy is not yet well activated. Preliminary discussions with various stakeholders, including civil society, are needed before making important local public health policy decisions. In addition, efforts to include local institutions and residents in the implementation process with the public officials are necessary to improve the situation.
Summary
Evaluation of Field Epidemiology Specialist Training Program Based on the Satisfaction and the Changes of Educational Needs.
No Rai Park, Ihn Sook Jeong, Jong Gu Lee, Young Taek Kim, Jin Ho Chun, Ki Soon Kim, Sang Soo Bae, Jong Myon Bae, Gyung Jae Oh, Hee Chul Ohrr, Kun Sei Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Hun Jae Lee, Hyun Sul Lim, Young Hwangbo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):80-87.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the learning achievement and satisfaction levels for the Field Epidemiology Specialist Training Program (FESTP), on infectious disease control between March 19 and October 31, 2002. METHODS: The FESTP was designed as a set of 84 hours curricula including lectures, discussions, self-studies, and field practicals, and organized both centrally and locally by the Division of Communicable Disease Control of the National Institute of Health and 11 universities. Before and after the program, a questionnaire survey on the educational need (49 items) and satisfaction (15 items) was conducted on 484 trainees, who were responsible for communicable disease control and immunization at 242 regional health centers. The data were analyzed with paired t-tests for comparison of the educational needs between the pre and post scores. RESULTS: The average score for satisfaction was 3.06 out of 5.0; with relatively higher scores for sincerity (4.10) and professionalism (4.01) of the tutors, adequacy (3.54) and clearness (3.51) of the evaluation criteria, usefulness (3.54) and fitness (3.52) of the contents, but with relatively lower satisfaction for schedule (2.96) and self-studies (2.91). The average for requirement for education improved, as shown by the decrease from 2.72 to 2.22 (p< .0001) with the biggest decrease in the outbreak investigation from 2.60 to 2.08. CONCLUSION: The FESTP was evaluated as being effective, the trainees showed moderate satisfaction and decrease educational needs. However, the actual schedules and self-studies should be rearranged to improve the satisfaction level.
Summary
A Neurobehavioral Performance Assessment in Lacunar Infarction Case-control Study.
Ham Gyum Kim, Soung Hoon Chang, Sue Kyung Park, Kun Sei Lee, Hyeong Su Kim, Wha Sun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):255-262.
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OBJECTIVES
We carried out tests for neurobehavior by using WHO-NCTB (neurobehavioral core test battery) and Perdue pegboard score test to identify differences between lacunar infarction cases and controls. METHODS: Among the subjects who underwent MRI between February 2001 and March 2002 in a university hospital located in Seoul and who were diagnosed only as lacunar infarction without any intracranial disease, 46 patients were selected as cases (male: 21, female: 25). Controls were selected who had no cerebrovascular disease on MRI by matching age (5 years), gender, and education (2 years) in a ratio of 1: 1. Among WHO-NCTB, the following 5 tests and Perdue pegboard score test were used to categorize the study subjects: digit and symbol matching, simple reaction time, Benton visual retention, digit span, and Pursuit aiming test. RESULTS: Among the above 6 tests of neurobehavior, lacunar infarction cases showed lower score than controls except for the simple reaction time test. As the controlling variables of multivariate analysis in the stepwise regression analysis, the followings were selected due to their significant association: age, education, BMI, gender, drinking, exercise, and systolic blood pressure. From multivariate regression analysis, there was significant difference (p< 0.05) between lacunar infarction cases and controls in digit and symbol matching, Benton visual retention, digit span, pursuit aiming, and Perdue pegboard score test, but not in the score of simple reaction time test. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the above 5 tests for neurobehavior, with the exception of the simple reaction time test, might be used as the basis for recommendation of further treatment and other neurological tests by the earlier detection for neurological abnormality in lacunar infarction.
Summary
Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Theory of Reasoned Action to Predicting Cervix Cancer Screening Behavior.
Kun Sei Lee, Yong Ik Kim, Chang Yup Kim, Young Soo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):379-388.
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BACKRGROUND: Cervix cancer is the most common form of cancer among Korea women. In spite of proof that cervical cancer screening could reduce death rates substantially, the screening rates reported by previous Korean studies remain stubbornly very low. Behavioral studies to increase the cervix cancer screening rate are essential in order to develop the cancer screening program. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors which are related to the intention and behavior for cervix cancer screening using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). METHODS: The survey was conducted from July 21st to 26th in 1998. Of 3,218 women, 393(12.2%) between 30 and 65 years old, voluntarily participated in the survey in the 3 Myeons in Choongju city. Charge-free cervix cancer screening was provided for the subjects 3 months later. RESULTS: The R-square of both TPB and TRA to the intention (30% and 42%, respectively) was greater than the actual behavior (21% and 13%, respectively. TPB and TRA were found to provide an appropriate framework for the study of cervix cancer screening behavior. However, TRA was more powerful in explaining the intention, not only because the perceived behavioral control component exhibited lower reliability and validity than other components(attitude and subjective norm), but also because there may have been a few limitations in this study design. Consequently, the use of TRA is preferred in attempting to explain intention and actual behavior in this study. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that a successful intervention program should focus on changing attitudes and reducing psychologic barriers, rather than on just providing information. Physician recommendations, and the support of family members and friends are also very important factors in cervix cancer program participation. Physicians, friends, family members, and opinion leaders in rural areas, all of whom could affect the individual subjective norm, may all have the potential to play great roles as facilitators.
Summary
Cancer Screening Rate and Related Factors in Rural Area.
Kun Sei Lee, Soung Hoon Chang, Won Jin Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):364-372.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Cancer is the second most frequent cause of death in Korea. Cancer screening tests can save lives through early detection. Enhancing the cancer screening rate is an important strategy for reducing cancer mortality. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the screening rate and related factors in a rural area. The study investigated relationships between sociodemographic characteristics, several preventive behaviors, and the experience of several cancer screening behaviors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population was recruited voluntarily from the three rural areas(Myen) in Chungju city. The participants completed structured questionnaire from July 21, 1998 to July 26, 1998. RESULTS: The proportions of the study population who had previously received stomach, liver, breast, or cervix cancer screening tests were 24.5%, 18.5%, 27.0%, 59.2% respectively. The 1-year screening rates of stomach, liver, breast, and cervix cancer were 7.4%, 6.8%, 8.6%, 15.6% respectively. In multivariate logistic analysis, some sociodemographic variables, preventive behaviors, or psychological variables were significantly associated with several cancer screening tests. Those who had previously received a stomach cancer screening test were significantly associated with the presence of chronic disease, physician? recommendation, use of alcohol family history of cancer, or previous liver cancer screening test. Those who had previously received a liver cancer screening test were associated with education level, physician? recommendation and previous stomach cancer screening test. Those who had received a cervix cancer screening test were significantly associated with education level, presence of a transportation vehicle, physician? recommendation use of alcohol and previous breast cancer screening test. And those who had received a previous breast cancer screening test were significantly associated with age, marital status, and earlier cervix cancer screening test. CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study a strategy to promote cancer screening and health objectives at the district level can be made.
Summary
Health Behaviors Related to Hypertension in Rural Population of Korea.
Chang Yup Kim, Kun Sei Lee, Young Ho Khang, Jun Yim, Yong Jun Choi, Hae Kook Lee, Kyung Ho Lee, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):56-68.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To describe health behaviors related to hypertension in rural population of Korea and focused to identify inappropriate awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension. METHODS: We surveyed 5,517 adults (2,288 males, 3,229 females) older than 30 years in 58 rural areas, purposely sampled nationwide from December 1996 to February 1997. Blood pressure was checked twice at the time of the first visit. For those who showed high blood pressure using the JNC-6 criteria at their initial visit, we followed up their blood pressure one week later. Also information on the health behavior related to hypertension was collected through the person-to-person interview using structured questionnaire at the first visit. RESULTS: For the past one year, females had more experiences of checking their blood pressure than males (77.3% versus 69.5%, p=0.001). Through the results of consecutively checked blood pressure, only 51.7% of the hypertensives were aware of their condition. Of the hypertensives who aware of their condition, 44.4% did not receive any medication and/or recommendation. And 50.4% of the hypertensives who had anti-hypertensive medication were classified as still having hypertensive blood pressure by 160/95 mmHg criteria. Of the medicated, 54.8% were found to take medication regularly for the past six months. Among the medicated, only 11.4% knew the name of anti-hypertensive drug they had. CONCLUSIONS: 'Rule of halves', which works in the situation of no special efforts for hypertension control, was identified. This study showed that much efforts to control hypertension would be required in the rural population of Korea.
Summary
Immunotoxicity among Farmers Exposed to Pesticides.
Wonjin Lee, Chae Sung Lim, Kun Sei Lee, Soung Hoon Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):347-354.
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OBJECTIVE
This paper examines the possible toxicity to immune system in farmers chronically exposed to pesticides. METHODS: We compared 43 male farmers exposed to pesticides with 29 male residents who had neither past nor current pesticides exposure. The selected variables for studying immunotoxicity were WBC, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD56, IgG, IgA, IgM, and IL-2. As part of the baseline questionnaires for the immunotoxicity, subjects were asked about kinds of farming, pesticides exposure and medical history. RESULTS: None of the variables for studying immunotoxicity showed statistically significant difference between the two groups. Although the results were not statistically significant, CD4 and the CD4/CD8 ratio decreased and CD8 increased. These effects showed a dose response change with exposure level. In the exposed group, the values of CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 and CD19 decreased and those of the CD8 and CD56 increased compared to the non-exposed group. Also there was higher prevalence of self-reported disease in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. CONCLUSIONS: Although statistically significant differences in indices of immunotoxicity in farmers exposed to pesticides were not shown, the results suggest that pesticides may decrease immune function. More advanced test methods for immunotoxicity need to be developed and tested in larger population to detect immunotoxic effects of pesticides.
Summary
Factors Associated with the Use of Pap Test in a Rural Area.
Kun Sei Lee, Hye Won Koo, Won Jin Lee, Soung Hoon Chang, Keun Young Yoo
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(2):147-154.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To construct basic data to develop strategies for achieving higher Pap test coverage rate by evaluating factors associated with the use of Pap test through population-based survey. METHODS: 16.4%(671) of the 4,090 women, who were eligible population for this study, in 3 Myens of Chung-ju City participated in this study voluntarily from July 21 to 26, 1997. After basic physical examination by trained doctors, they were interviewed with structured questionnaire by well-educated interviewers. RESULTS: It shows that only 54.3% of study participants experienced Pap test. The strongest factor which is related with the use of Pap test was the history of having breast screening tests(aOR=8.71, 95% CI=4.25-17.84). Probability of ever having Pap test was also higher in married women(aOR of single=0.46, 95% CI=0.29-0.72), younger(Ptrend<0.05), more educated (Ptrend<0.001), non-smoker (aOR of smoker=0.26, 95% CI=0.12-0.55), women of ever having hepatitis test(aOR=2.60, 95% CI=1.73-3.88) in multiple linear logistic analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that several factors significantly associated with the use of Pap test, and especially, high-risk population for cervical cancer such as women of older ages, less educated, living alone are less likely to have the Pap test. We should concentrate on encouraging high-risk women in the use of Pap test to improve Pap test coverage rate.
Summary
Determining the Location of Urban Health Sub-center According to Geographic Accessibility.
Kun Sei Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):215-226.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Decentralization to local governments and amending of Health center Law are to promote the efforts of health planning at the level of local agencies. In the health facility planning, it is important to take into account that what to be built, where to be located, how far should be service area and so forth, because health facilities are immovable, and require capital as well as personnel and consumable supplies. The aim of our study, answering to the question of 'where to be located?`, is to determine the best location of urban health sub-center. At the local level, planning is the matter of finding the best location of specific facility, in relation to population needs. We confine the accessibility, which is basic to location planning, to geographic one. Location-Allocation Model is used to solve the problem where the location is to maximize geographic accessibility. To minimize the weighted travel distance, objective function, Rk= aijwidij is used. Distances are measured indirectly by map measure-meter with l:25,000 Suwon map, and each potential sites, 10 administrative Dongs in Kwonson Gu, Suwon, are weighted by each number of households, total population, maternal age group, child age group, old age group, Relief for the livelihood, and population/primary health clinics. we find that Kuwoon-Dong, Seodun-Dong, Seryu3-Dong, according the descending orders, are best sites which can minimize the weighted distance, and conclude that it is reasonable to determine the location of urban health sub-center among those sites.
Summary
The epidemiology of delays in a teaching hospital.
Yoon Kim, Kun Sei Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Young Soo Shin, Sang Il Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(4):650-660.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study aims to describe the causes of medically unnecessary hospital stay at a teaching tertiary hospital, using modified version of Delay Tool in which the causes of delay are divided into six major categories ; delay related to test scheduling, test results, surgery, medical staff, patient/family, and administration. For the analysis of hospital stay, 6,479 inpatient-days were reviewed in two medical and four surgical departments for one month. Initially inappropriate hospital stays were identified using Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol(AEP), and causes of delay listed in Delay Tool were assigned to each of them. In both medical and surgical services, the most important cause of delay was related to medical staffs, ranging from 3.6% to 51.6% of total inpatient days. Next important category was delay related to test scheduling in medical services(4.7~9.2%), and delay related to surgery in surgical services(7.3~15.0%). Among subcategories of delay related to medical staffs, delay due to conservative care was the most important cause of inappropriate hospital stay(2.9~46.4%). Each clinical departments had different distribution among delay categories, which could not be fully justified by their clinical characteristics. The Delay Tool would be helpful in exploring factors related to the inefficient use of hospital beds. As a measurement tool of inappropriate hospital stay, however, the Delay Tool should be refined in the definitions of categories and its contents.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health