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Volume 37(1); February 2004
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Editorials
Changes in he health care sectors after the market opening to foreign hospitals and the need for proactive strategies.
Ki Taig Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):1-5.
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  • 35 Download
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No abstract available.
Summary
The problems of Discussing Globalization of Medical care Market.
Changyup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):6-10.
  • 20,656 View
  • 23 Download
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No abstract available.
Summary
Original Articles
A Survey on Prenatal Environmental Risk Factors for Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants in Asan-City.
Heeyoung Lee, Seok Jun Yoon, Hyungsik Ahn, Mina Ha, Kyung Sim Koh, Kyung Ja June
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):11-16.
  • 12,137 View
  • 36 Download
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OBJECTIVE
In this study, we aimed to produce basic data on the prenatal environmental risk factors of low birth weight infants at a community level. METHODS: In 2000, we conducted the direct interview using questionnaire about prenatal environmental risk factors with low birth weight infant-delivered mothers and normal weight infant-delivered mothers in Asan-city, Chungcheongnamdo Province, Korea. The questions given to the mothers included past pregnancy history, menstrual status, disease history before and during the pregnancy, family history, environmental risk factors and exposure history. The responses of the two groups were compared to calculate the prenatal environmental risk factors of each group. RESULTS: Mothers' smoking was significantly associated with low birth weight infants (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-8.56) and preterm baby (AOR 4.20; 95% CI, 1.21-14.61). Other environmental risk factors were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Smoking of mothers can be a risk factor for the delivery of low birth weight infants. These results could provide the basic data on prenatal environmental risk factors of mothers of low birth weight infants and suggest research topics for further community-based evaluation.
Summary
Application Status and Its Affecting Factors of Double Standard for Multinational Corporations in Korea.
Myung Ki, Jaewook Choi, Juneyoung Lee, Heechan Park, Seokjoon Yoon, Namhoon Kim, Jungyeon Heo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):17-25.
  • 2,165 View
  • 30 Download
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OBJECTIVE
We intended to evaluate the double standard status and to identify factors of determining double standard criteria in multinational corporations of Korea, and specifically those in the occupational health and safety area. METHODS: A postal questionnaire had been sent, between August 2002 and September 2002, to multinational corporations in Korea. A double standard company was defined as those who answered in more than one item as adopting a different standard among the five items regarding double standard identification. By comparing double standard companies with equivalent standard companies, determinants for double standards were then identified using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of multinational corporations, 45.1% had adopted a double standard. Based on the question naire's scale level, the factor of 'characteristic and size of multinational corporation' was found to have the most potent impact on increasing double standard risk. On the variable level, factors of 'number of affiliated companies' and 'existence of an auditing system with the parent company' showed a strong negative impact on double standard risk. CONCLUSION: : Our study suggests that a distinctive approach is needed to manage the occupational safety and health for multinational corporations. This approach should be focused on the specific level of a corporation, not on a country level.
Summary
Association of Hospital Procedure Volume with Post-Transplant Survival for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation.
Choon Seon Park, Hee Kyung Moon, Hye Young Kang, Yoo Hong Min, Woo Hyun Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):26-36.
  • 2,055 View
  • 31 Download
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OBJECTIVE
To examine the association between hospital procedure volume and treatment outcomes following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). METHODS: Out of 1, 050 patients who received allo-BMTs between 1998 and 2000 in 21 Korean hospitals, 752 with first allo-BMT and complete data were included in this study. Study subjects were divided into the following three groups according to cumulative hospital experience of all-BMTs during the study period: low (< 30 cases), medium (30-49) and high (> or =50 cases) volume. Patient outcome was defined as early survival at day 100 and one-year survival. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between hospital experience and survival at day 100 and one year. RESULTS: When the low volume group was defined as the reference group, the adjusted relative risks (RR) of survival at day 100 for the high volume group were 2.46 (95% CI, 1.13-5.36) for all patients, 2.61 (1.04-6.57) for those with leukemia, and 2.20 (0.47-10.32) for those with aplastic anemia. For one-year survival, adjusted RR for the high volume group were 2.52 (1.40-4.51) for all patients, 1.99 (1.01-3.93) for leukemia, and 6.50 (1.57-26.80) for aplastic anemia. None of the RR for the medium volume group was statistically significant. Patient factors showing significant relationship with survival were donor-recipient relation, human leukocyte antigen matching status, time from diagnosis to transplant, and disease stage. CONCLUSION: The study results suggest that the cumulative experience of hospitals in providing allo-BMT is positively associated with patient survival.
Summary
Prevalence and Risk Factors of Green Tobacco Sickness among Korean Tobacco Harvesters.
Hyun Sul Lim, Kwan Lee, Si Hyun Nam
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):37-43.
  • 2,259 View
  • 89 Download
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OBJECTIVE
This study was carried out to understand the prevalence and risk factors of green tobacco sickness (GTS) among Korean tobacco harvesters. METHODS: The authors conducted a questionnaire among the tobacco harvesters (1, 064 persons from 555 out of 723 tobacco harvesting households) in Cheongsong-gun for 4 days from May 7 to 10, 2002. RESULTS: The study subjects were 550 males and 514 females. The recognition and experience of GTS up until 2001 were 96.4% and 61.9%, respectively. The prevalence of GTS in 2001 was 42.5%, and was significantly higher in females than in males (59.0% vs. 26.6%, p< 0.01). The incidence density of GTS according to the number of workdays in 2001 was 12.3 spells/100 person' days. The GTS symptoms reported by the tobacco harvesters in 2001 were dizziness in 441 cases (97.6%), nausea in 414 (91.6%), headache in 349 (77.2%) and vomiting in 343 (75.9%). The use of gloves, hat and wristlets, sweating at work and the number of working hours significantly increased the prevalence of GTS (p< 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors significantly associated with GTS. Odds ratios for smoking, working over 10 hours and sweating at work were 0.26 (95% CI: 0.19-0.35), 1.64 (95% CI: 1.26-2.14) and 1.60 (95% CI: 1.14-2.25), respectively. Of those who reported GTS in 2001, 311 cases (68.8%) underwent treatment from their local medical facilities. CONCLUSION: In Korea, there are many tobaccoharvesting households, and most may be stricken with GTS. More extensive epidemiological studies, including heincidence and associated risk factors, are expected and a surveillance system including measurements of cotinine in urine should be conducted.
Summary
Professional Job Perception, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Westerm Doctors and Oriental Doctors Practicing at Local Clinic.
Jong Yeon Kim, Sin Kam, Yune Sik Kang, Yong Kee Cho, Sang Won Lee, Dae Gu Jin, Soon Gi Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):44-50.
  • 2,531 View
  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate the professionalism, job stress and job satisfaction in western and oriental doctors in Korea. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey using a selfadministered questionnaire, conducted between August and September, 2001. The study subjects were 457 western doctors and 161 oriental doctors practicing at local clinics in Daegu City. RESULTS: For the professionalism scale, the score for 'belief in service to the public' of western doctors was significantly higher than that of oriental doctors (p< 0.05) whereas the scores for 'sense of calling to the field' and 'feeling of autonomy' were higher in oriental doctors (p< 0.01). For the job stress scale, the scores for 'work factor', and 'clinical responsibility/decision factor' of western doctors were significantly higher than those of oriental doctors (p< 0.01). Of the western doctors, 59.7% expressed satisfaction with their job as a doctor, 69.5% responded that the role of a doctor was appropriate to their aptitude, and 61.8% answered that they wouldn't consider other kinds of job even if offered. In case of oriental doctors, these responses were83.1%, 82.5%, and 82.3%, espectively. CONCLUSION: The job stress scores of western doctors were higher than those of oriental doctors, but the job satisfaction was lower. The reasons for the above results are not clear. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job stress and job satisfaction in doctors.
Summary
Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Waist Circumference Estimation in Some Korean Adults.
Young Seoub Hong, Byoung Gwon Kim, Baek Geun Jeong, Yong Woo Park, Jong Tae Park, Kap Yeol Jung, Joon Youn Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):51-58.
  • 2,228 View
  • 30 Download
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OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, as defined by the ATP III report, in some Korean adults and use the Asian-Pacific proposed waist circumference to investigate waist circumference in some Korean adults using ROC curves. METHODS: Study subjects were seventy-five thousands and ninety one persons (47, 979 men and 27, 111 women) who were selected among the patients who visited hospital for health evaluation from January 2000 to December 2001. All subjects were measured by height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, blood pressure and blood chemistry (lipid profile). RESULTS: The mean age was 41.6+/-8.5 years in men, 41.1+/-10.4 years in women (p< 0.05). Body mass index was in the normal range in 35.3% of men, and 55.9% of women. In both men and women, blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol and triglyceride were positively correlated with BMI. waist circumference, and Broca's index (p< 0.01). However HDL. choloesterol was correlated negatively (p< 0.01). Using ROC curve, the calculated waist circumferences were 84 cm in men (sensitivity 61.4% and specificity 64.1%) and 74 cm in women (sensitivity 65.0% and specificity 73.2%). The age adjusted prevalences of the metabolic syndrome as defined by NCEP ATP III were different for men (6.4%) and women (14.6%). The prevalence increased from 1.2% among participants aged 20 through 29years to 15.0% among participants aged over 60years in men (p< 0.05) and from 1.6% to 27.4% respectively, in women. The age adjusted prevalences, as defined by using the waist circumference that was recommended by WHO's regional office for the western Pacific, were 10.6% in men and 18.5% in women. The age adjusted prevalences, as defined by using the waist circumference that was calculated by the ROC curves, were 17.1% in men and 22.4% in women. And All prevalences were increased following increased BMI and Broca's index. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in some Korean adults was lower than that in western adults. Nevertheless because waist circumference was differed among race and region, application of the same criteria was not proper. Morcover, a higher awareness was required in women, because the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was rapidly increased with increment of age.
Summary
Disability Weights for the Korean Burden of Disease Study: Focused on Comparison with Disability Weights in the Australian Burden of Disease Study.
Young Kyung Do, Seok Jun Yoon, Jung Kyu Lee, Young Hoon Kwon, Sang Il Lee, Changyup Kim, Kidong Park, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):59-71.
  • 2,424 View
  • 90 Download
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OBJECTIVE
This study aimed to measure the disability weights for the Korean Burden of Disease study, and to compare them with those adopted in the Australian study to examine the validity and describe the distinctive features. METHODS: The standardized valuation protocol was developed from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study and the Dutch Disability Weights study. Disability weights were measured for 123 diseases of the Korean version of Disease Classification by three panels of 10 medical doctors each. Then, overall distribution, correlation coefficients, difference by each disease, and mean of differences by disease group were analyzed for comparison of disability weights between the Korean and Australian studies. RESULTS: Korean disability weights ranged from 0.037 to 0.927. While the rank correlation coefficient was moderate to high (rs=0.68), Korean disability weights were higher than the corresponding Australian ones in 79.7% of the 118 diseases. Of these, war, leprosy, and most injuries showed the biggest differences. On the contrary, many infectious and parasitic diseases comprised the greater part of diseases of which Korean disability weights were lower. The mean of the differences was the highest in injuries of GBD disease groups, and in cardiovascular disease, injuries, and malignant neoplasm of the Korean disease category. CONCLUSION: Korean disability weights were found to be valid on the basis of overall distribution pattern and correlation, and are expected to be used as basic data for broadening the scope of burden of disease study. However, some distinctive features still remain to be explored in following studies.
Summary
The Association between Bone Density at Os Calcis and Body Composition in Healthy Children Aged 9-12 Years.
Eun Kyung Shin, Ki Suk Kim, Hee Young Kim, In Sook Lee, Hyo Jee Joung, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):72-79.
  • 2,296 View
  • 32 Download
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OBJECTIVE
This cross-sectional study aimed to quantify the relationship between the bone mineral density at the os calcis and the body mass composition in healthy children. METHODS: The areal bone mineral density was measured at the os calcis with peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The fat free mass, fat mass and percentage fat mass were measured using bioelectric impedance, in 237 Korean children, aged 9 to 12 years. The sexual maturity was determined by self assessment, using standardized series of the 5 Tanner stage drawings, accompanied by explanatory text. RESULTS: From multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, sexual maturity and height, the fat free mass was found to be the best predictor of the calcaneal bone mineral density in both sexes. About 15 and 20% variabilities were found in the calcaneal bone mineral densities of the boys and girls, respectively, which can be explained by the fat free mass. After weight adjustment, the percentage fat mass was negatively associated with the calcaneal bone mineral density in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the fat free mass, among the body compositions, is the major determinant of bone mineral density at the os calcis in Korean children aged 9 to 12 years. Obesity, defined as the percentage fat mass, is assumed to have a negative effect on the calcaneal bone density in children of the same weight.
Summary
Evaluation of Field Epidemiology Specialist Training Program Based on the Satisfaction and the Changes of Educational Needs.
No Rai Park, Ihn Sook Jeong, Jong Gu Lee, Young Taek Kim, Jin Ho Chun, Ki Soon Kim, Sang Soo Bae, Jong Myon Bae, Gyung Jae Oh, Hee Chul Ohrr, Kun Sei Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Hun Jae Lee, Hyun Sul Lim, Young Hwangbo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):80-87.
  • 2,404 View
  • 49 Download
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OBJECTIVE
To evaluate the learning achievement and satisfaction levels for the Field Epidemiology Specialist Training Program (FESTP), on infectious disease control between March 19 and October 31, 2002. METHODS: The FESTP was designed as a set of 84 hours curricula including lectures, discussions, self-studies, and field practicals, and organized both centrally and locally by the Division of Communicable Disease Control of the National Institute of Health and 11 universities. Before and after the program, a questionnaire survey on the educational need (49 items) and satisfaction (15 items) was conducted on 484 trainees, who were responsible for communicable disease control and immunization at 242 regional health centers. The data were analyzed with paired t-tests for comparison of the educational needs between the pre and post scores. RESULTS: The average score for satisfaction was 3.06 out of 5.0; with relatively higher scores for sincerity (4.10) and professionalism (4.01) of the tutors, adequacy (3.54) and clearness (3.51) of the evaluation criteria, usefulness (3.54) and fitness (3.52) of the contents, but with relatively lower satisfaction for schedule (2.96) and self-studies (2.91). The average for requirement for education improved, as shown by the decrease from 2.72 to 2.22 (p< .0001) with the biggest decrease in the outbreak investigation from 2.60 to 2.08. CONCLUSION: The FESTP was evaluated as being effective, the trainees showed moderate satisfaction and decrease educational needs. However, the actual schedules and self-studies should be rearranged to improve the satisfaction level.
Summary
A Study on Characteristics of Core Projects Described in 3rd Community Health Plans.
Dong Moon Kim, Weon Young Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Ok Ryun Moon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):88-98.
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OBJECTIVE
The 3rd community health plan let health centers select and promote core projects considering budget and manpower. This study analyzed the content and selection processes of core projects, using the nationwide 3rd community health plans, to give relevant information on health center policies. METHODS: Classification criteria for content analysis of core projects were established and verified through a literature review and by specialist discussions. Fifty plans were selected by stratified proportional random sampling for regional characteristics. And coding criteria standardized through coding repetition and discussion, by 2 persons (k> 0.7). Using stratified proportional random sampling for 16 cities and provinces, regional characteristics, 117 plans were selected, and the contents of the core project selection processes and program contents analyzed. RESULTS: The survey was used by 59.8 % of samples as a core project decision-making method. The participants included 98.6, 81.4, 40 and 38.6% of the health staffs, residents, medical institutions, and administrators, respectively. Discussion was used by 15.4% of samples. The participants were health staffs by 100% as a great. The ranking of the frequencies of the selected core projects were, in order; chronic disease control, health promotion, elderly health, maternal-child health, and oral health at 16.4, 14.8, 14.3, 12.7 and 11.9%, respectively. Analyses on the chronic disease control and elderly health contents showed the diversity of object disease, high rates of visitors on patient detection programs, high rates of unclear target populations, and the provision of medical exams and treatments as the main services, with high variations in business per-formance. The national health budgets for health centers in 2003 were about 910 and 240 million won for chronic disease control and elderly health, respectively, which were less than for the other five priority core projects. CONCLUSION: The chronic disease control and elderly health at the health centers were not standardized for object disease, patient detection program, target population, service provision, and national support budget was insufficient. Thus it is necessary to develop standard guidelines, and increase financial support, for chronic disease control and elderly health.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health