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Volume 4(1); October 1971
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Original Articles
Heart Axis Rotation Due to Exercise.
Tae Jun Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):1-18.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Eleven nonathletes and eleven athletes wore exorcised on a otandardised Harvard step test, and the average rate of chance in QRS amplitude in lead III of the electocadiogram associated with heart rotation and the average change in rate of heart beat were observed. 1. After the Harvard step exercise, the average rate of change in QRS amplitude in lead III of both groups increased. This was due to the clockwise rotation of the heart and was associated with respiratory movement. The diaphragm was inferred to remain for a while in a relatively more insapiratory position. 2. After the Harved step exercise, a high correlation between the recovery of the average rate of change in QRS amplitude in lead III and the average change in rate of heart beat was observed in the athletic group. 3. In the nonathletic group there was no significant correlation between the average rate of QRS amplitude change and the average rate of change of heart beat. 4. Athletes were assumed to be trained to ventilate quickly at their maximum ability, using deep descending movements of the diaphragm and other respiratory musclature. Consequently, the average in rate of heat beat also recovered quickly. 5. Nonath1etes were inferred not to have been trained to adjust quickly to ventilate so efficiently with their diaphragm movement and other respiratory, musculature, and are characterised by their longer time to complete recovery.
Summary
A Study on Status of Birth and Death in an Urban Area.
Yang Won Park, Pyong Kap Lee, Soon Young Park, Soon Ja Koh
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):19-30.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A survey was conducted by the staff of the Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Kyung Hee University, School of Medicine, from April through May 1971, on such events as delivery, death, abortion and family planning. The survey directed to a total population 6,552 (Male 3,133; Female 3,419) residing in this area (1,262 households) led us to the following findings : 1) Two year averages of crude birth rate, crude death rate and natural increase rates were 24.9, 5.0 and 19.9 respectively. 2) Infant death rates for the years 1969 and 1970 were 13.2 and 5.8 respectively, mean for the two year period being 9.3. 3) Hospital deliveries rated 68.5 percent, Home deliveries 28.4 percent and deliveries at midwives' offices 2.7 percent. 4) Deliveries other than hospital and midwives' office deliveries were found to be attended more often by mothers. 5) About 41.4 percent of all pregnant women during last two years received prenatal care once or more. 6) The induced abortion rate was 6.7 percent in 1969 and 7.5 percent in 1970. 7) The spontaneous abortion rate was 1.1 percent in 1969 and 1.4 percent in 1970. 8) Hypertension was the most frequent cause of adult death(21.6%). 9) The rate of current practice in family planning was 43.3 percent of all women.
Summary
Studies on Fluorine Compounds among the Air Pollutants.
Pyong Kap Lee, Hyong Suk Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):31-34.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted by the Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, School of Medicine as a preliminay test for the effects of Fluorine Compounds to the Plants from April through August, 1971. Fluorine was measured with Zirconium-Alizarine method and the following findings could be obtained : 1. Most high densities (25.7pptm) was found around the industrial areas and lowest (19.3pptm) around residential sections in Seoul. 2. Average density of Fluorine in the atmosphere of Seoul City was 22.3 pptm which can damage such plants as Pine, Strawberry, Peach and Grapes. 3. Fluorine contests (22.3pptm) in Seoul area atmosphere of shows about 4 times more than that of Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.A.
Summary
Examination of Ascaris Eggs on Strawberries and Soils of the Strawberry Yards.
Yu Sun Yun, Byong Phyo Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):35-39.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The authors examined the Ascaris Eggs on the surface of the strawberries and in the soil of the strawberry yards. The results were as follows : 1. The number of Ascaris eggs detected from 870 strawberries grown on strawberry yards was 26, of which 17 eggs were found to be alive. 2. The mean number of Ascaris eggs detected in every 10gm of the soil of strawberry yards was 10.3. The Ascaris eggs were detected over 93% from th yards examined, which had been fertilized with both chemical fertilizer and night soil, or night soil only. 3. No Ascaris eggs was found from strawberries which were produced only with chemical fertilizer. 4. Ascaris eggs were detected 6 from 705 marketing strawberries studied, 3 of them developed to larval stage. 5. When the strawberries were washed by shaking 20 time after kept immersed in water for 10 minutes, the recovery rates of Ascaris eggs after first, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th washing were 60, 87, 96, 99 ad 100%, respectively. 6. Besides Ascaris eggs of hook worm and Fasciolidae were also found from the strawberries examined.
Summary
A Study on Public Nuisance in Seoul, Pusan and Daegu Cities: Part 1. Survey on Air Pollution and Noise Level.
Chul Hwan Cha, Young Soo Shin, Young Il Lee, Kwang Soo Cho, Chong Yoo Choo, Kyo Sung Kim, Dug Il Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):41-64.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
During the period from July 1st to the end of November 1970, a survey on air pollution and noise level was made in Seoul, Pusan and Taegu, the three largest cities in Korea. Each city was divided into 4-6 areas : the industrial area, the semi-industrial area, the commercial area, the residential area, the park area and the downtown area. Thirty eight sites were selected from each area. A. Method of Measurement : Dustfall was measured by the Deposit Gauge Method, sulfur oxides by PbO2 cylinder method, suspended particles by the Digital Dust Indicator, Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Carbon Monoxide (CO) by the MSA & Kitakawa Detector and the noise levels by Rion Sound Survey meter. B. Results: 1. The mean value of dustfall in 3 cities was 30.42 ton/km2/month, ranging from 8.69 to 95.44. 2. The mean values of dustfall by city were 33.17 ton/km2/month in Seoul, 32.11 in Pusan and 25.97 in Taegu. 3. The mean values of dustfall showed a trend of decreasing order of semi-industrial area, downtown area, industrial area, commercial area, residential area, and park area. 4. The mean value of dustfall in Seoul by area were 52.32 ton/km2/month in downtown, 50.54 in semi-industrial area, 40.37 in industrial area, 24,19 in commercial area, 16.25 in park area and 15.39 in residential area in order of concentration. 5. The mean values of dustfall in Pusan by area were 48.27 ton/km2/month in semi-industrial area, 36.68 in industrial area 25.31 in commercial area, and 18.19 in residential area. 6. The mean values of dustfall in Taegu by area were 36.46 ton/km2/month in downtown area, 33.52 in industrial area, 20.37 in commercial area and 13.55 in residential area. 7. The mean values of sulfur oxides in 3 cities were 1.52mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2, ranging from 0.32 to 4.72. 8. The mean values of sulfur oxides by city were 1.89mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2, in Pusan, 1.64 in Seoul and 1.21 in Taegu. 9. The mean values of sulfur oxides by area in 3 cities were 2.16mg SO3/day/100cm2 PbO2 in industrial area, 1.69 in semi-industrial area, 1.50 in commercial area, 1.48 in downtown area, 1.32 in residential area and 0.94 in the park area, respectively. 10. The monthly mean values of sulfur oxides contents showed a steady increase from July reaching a park in November. 11. The mean values of suspended particles was 2.89mg/m3, ranging from 1.15 to 5.27. 12. The mean values of suspended particles by sity were 3.14mg/m3 in Seoul, 2.79 in Taegu and 2.25 in Pusan. 13. The mean values of noise level in 3 cities was 71.3 phon, ranging from 49 to 99 phon. 14. The mean values of noise level by city were 73 phon in Seoul, 72 in Pusan and 69 in Taegu in that order. 15. The mean values of noise level by area in 3 cities showed a decrease in the order of the downtown area, commercial area, industrial area and semi-industrial area, park area and residental area. 16. The mean values of noise level by area in 3 cities indicated that the highest level was detected in the downtown area in Seoul and Taegu and in the industrial area in Pusan. 17. The daily average concentration o sulfur dioxides (SO2) in 3 cities was 0.081 ppm, ranging from 0.004 to 0.196. 18. The daily average concentration of sulfur dioxides by city were 0.092 ppm in Seoul, 0.089 in Pusan and 0.062 in Taegu in that order. 19. the weekly average concentration of carbon monoxides (CO) was 27.59 ppm. 20. The daily average concentration of carbon monoxides by city were 33.37 ppm. in Seoul, 25.76 in Pusan and 23.65 in Taegu in that order. 21. The concentration of SO2 and CO reaches a peak from 6 p.m. to 8 p.m. 22. About 3 times probably the daily average concentration of CO could be detected in the downtown area probably due to heavy traffic emission in comparison with that in the industrial area. 23. As for daily variation of the concentration of SO2 and CO it was found that the concentration maintains relatively higher value during weekdays in the industrial area and on the first part of the week in the downtown area.
Summary
A Study on Public Nuisance in Han River and Nackdong River: Part II. Survey on Water Pollution.
Chul Hwan Cha, Young Soon Shin, Soon Young Park, Kwang Soo Cho, Chong Yoo Choo, Kyo Sung Kim, Dug Il Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):65-76.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In view of ever rising water pollution problems of river in the vicinity of large urban communities, the author has made an investigation on the pollution of water sampled from Han River (Seoul area) and Nakdong River (Daegu city area) during the period from july to December, 1970. The water samples were taken twice a month during the study period of 6 months from 7 points (locations) along the main stream of Han River at Seoul city and 5 points of Nakdong River at Daegu city. The samples ware measured and analyzed in accordance with the recognized methods in the "Standard Methods or Examination of Water and waste" by American Public Health Association. The obtained results are as follows: I.Han River. 1. Average turbidity was 5.1 units ranging from 1 to 10 units and the turbidity of down stream was higher than that of the upper stream. 2. pH value showed slight alkalinity (mean ; 7.2) except Yunchang-Dong (6.9). 3. The mean value of Dissolved Oxygen contents (D.O) was 7.2 ppm (range of 3.4-10.5ppm). D.O of the upper stream (8.2 ppm. at Walker Hill boating place, 8.0 ppm. at the Gwangzang Bridge and Ddookdo) was higher than that of he downstream (5.6ppm. at Yunchang-Dong. 6.4ppm. at the 2nd Han River Bridge), and D.O in the winter season was higher than that in the summer season, respectively. 4. The mean value of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.) was 28.3 ppm. (range of 6.2-64.8ppm). The mean value of B.O.D. was 48.7 ppm. at Yunchang-Dong. 42.3ppm. at the 2nd Han River Bridge, 34.0 ppm. at the 1st Han River bridge, 28.5 ppm. at the 3rd Han River Bridge, 19.2 ppm. at Dookdo, 13.2 ppm. at the Gwangzang Bridge, and 10.2 ppm. at the Walker Hill boating place in order of value. B.O.D. in July and August (35.6 and 34.5 ppm.) were the highest and that in November and December (18.6 and 21.2 ppm.) were the lowest. 5. Suspended Solids (SS) were from 15.0 to 667.0 ppm. with the mean of 222.1 ppm "Suspended Solids" of the water samples at Yunchang-Dong and the 2nd Han River Bridge were found to be 378.1 ppm. and 283.9 ppm. respectively which were higher than at the Gwangzang Bridge (134.1ppm.) and at Walker Hill boating place (79.3ppm). 6. Coliform colonies counting of the water samples ranged from 0-2, 500x10/100ml. with the mean value of 205.6x10/100ml. The most contaminated water sample by coliform were from the point of the 2nd Han River Bridge with 640.8x10/100ml while the lowest ones were from Walker Hill boating place with 17.2x10/100ml. There was also a seasonal variation in coliform contamination that is the higher in summer and the lower in winter. II. Nakdong River. 1. The mean value of turbidity was 2.3 units with range of 0 to 9.0 units. The highest point was at Geumho River (7.2 units). and the lowest point was at Gangzung and Moonsan (0.45 and 0.41 units). 2. The mean value of pH was 7.5 (range of 7.1-8.5) and highest point was Geunho River with 8.5. 3. The mean value of D.O was 8.1ppm. (range of 3.4-11.2 ppm.). D.O. of the upper stream showed higher value than that of the down stream, and the winter season than the summer season. 4. B.O.D. ranged from 2.6 to 57.0 ppm. (mean; 20.4 ppm.). The water sample at Geumho River showed the highest value (41.5ppm) while at Moonsan and Gangzung showed the lowest (4.6 and 4.7 ppm.). 5. The mean value of suspended solids was 48.7 ppm. (range of 4.0-182.0 ppm.). The highest month was July (63.7 ppm.) and August (62.1 ppm.) and the lowest month was October (37.0 ppm.) and December (24.4 ppm.). 6. The mean value of the coliform colonies was 22.7x10/100ml. (range of 0-243x10/100ml.). The highest number of the colonies was found in the sample water at the Whawon recreation area (50.5x10/100ml.) followed by the Geumho River (33.9x10/100ml;), the Goryung Bridge (28.3x10/100ml.), Gangzung(0.7x10/100ml), and Moonsan (0.6x10/100ml.).
Summary
A Study of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice Relative to Maternal and Child Health Among Women Residing in Apartments at Younsei Community Health Area.
Seung Hum Yu, Young Sook Chung, Kyung Ja Lee, Kwang Jong Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):77-88.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A study of the knowledge, attitude and practices about the maternal and child health of 305 married women residing in apartments at the Yonsei community Health area was conducted during the period from November to December 1970 using designed questionnaire with well trained interviews. The results and findings obtained from the study are summarized as follows : A. Pregnancy and Birth. Questions were asked about their last child. 1. 16.4% of the women were pregnant. 2. Among 281 women who hand experienced delivery, 48.0% were assisted by doctor or midwives for their last delivery, while the rest of women delivered their last baby at home without any professional's assistance. The higher the level of education or the greater exposure to mass communication, the more the deliveries were assisted by doctors or midwives. Those women who were born and raised in cities had more deliveries assisted by doctors and midwives than those who were not. 3. Kinds of delivery sheets used. Among 141 cases of home delivery 68% used cement bag paper or vinyl sheets. Three% used nothing and remained used unsterile materials. 4. Among 141 cases of home delivery, 70.2% used scissors. The rest of them used other methods. 5. 47.3% of the women had a rest for one month or more after birth. The higher the level of education, the longer the period of rest was observed. 6. 52.4% of the women fed the colostrum to their babies. This was not related to the mother's education. 7. About half(42.9%) of the women had poor knowledge about a proper diet for the pre and post natal period. B. Child Health. 1. Knowledge and practice regarding to the immunization for their children : Most of the women (93.2%) could name at least one kind of immunization. 20.3% could name 6 kinds of immunization. Mothers education level did not influence their ability to name immunizations. 85.2% of children had been immunized at least once. 2. Morbidity of last born children : 48.1% of their last born children were found to have been sick during the last year. Less than half (41.5%) of the sick children were seen by doctor. 3. Counselling at well baby clinic : most of the women (76.5%) had no counselling for their children. Registration rate at the well baby clinic at the Severance Hospital was 13.2%. 45.9% wanted to visit to the well baby clinic at the Severance Hospital. 4. Weaning Period : 44.6% said that the beginning of the weaning for their last born children was from 6 months to twelve months of age. The most important reason of weaning was the health of both mothers and children. 5. Knowledge and Practice regarding birth and death Registration : 64.6% of the women could name correctly the Ku-office as the place for the registration. Only 29.2% registered the birth of their last born children within 14 days. C. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice regarding to family planning Most : of the women accepted the idea of family planning. 97.7% could name at least one contraceptive method. 35.4% were found to be current users of countraceptive methods. The ideal number of children was 3.1 in average.
Summary
A Study of Rural Health and Medical Care Delivery System in Korea.
J Huh, C K Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):89-94.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
An Epidemiological Study on the Incidence of CO poisoning in Korea.
K H Lee, Y O Choi, C H Kim, D R Yun
Korean J Prev Med. 1971;4(1):95-105.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the most serious health hazards in Korea. Although the incidence rate has been assumed to be the highest in the world, there has been no available reports as far as the annual & nation-wide incidence are concerned. Authors analyzed the incidence reports from 1965 to 1970 filed by the National Police & also made incidence survey on Seoul area in 1968 & 1969. The results of these surveys informed us that the official police reports are very much underevaluated. The stochastic estimations of the general incidence were made based on the informations which were obtained through incidence survey made in Seoul area. The findings obtained are as follows ; 1. The annual incidence of CO poisoning tends to increase since 1965. 2. The incidence is higher in the urban area & the incidence in Seoul is the highest in the world. 3. The frequency of incidence is the highest in the December. 4. The main causes of poisoning are the gas leakage from "ondol" floor & the leaking of gas from kitchen to room through the connecting door. 5. The incidence survey made in Seoul area revealed that the official police reports are underevaluated around one-eighth of actual incidence. 6. The health hazards induced by CO poisoning is greater than those caused by 19 Class I & Class II communicable diseases.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health