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Factors Related to Increasing Trends in Cigarette Smoking of Adolescent Males in Rural Areas of Korea
Nam Soo Hong, Sin Kam, Keon Yeop Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):139-146.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.139
  • 9,849 View
  • 105 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescent males in rural areas of Korea has increased in recent years. The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking among adolescent males living in rural areas.

Methods

The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2006 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Multiple logistic regression models were used to explore the factors affecting cigarette smoking. We evaluated the linear time trends in the prevalence of factors that were related to current smoking status and the linear time trends in cigarette smoking in groups stratified by the exposure to each factor using logistic regression models. Finally, we examined the contributions of the factors to the time trends in cigarette smoking by adjusting for each of those factors in the baseline regression models and changes in the adjusted odds ratio by survey year.

Results

A statistically significant increasing trend in smoking was observed after adjusting for the factors affecting cigarette smoking. Significant factors related to cigarette use were perceived stress, experience with depression, current alcohol drinking, exposure to secondhand smoke, and academic performance. The factor related to increasing trends in cigarette smoking was academic performance.

Conclusions

Stress about academic performance is an important factor affecting the increase in cigarette smoking among adolescent males in a rural area of Korea.

Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Association of health-risk behaviors with perceived academic performance among middle and high school students: A cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China
    Chunyan Luo, Xuelai Wang, Yanting Yang, Qiong Yan, Lijing Sun, Dongling Yang, Hadi Ghasemi
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(5): e0285261.     CrossRef
  • Türkiye'de Bir Çocuk Hastanesinde Motivasyonel Görüşme Kullanarak Ergenlerde Sigara Bırakma Müdahalesi: Bir Pilot Çalışma
    Demet TAŞ, Alkım ÖDEN
    Turkish Journal of Pediatric Disease.2020; : 1.     CrossRef
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    Scientific Reports.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2016; 13(12): 1183.     CrossRef
  • A systematic review of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure and smoking behaviors: Smoking status, susceptibility, initiation, dependence, and cessation
    Chizimuzo T.C. Okoli, Jonathan Kodet
    Addictive Behaviors.2015; 47: 22.     CrossRef
  • Risk Factors for Current Smoking Among American and South Korean Adolescents, 2005–2011
    Sung Suk Chung, Kyoung Hwa Joung
    Journal of Nursing Scholarship.2014; 46(6): 408.     CrossRef
  • Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in university students in the city of Leon, Mexico
    Maciste H. Macías-Cervantes, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Antonio E. Rivera-Cisneros, Andrés Martínez-Rivera, Joel Ramírez-Emiliano, Carlos Kornhauser
    Health.2013; 05(11): 1861.     CrossRef
Health Impact Assessment of Free Immunization Program in Jinju City, Korea
Keon Yeop Kim, So Youn Jeon, Man Joong Jeon, Kwon Ho Lee, Sok Goo Lee, Dongjin Kim, Eunjeong Kang, Sang Geun Bae, Jinhee Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(4):267-275.   Published online July 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.4.267
  • 7,996 View
  • 57 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was conducted to assess the potential health impacts and improve the quality of the free immunization program in Jinju City by maximizing the predicted positive health gains and minimizing the negative health risks.

Methods

A steering committee was established in September 2010 to carry out the health impact assessment (HIA) and began the screening and scoping stages. In the appraisal stage, analysis of secondary data, a literature review, case studies, geographic information systems analysis, a questionnaire, and expert consultations were used. The results of the data collection and analyses were discussed during a workshop, after which recommendations were finalized in a written report.

Results

Increased access to immunization, comprehensive services provided by physicians, the strengthened role of the public health center in increasing immunization rates and services, and the ripple effect to other neighboring communities were identified as potential positive impacts. On the other hand, the program might be inaccessible to rural regions with no private clinics where there are more at-risk children, vaccine management and quality control at the clinics may be poor, and vaccines may be misused. Recommendations to maximize health gains and minimize risks were separately developed for the public health center and private clinics.

Conclusions

The HIA provided an opportunity for stakeholders to comprehensively overview the potential positive and negative impacts of the program before it was implemented. An HIA is a powerful tool that should be used when developing and implementing diverse health-related policies and programs in the community.

Summary

Citations

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  • Cross-Sectional Study of Varicella Zoster Virus Immunity in Healthy Korean Children Assessed by Glycoprotein Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Fluorescent Antibody to Membrane Antigen Test
    Yunhwa Kim, Ji-Young Hwang, Kyung-Min Lee, Eunsil Lee, Hosun Park
    Vaccines.2021; 9(5): 492.     CrossRef
  • Health Impact Assessments of Health Sector Proposals: An Audit and Narrative Synthesis
    Nelius Wanjiku Wanjohi, Reema Harrison, Ben Harris-Roxas
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(21): 11466.     CrossRef
  • Epidemiological Impact of the Korean National Immunization Program on Varicella Incidence
    Jaehun Jung, Young-Jin Ko, Young-Eun Kim, Kyungmin Huh, Byung-Joo Park, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Changes in Dietary Behavior Among Adolescents and Their Association With Government Nutrition Policies in Korea, 2005-2009
Sang Geun Bae, Jong Yeon Kim, Keon Yeop Kim, Soon Woo Park, Jisuk Bae, Won Kee Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(1):47-59.   Published online January 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.1.47
  • 12,897 View
  • 109 Download
  • 37 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea.

Methods

We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods.

Results

The significant linear trends were observed in all dietary behaviors (p<0.05). Overall, all behaviors except the fruit intake rate were desirably changed during five years but undesirable changes were observed between 2008 and 2009 in all behaviors. Within those periods, several policies were implemented including 'Ban on carbonated-beverages in school', 'Green Food Zone', etc. Despite confirmed evidence of their effects, the policies on individual behavior such as nutrition education didn't influence the prevalence of dietary behaviors because they were conducted to too limited persons. Polices on the school environmental improvement, such as ban on carbonated beverage in school, were more effective because they decreased the exposure of undesirable food environment. However, for effect of Green Food Zone improving community environment we couldn't come to a conclusion because of too short period after full implementation.

Conclusions

Among government nutrition policies conducted from 2005 to 2009, those on environmental improvement, especially in school, were more effective than those on individual behavior. Therefore, the development and implement of policies on school environmental improvement are needed in Korea.

Summary

Citations

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    Hyun-Ju Seo, Min-Jung Choi, Soon-Ki Ahn
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022023.     CrossRef
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    Obesity Reviews.2019; 20(12): 1720.     CrossRef
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Trends in Cigarette Use Behaviors Among Adolescents by Region in Korea
Nam Soo Hong, Keon Yeop Kim, Soon-Woo Park, Jong-Yeon Kim, Jisuk Bae, Won Kee Lee, Ki Su Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(4):176-184.   Published online July 29, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.4.176
  • 10,518 View
  • 63 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

Understanding recent trends in cigarette smoking among adolescents is important in order to develop strategies to prevent cigarette smoking. The aim of this study was to compare recent trends in cigarette smoking for adolescents living in rural areas, small towns and metropolitan cities in Korea.

Methods

The raw data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) from 2005 to 2009 were used. Data were analyzed by using the method of complex survey data analysis considering complex sampling design. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate significant linear time trends in cigarette smoking. The indicators of cigarette use behaviors were 'current smoking rate', 'frequent smoking rate', 'heavy smoking rate' and 'smoking experience rate before 13 years of age'. All analyses were conducted according to gender.

Results

Statistically significant increasing trends in current smoking rate and frequent smoking rate were observed and borderline significant increasing trends in heavy smoking rate were shown among rural boys. Among metropolitan city boys, statistically significant increasing trends were also seen for frequent smoking. Statistically significant decreasing trends in current smoking rate were observed among small town and metropolitan city girls. Smoking experience rate before 13 years of age for rural girls decreased significantly.

Conclusions

Cigarette smoking prevalence among adolescents in the rural areas has increased in the last five years especially among boys. Our findings suggest that anti-tobacco program for adolescents should be conducted primarily for those in rural areas.

Summary

Citations

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  • The positive impact of smoking cessation on fracture risk in a nationwide cohort study
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  • Data Resource Profile: The Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS)
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    International Journal of Epidemiology.2016; : dyw070.     CrossRef
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    Joshua D. Lee, Colleen Guimond, Irene M. Yee, Carles Vilariño-Güell, Zhi-Ying Wu, Anthony L. Traboulsee, A. Dessa Sadovnick
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    Maciste H. Macías-Cervantes, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Antonio E. Rivera-Cisneros, Andrés Martínez-Rivera, Joel Ramírez-Emiliano, Carlos Kornhauser
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A Cross-Sectional Study on gamma-GTP and its Related Factors in Male Workers.
Keon Yeop Kim, Sin Kam, Jong Hyun Lee, Young Ae Ha, Kyung Eun Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(2):169-174.
  • 65,535 View
  • 82 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To investigate gamma-Glutamyltransferase (gamma-GTP) and its related factors in male industrial workers. METHOD: Five hundred and forty male workers without heart disease, diabetes mellitus, renal disease, hepatitis, and other liver diseases were surveyed in October 1998. Blood samples were collected to test for gamma-GTP, total-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose. A self-administered questionnaire survey on life style was also done. RESULTS: The total geometric mean value of gamma-GTP was 30.6 U/L. According to a univariate analysis: age, BMI(body mass index, kg/m2), alcohol consumption, current smoking, stress, diastolic blood pressure, and blood total cholesterol were significantly associated with gamma-GTP(p<0.05). From a multiple regression analysis: BMI, alcohol consumption, current smoking, diastolic blood pressure and total-cholesterol were significantly related to gamma-GTP(p<0.05). Coffee consumption was negatively related to gamma-GTP, but not significantly. CONCLUSION: We recommend that a change in health behavior (i.e. reducing alcohol intake, controlling BMI and not smoking) is necessary to decrease gamma-GTP in male workers.
Summary
English Abstracts
Association Between Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Hypertension Incidence in Rural Prehypertensive Adults.
Jun Hyun Hwang, Ji Yeon Shin, Byung yeol Chun, Duk Hee Lee, Keon Yeop Kim, Wee hyun Park, Shung chull Chae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(1):18-25.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.1.18
  • 4,687 View
  • 52 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Prehypertension is associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension compared with normotension. Yet, factors predicting the development of hypertension among prehypertensive people are ill-understood. This prospective cohort study was performed to examine if serum gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT) within a normal range can predict the future risk of hypertension among prehypertensive adults. METHODS: Study subjects were 293 prehypertensive persons >30-years-of-age who participated in a community-based health survey in 2003 and who were followed up in 2008. Sex-specific quartiles of baseline serum GGT were used to examine association with 5-year hypertension incidence. RESULTS: Baseline serum GGT within normal range predicted the risk of developing hypertension for 5 years only in prehypertensive women. Adjusted relative risks were 1.0, 3.7, 3.6, and 6.0 according to quartiles of baseline serum GGT (P for trend <0.01). This pattern was similarly observed in non-drinkers. However, serum GGT was not associated with incident hypertension in men. Different from serum GGT, baseline serum alanine aminotransferase, another well-known liver enzyme, did not predict the risk of incident hypertension in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Even though baseline serum GGT within normal range strongly predicted the future risk of hypertension, it was observed only in women, Although underlying mechanisms of this association are currently unclear, serum GGT can be used to select a high risk group of hypertension in prehypertensive women.
Summary

Citations

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Introduction of Health Impact Assessment and Healthy Cities as a Tool for Tackling Health Inequality.
Weon Seob Yoo, Keon Yeop Kim, Kwang Wook Koh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):439-446.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.439
  • 4,323 View
  • 65 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to reduce the health inequalities within a society changes need to be made in broad health determinants and their distribution in the population. It has been expected that the Health impact assessment(HIA) and Healthy Cities can provide opportunities and useful means for changing social policy and environment related with the broad health determinants in developed countries. HIA is any combination of procedures or methods by which a proposed 4P(policy, plan, program, project) may be judged as to the effects it may have on the health of a population. Healthy city is one that is continually creating and improving those physical and social environments and expanding those community resources which enable people to mutually support each other in performing all the functions of life and in developing to their maximum potential. In Korea, social and academic interest regarding the HIA and Healthy Cities has been growing recently but the need of HIA and Healthy Cities in the perspective of reducing health inequality was not introduced adequately. So we reviewed the basic concepts and methods of the HIA and Healthy Cities, and its possible contribution to reducing health inequalities. We concluded that though the concepts and methods of the HIA and Healthy Cities are relatively new and still in need of improvement, they will be useful in approaching the issue of health inequality in Korea.
Summary

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Original Articles
A Study on the Related Factors with Internet Addiction of the 11th Grade Students in an Urban Area.
Moo Sik Lee, Keon Yeop Kim, Kyung Jae Ko, Hyo Jin Lee, Wook Nam, Eun Young Kim, Jee Young Hong, Bak Ju Na
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(4):390-398.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the degree of adolescent internet addiction, and investigate its relationship to the general characteristics, internet environments, and contents, especially the stress measured by the psychosocial wellbeing index-short form (PWI-SF). METHODS: The data was obtained from self-administered questionnaires from 886 11th grade urban area students. The questionnaires consisted of general characteristics, internet user's environments, frequencies by internet contents, internet addiction test and PWI-SF. RESULTS: The possible rate of internet use at home was 95.1%, and the area of most internet use was the home. The frequencies of internet game and porno site use were higher in males, with web searching and community uses higher in females. The total mean of internet addiction score was 56.8, and was higher for male than for female students. From multiple regression, as analyzed by the internet addiction score as a dependent variable, on-line friends, internet use times, years of internet use, frequencies of internet game & porno site use, and PWI-SF scores were significant in male. Internet use times, the frequencies of internet game, chatting, community use, and PWI-SF score were significant in female. Four PWI-SF subscales (social role & self reliability, depression, general health & vitality, and sleep disturbance & anxiety) and internet addiction were significantly correlated in both male and female students, with depression having the most correlation. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that intervention should be provided to prevent internet addiction, especially for coping with stress in Korean teenage students.
Summary
Therapeutic Compliance and Its Related Factors of Patients with Hypertension in Rural Area.
Sang Won Lee, Sin Kam, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Hee Sook Oh, Moon Young Ahn, Pu Dol Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):215-225.
  • 2,349 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic compliance and its related factors in the rural hypertensives. METHOD: A questionnaire survey and blood pressure measurement were performed to 3,876 residents of a rural area, and 660 hypertensives were selected as subjects of study. The study employed a hypothetical model which was composed of constructs from the health belief model and KAP model. The analysis techniques employed included contingency table analysis and structural equation modeling. RESULT: The proportion of those who were compliant to the treatment of hypertension was 44.2% of subjects. As the result of structural equation modeling, when patients had more favorable attitude toward treatment, higher perceived benefit, or lower perceived barriers to treatment, the therapeutic compliance was significantly higher(T>2.0). When patients had more knowledge about hypertension, or higher perceived severity of hypertension, the attitude toward the treatment of hypertension was more favorable significantly(T>2.0). And when patients had the support for treatment from family or neighbor, the attitude toward treatment was more favorable(T>2.0). When patients had experience of health education, they had more knowledge, higher perceived susceptibility of complication, perceived severity for hypertension, and perceived benefit of treatment, compare to patients without health education(T>2.0). CONCLUSION: In consideration of above findings, in order to improve the therapeutic compliance in the rural hypertensives, it would be necessary to change attitude, perception, knowledge about hypertension and its treatment, by various methods such as effective health education and programs for maintaining the supportive environment for hypertension treatment.
Summary
The Risk Factors for the Development of Hypertension in a Rural Area - An 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study.
Hee Sook Oh, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Sang Won Lee, Moon Young Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):199-207.
  • 2,245 View
  • 33 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to identify the risk factors related to the development of hypertension in a rural area. METHOD: Total of 3,573 subjects in Chung-Song County were interviewed and examined in 1996. The study cohort comprised 2,580 hypertension-free subjects aged above 20. One-year follow up was completed for 1,781 subjects(69.0%) in 1997. General characteristics(age, gender, education level, economic status, marital status), the family history of hypertension, diet, alcohol, smoking, coffee, stress, past history of oral contraceptive and menopausal status in female, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, baseline blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol were considered as risk factors. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model indicated that age(RR=1.50, 95% CI; 1.15-1.96), the family history of hypertension(RR=2.11, 95% CI; 1.04-4.26), waist-hip ratio(WHR) (RR=2.09, 95% CI; 1.15-3.79), and baseline systolic blood pressure(130-139/<120mmHg)(RR=3.34, 95% CI; 1.47-7.60) were significant risk factors associated with the development of hypertension above the borderline level in male. In female, age(RR=1.06, 95% CI; 1.03-1.09), change in menopausal status(no--> yes/no-->no) (RR=3.32, 95% CI; 1.01-10.87), baseline systolic blood pressure(120-129/<120mmHg: RR=2.00, 95% CI; 1.02-3.90)(130-139/<120mmHg: RR=2.64, 95% CI; 1.34-5.20) and baseline diastolic blood pressure(85-89/<80mmHg)(RR=4.09, 95% CI; 1.86-8.96) were identified as risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Age and high normal blood pressure were significant risk factors for the development of hypertension above the borderline level. In addition, the family history of hypertension and WHR in men, and the change of menopausal status in women might be significant risk factors in Korea.
Summary
Structural Relationships among Health Concern, Health Practice and Health Status of the Disabled.
Ki Soo Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Jae Hee Son, Young Suk Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):276-288.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to determine the relationships among Health concern, health practice and health status of the disabled. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 1,662 disabled persons in Taegu city from April to July, 1997. RESULTS: Health concern had a significant and positive relationship with health practice(p<0.05) and health practice also had a significant and positive relationship with self-rated health status(p<0.05) in men and women. To determine the structural model of the Health concern, health practice, health status and sociodemographic variables, the covariance structural analysis was used. In men, age, economic status, medical security type, educational level and type of disability had significant direct effects on Health concern(T>2.0). Educational level and type of disability had significant direct effects on health practice(T>2.0). And Economic status, medical security type and job status had significant direct effects on health status(T>2.0). In women, economic status and educational level had significant direct effects on Health concern(T>2.0). However there was no variable which had a significant direct effect on health practice. Job status had a significant direct effect on health status(T>2.0). In men and women, health practice was significantly increased with increasing Health concern and the more health practice, the higher health status(T>2.0). CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the institutional approach which improve the economic status of the disabled with understanding their behavior and attitude should be established to increase health status, in addition, the health policy for encouraging the disabled, such as health education, consulting and health promotion program, should be done.
Summary
Quality of Life(QOL), Life Satisfaction, and Its Determinents of the Physically Disabled in Taegu City .
Youg Sook Lee, Keon Yeop Kim, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Jong Young Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):503-515.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to investigate the factors influencing QOL and life satisfaction of the physically disabled, the author interviewed, by using structuralized questionnaire, 440 individuals among the physically disabled who were participated in Health Examination from April to July, 1997. The questionnaire consisted of the general characteristics(sex, age, marital status, family number, etc), the Reintegration to Normal Living Index(RNLI) to assess QOL, and the single item of five-likert scale to evaluate life satisfaction. The means of RNLI were 16.2+/-4.8 in total score, 12.2+/-3.4 in daily functioning and 4.0+/-2.1 in perception of self. The respondents were less reintegrated toward social activities and relationships than impairments or disabilities. While the satisfied group was 47.3%, the dissatisfied group was 52.7%. As the results of multiple regression and logistic regression analysis, the significant predictors of QOL were age, education, job, grade of disability and subjective health status. The life satisfaction were related to economic status, job and subjective health status. To improve QOL and life satisfaction of the physically disabled, it is important that we improve their basic socioeconomic status by getting a job through rehabilitation education and induce them to have positive self-assessment by extending the opportunity of social participation.
Summary
Determinanats of Health Care Utilization of the Physically Disabled.
Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Sin Kam, Byung Yeol Chun, Jae Yong Park, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):323-334.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate determinants of health care utilization of the physically, disabled over 20 years old in age living in Taegu city, a self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 337 disabled persons with chronic illness from April to July, 1997. Health care utilization rate was 81.9%(69.l% for hospital or clinic and 12.8% for pharmacy). Marital status, job, health concern, and response to illness showed statistically, significant relationship with health care utilization(p<0.05). By, path analysis, job, economic status, medical security type and response to illness had a significant direct effect on health care utilization(p<0.05), however, health concern and regular source of care had an indirect effect. The reasons of no health utilization were due to economic problem(31.l%), no symptom(18.0%), inconvenience to seek care or no accompanying persons to be helped(14.8%), unseriousness of the severity of the illness(14.8%), too busy to be treated or no free time(8.2%), hopeless prognosis to be treated(6.6%) in order. In conclusion, it is recommended that the program for expanding medicaid, improving socioeconomic status by getting a job and health education to increase the health Concern toward physically disabled should be implemented to increase health care utilization rate.
Summary
Effect of cigareet smoking on air-conduction hearing threshold level in adult men.
Jin Seok Kim, Min Hae Yeh, Byung Yeol Chun, Kuck Hyeun Woo, Yune Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):285-292.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the effect of smoking on the hearing threshold, l,887 adult male workers who visited health care center during the period l January 1996 - 31 July 1997 were selected. Air-conduction hearing threshold level, diastolic blood pressure(DBP), total cholesterol, fasting blood sugar(FBS), hematocrit and obesity, were measured. The data on age, occupation, and smoking were collected. Air-conduction hearing threshold in smoker was significantly higher than non-smoker in categories of 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 Hz(p<0.05). Mean values of PTA-low, PTA-mid, and PTA-high in smoker were also significantly higher than non-smoker(p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis, smoking is likely to play a significant role after controlling age, occupation, DBP, FBS, total cholesterol, hematocrit, and obesity,(p<0.05). The hearing threshold was significantly increased with increasing age(p<0.05), the manufacturing worker may have higher hearing threshold(p<0.05). The higher hematocrit and the more obese, the higher hearing threshold(p<0.05). However, DBP, total cholesterol and FBS were not significantly related with hearing threshold level. In conclusion, smoking was significantly related with the hearing threshold level in adult men.
Summary
English Abstract
Related Factors for the Initiation of Smoking in High School Students Based on the Transtheoretical Model.
Jee Young Hong, Moo Sik Lee, Baeg Ju Na, Keon Yeop Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(1):67-73.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the intention of smoking and its related factors in high school students. METHODS: Our study subjects were 1,203 high school students who resided in one city and in one county region. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey from June 7 to June 19, 2004. Both the decisional balance and temptation inventory showed high reliability estimates. We provided good fit for the 12-item decisional balance inventory and the 10-item temptation inventory by using a confirmatory factor analysis. We also used multiple logistic regression analysis to identify the major contributing factors for the intention to start smoking. RESULTS: On the univariate analysis, the subjects who were female, the 2nd and 3rd grade students,the students in vocational high school, the ex-drinkers or current drinkers, and ex-smokers were found to be significantly more distributed in the groups with intention to start smoking. Except for the concept of the cons, the group with intention to start smoking showed significantly higher standardized T scores for the 7 concepts of decisional balance and temptations. On the multiple logistic regression analysis, the females, the 2nd and 3rd grade students, the students in vocational high school, the experience of cigarette smoking and low T score of the cons were significantly related to the intention to start smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The intention to start smoking in high school students was affected by various factors such as gender, the school grade and the experience of smoking. Therefore, further research should be conducted for providing the essential data for developing a brief instrument for selecting the groups with intention of starting smoking among adolescents.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health