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Volume 34(1); February 2001
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Original Articles
Factors Influencing the Intention of Admission into a Charged Nursing Home for the Elderly.
Jin Ho Chun, Young Soon Yoo, Eun Hi Cho, Byung Chul Yu, Ki Won Jeong, Sang Hwa Urm, Sung Jun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):1-8.
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OBJECTIVES
To gather information about the factors which influence the interest and intention of admission into charging nursing homes for the elderly(CNH), as these homes represent an important method for resolving the problems related to the rapid population aging occurring in Korea. METHODS: A face-to-face interview survey was carried out with 328(men 159, women 169) patients over 60 years old who were admitted at 2 university hospitals and 5 general hospitals in the Busan area between December 1998 and March 1999. Data were analyzed through t-test, ANOVA, correlation and multiple regression analysis. microgram/g RESULTS: The mean age and years of education of the study population was 67.8 and 7.7 years, and the types of chronic degenerative disease included musculoskeletal disorders(20.1%), cerebrovascular disease(17.1%), and diabetes(14.3%). The major forms of household living arrangement prior to admission were elderly alone(22.6%), and elderly couple(33.5%), while about half of them(55.5%) didn't want to live with their children in the future. Almost half were paying medication fees by themselves(46.6%). The level of actual intention of admission(3.07+/-1.39) into a CNH was lower than that of interest(3.22+/-1.33)(p<0.01). Multiple analysis revealed that the intention of admission increased with decreasing number of future supportive persons(beta=0.107), lower level of activity in daily life(beta=0.447), and longer years of education(beta=0.447) with 32.7% of R2. As for the factors which determined the admission into a CNH, the fee and facilities were considered to be most important, and professional nursing and physician's care were the most desired services. In nomenclature, they preferred "elderly hospital" or "elderly health center" to CNH. CONCLUSIONS: Interest in CNH is increasing recently, but existing studies about patient experiences in CHN are still limited. This study may form a basis for future examinations of the needs and uses for CNH. Active financial support and public information are considered by the authors to be important factors for the induction of welfare services for the elderly, through CNH.
Summary
Relationship between Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Volume and Associated Immediate Outcome.
Young Ho Khang, Yong Ik Kim, Chang Yup Kim, Young Sung Lee, Sunmean Kim, Jin Seok Lee, Byung Hee Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):9-20.
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OBJECTIVES
To explore the relationship between Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) volume and the associated immediate outcome. METHODS: A total of 1,379 PTCAs were performed in 25 hospitals in Korea between October 1 and December 31 in 1997. Data from 1,317 PTCAs (95.5%) were collected through medical record abstraction. Inter-observer reliability of the data was examined using the Kappa statistic on a subsample of 110 PTCA procedures from five hospitals. Intra-observer reliability of the data was also examined. PTCA success and immediate adverse outcomes were selected as the outcome variables. A successful PTCA was defined as a case that shows less than 50% diameter stenosis and more than 20% reduction of diameter stenosis. Immediate adverse outcomes included deaths during the same hospitalization, emergency coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) within 24 hours after PTCA, and acute myocardial infarction within 24 hours after PTCA. The numbers of PTCAs performed in 1997 per hospital were used as the volume variables. RESULTS: Without adjusting for patient risk factors that may affect outcomes, procedures at high volume hospitals (200 cases per year) had a greater success rate (P=0.001) than low volume hospitals. There was a marginally significant difference (P=0.070) in major adverse outcome rates between high and low volume hospitals. After adjusting for risk factors, there were significant differences in procedural failure and major adverse outcome rates between high and low volume hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: After adjusting for patient clinical risk factors, the hospital volume of PTCA was associated with immediate outcomes. It is recommended that a PTCA volume per year be established in order to improve the immediate outcome of this procedure in Korea.
Summary
Severity-Adjusted Mortality Rates: The Case of CABG Surgery.
Hyeung Keun Park, Hyeongsik Ahn, Young Dae Kwon, You Cheol Shin, Jin Seok Lee, Hae Joon Kim, Moon Jun Sohn
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):21-27.
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OBJECTIVES
To develop a model that will predict the mortality of patients undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) and evaluate the performance of hospitals. METHODS: Data from 564 CABGs performed in six general hospitals were collected through medical record abstraction by registered nurses. Variables studied involved risk factors determined by severity measures. Risk modeling was performed through logistic regression and validated with cross-validation. The statistical performance of the developed model was evaluated using c-statistic, R2, and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. Hospital performance was assessed by severity-adjusted mortalities. RESULTS: The developed model included age, sex, BUN, EKG rhythm, Congestive Heart Failure at admission, acute mental change within 24 hours, and previous angina pectoris history. The c-statistic and R2 were 0.791 and 0.101, respectively. Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic was 10.3(p value=0.2415). One hospital had a significantly higher mortality rate than the average mortality rate, while others were not significantly different. CONCLUSION: Comparing the quality of service by severity adjusted mortality rates, there were significant differences in hospital performance. The severity adjusted mortality rate of CABG surgery may be an indicator for evaluating hospital performance in Korea.
Summary
Change of Medical Utilization Claims in Self-employees before and after the Economic Crisis in Korea.
Sin Jae Lee, Ok Ryun Moon, Won Ki Jhang, Soon Ae Choi, Sang Yi Lee, Nam Soon Kim, Baek Geun Jeong
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):28-34.
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OBJECTIVES
To investigate the changing pattern of medical utilization claims following the economic crisis in Korea. METHODS: The original data consisted of the claims of the 'Medical insurance program of self-employees' between 1997 and 1998. The data was selected by medical treatment day ranging between 1 January and 30 June. Medical utilizations were calculated each year by the frequency of claims, visit days for outpatients, length of stay for inpatients, total days of medication, and the sum of expenses. RESULTS: The length of stay as an inpatient in 1998 was decreased 4.7 percent in comparison to 1997. However, inpatient expenses in 1998 increased 10.8 percent as compared to 1997. Inpatient hospital claims in 1998 increased 6.2 percent over 1997, although general hospital inpatient claims in 1998 decreased 3.3 percent in comparison to 1997. The outpatient claim frequency decreased 7.3 in 1998 percent as compared to 1997. Outpatient visit days of in 1998 were decreased 8.5 percent in comparison to that recorded in 1997. Outpatient claim frequencies of 'gu region' in 1998 decreased 10.5 percent comparison to that in 1997, but 'city and gun region' decreased less than 'gu region'. CONCLUSIONS: Medical utilization in 1998 deceased in relation to 1997. Medical utilization by outpatients decreased more than that of inpatients. Medical utilization by 'gu regio n' decreased more than the other regions.
Summary
Transient Effects on the Risk of Occupational Injuries as an Acute Events: a Case-crossover Study.
Seon A Jeong, Jong Tae Lee, Jong Uk Won, Jaehoon Roh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):35-40.
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OBJECTIVES
To elucidate the transient effects on the risk of occupational injuries as acute events and establish an alternative proposal. METHODS: The study population comprised a total of 302 workers randomly selected from applications for occupational injury compensation reported to the Inchon local labor office from January 1, 1999 to December 31. A case-crossover design, where each case serves its own control, was applied to this study. Through a telephone interview, workers provided useful data concerning five job related stressful events such as company transfer, work load change, overtime work, exchange duty, and work-part transfer. They were asked whether there were stressful events within a week of the occurrence of injury and the degree of stress. Exposure status from one year prior was used as control information. In the end, the data provided by 158 of selected persons was used for the analysis based on the quality of the data provided by the participants. A conditional logistic regression was used to discover the transient effects on the risk of occupational injuries as acute events. RESULTS: The effect of a company transfer and work load change on occupational injury was statistically significant on the risk of occupational injuries as an acute event(RR=5.5, 95% CI=2.501-12.428; RR=3.1, 95% CI=1.963-5.017, respectively). Other stressful events were found to elevate the risk factor for the occurrence of occupational injury, but were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that transient stressful events elevated the risk factor for the occurrence of occupational injury.
Summary
Effects of Particulate Matters on A549 and RAW 264.7 Cells.
Young Mann Baak, Ji Hong Kim, Kyoung Ah Kim, Chul Un Ro, Hyung Jung Kim, Young Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):41-46.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To investigate the effects of particulate matter (PM), a marker of environmental pollution derived from combustion sources, on lung epithelial cells (A549) and macrophage (RAW 264.7). METHODS: The production of reactive radicals from lung cells, the lipid peroxidation of cell membrane, and the cytotoxicity of PM were measured using an in vitro model. The results were compared with a control group. RESULTS: The presence of PM significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species with time and in a dose dependent pattern and also increased the malondialdehyde concentration in lung epithelial cells. The cytotoxicity of PM was increased with increasing concentration of PM. CONCLUSIONS: It has been suggested that urban particulate matter causes an inflammatory reaction in lung tissue through the production of hydroxyl radicals, nitric oxides and numerous cytokines. The causal chemical determinant responsible for these biologic effects are not well understood, but the bioavailable metal in PM seems to determine the toxicity of inhaled PM.
Summary
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Falls in the Elderly Community.
Joon Pil Cho, Kyung Won Paek, Hyun Jong Song, Yoon Seok Jung, Hae Won Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):47-54.
  • 2,642 View
  • 47 Download
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OBJECTIVES
To analyze factors associated with elderly falls in a community dwelling, a comparatively important, but somewhat neglected, health matter. METHODS: Data came from personal interview surveys using a questionnaire of 552 people aged 65 or older living in a community. Socioeconomic, and health related characteristics were investigated as independent variables and experiences of falling in the previous year as the dependent variable. RESULTS: 118(21.4%) of the elderly subjects experienced a fall in the previous year. 24 subjects experienced more than two falls, accounting for 20.3% of the elderly fall victims studied. Factors affecting the falls were families living together, level of daily activity, heart disease, and aconuresis;, therefore an elderly person who lives alone, lives independently, has heart disease, or suffers urinary incontinence had a demonstrated increased chance of falling. CONCLUSION: Groups at risk for falling included elderly persons living alone, living independently, suffering heart disease, or experiencing urinary incontinence. When an elderly fall prevention program is developed and implemented, these results should be considered.
Summary
Comparative Analysis of Models for Measuring Consumer Satisfaction in Health Care Organization.
Sunhee Lee, Woo Huyn Cho, Kui Son Choi, Myungguen Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):55-60.
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OBJECTIVES
The SERVQUAL scale is based on gap theory, which suggests the difference between consumers' expectations and the quality of the medical service actually received. However, problems in the implementation of the SERVQUAL scale have been identified by several researchers. Some researchers have proposed a simple performance-based measure (SERVPERF) or an expectation-controlled performance-based measure(Non-Diff) as alternatives to the SERVQUAL scale. On the basis of the theoretical concerns discussed, we examined the capability of each of the three scales(SERVQUAL, Non-Diff, SERVPERF) to explain variations in consumer satisfaction. METHODS: Data was gathered from a self-administered questionnaire in a 430 bed hospital. Questionnaires evaluating medical services were distributed to 180 ambulatory patients. A total of 167 usable questionnaires were gathered. The questionnaire was composed of 10 expectation, performance and expectation-controlled performance items. In addition, overall satisfaction and purchase intention were measured. RESULTS: Compared with the SERVQUAL scale, the Non-Diff and SERVPERF scales better explained the observed variations in consumer satisfaction(SERVQUAL, R2=0.29; Non-Diff, R2=0.51; SERVPERF, R2=0.48) and purchase intention(SERVQUAL, R2=0.22; Non-Diff, R2=0.33; SERVPERF, R2=0.34). CONCLUSION: The major conclusion from our study is that the Non-Diff and SERVPERF scales are more efficient in assessing consumer satisfaction than the SERVQUAL scale. Therefore we suggest that consumer satisfaction be measured by the Non-Diff or SEVPERF scales.
Summary
Effect of Air Pollution on Emergency Room Visits for Asthma: a Time Series Analysis.
Young Su Ju, Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):61-72.
  • 2,223 View
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OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the hypothesis that increasing ambient levels of ozone or particulate matter are associated with increased emergency room visits for asthma and to quantify the strength of association, if any, between these. METHODS: Daily counts of emergency room visits for asthma, air quality, and weather data were collected from hospitals with over 200 beds and from monitoring stations in Seoul, Korea from 1994 through 1997. Daily counts of emergency room visits for asthma attack were analyzed using a general additive Poisson model, with adjustment for the effects of secular trend, seasonal variation, Sunday and holiday, temperature, and humidity, according to levels of ozone and particulate matter. RESULTS: The association between daily counts of emergency room visits for asthma attack and ozone levels was statistically significant in summer(from June to August), and the RR by unit increment of 100 ppb ozone was 1.30(95% CI = 1.11-1.52) without lag time. With restriction of the period from April to September in 1996, the RR was 1.37(95% CI = 1.06-1.76), and from June to August in 1995, the RR was 1.62(95% CI = 1.12-2.35). In the data for children(5?14 yr), the RR was 2.57(95% CI = 1.31-5.05) with restriction of the period from April to September in 1997. There was no significant association between TSP levels and asthma attacks, but a slight association was seen between PM10 levels and asthma attacks in a very restricted period. CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant association between ambient levels of ozone and daily counts of emergency room visits for asthma attack. Therefore, we must make efforts to effectively minimize air pollution, in order to protect public health.
Summary
Predictors of Successful Control for Selfishness, Dishonesty, Resentment, and Fear (SDRF) among Korean Alcoholics Anonymous Members.
Ein Soon Shin, Han Joong Kim, Yoon Chul Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):73-79.
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OBJECTIVES
To examine predictors of successful control for selfishness, dishonesty, resentment, and fear(SDRF) among Korean Alcoholics Anonymous(AA) members. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study. The study group included members from 18 different AA groups which were enrolled in the Korean AA Association in 1998. 207 out of 300 self administered questionnaires were completed by AA members (response rate 69.0%). Alcoholics who attended AA meetings were divided into two groups according to their self reported level of success in SDRF control; one with very successful experience after AA participation and the other with little or no success. In this study, the general characteristics, AA activities, relapse experience, and degree of effort exerted for SDRF control were compared between two groups. In order to study predictors of successful SDRF control after joining AA, 4 logistic regression analyses were performed for each of the 4 SDRF indices. RESULTS: The proportion of those reporting a very successful experience was 19.9% for selfishness, 20.7% for dishonesty, 25.5% for resentment, and 24.7% for fear. After control for the effect of general characteristics, the practice of the 12th step(taking alcoholics to an AA meeting after conveying messages) was found to be a significant predictor for the successful control of both selfishness(OR=6.04) and the dishonesty(OR=7.77). And individuals making every effort for SDRF control showed more successful control of selfishness(OR=4.10), dishonesty(OR=4.01), and fear(OR=34.89). CONCLUSIONS: Bivariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated that especially practicing the 12th step and making every effort themselves, may help alcoholics to control SDRF successfully after joining AA.
Summary
A Study on the Correlation between Categorization of the Individual Exposure Levels to Agent Orange and Serum Dioxin Levels Among the Korean Vietnam Veterans.
Joung Soon Kim, Han K Kang, Hyun Sul Lim, Hae Kwan Cheong, Min Kyung Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):80-88.
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OBJECTIVES
In an epidemiologic study on the health impact of Agent Orange exposure, the valid estimation of exposure level is the most important step. Based on recent studies, we examined the correlation between exposure levels categorized by personal exposure estimates and serum 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD, Dioxin), exploring the possibility of utilizing the exposure level as a surrogate for the estimate of exposure to agent orange. METHODS: During the study period (Jan 1996-Feb 1996), blood specimens of 745 subjects taken randomly among 1,329 persons and kept frozen, were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-TCDD and six other dioxin congeners. The serum dioxin and congeners were measured in 1998 by CDC ,adjusted for serum lipids. We categorized the total exposure scores into five groups based on Agent Orange exposure data collected by interview and military records. Pearson and Spearman's correlation coefficients & multiple regression analysis were used to identify the relationship of the exposure level categorized with serum concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, and six other dioxin congeners. RESULTS: Dioxin and the other congeners, except 1,2,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, showed significant correlations to exposure categories (p<0.005); 2,3,7,8-TCDD and OCDD showed positive correlations, whereas the other congeners did negative. The values of 2,3,7,8-TCDD differed according to exposure category and proportionally increased from the low exposure group to the high, a dose-response relationship, even after other possible confounding variables were adjusted for. In multiple regression analysis, age(beta=0.033), dioxin(beta=0.433), 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD(beta=0.998), 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD(beta=0.773), 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD(beta=0.255), 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD(beta=3.468), 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD(beta=0.109) were found to be significantly related to the total exposure score(p<0.005). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the use of such categorizations as a surrogate measure of agent orange exposure in identifying exposure degrees in a health impact study is valid.
Summary
An Epidemiologic Investigation on Mumps Outbreak in Cheju-do, 1998.
Myounghee Kim, Moran Ki, Youngjoo Hur, Boyoul Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(1):89-99.
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OBJECTIVES
To describe the characteristics of a mumps epidemic in Cheju-do, 1998 and to identify the risk factors associated with mumps infection. METHODS: To estimate attack rate, previously collected data from the Nationally Notifiable Communicable Disease Reporting System and School Health Reporting System, temporarily administered by Division of Education, as well as additional surveillance data were used. In order to identify the clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with mumps, we conducted a questionnaire survey in 17 schools (9 elementary, 4 middle, and 4 high schools) among a population that included healthy students. RESULTS: From March 3 to August 31, 2,195 cases of mumps were identified, and patients under 20 years of age accounted for 2,162 cases (attack rate 13.2, 95% CI 12.6-13.7/1,000). The attack rate for the population under 20 years of age was the highest in Nam county (44.7/1,000), and in the 7-12 years old sub-group(>20.0/1,000). There was no sexual difference. 80.9% and 59.7% of patients presented periauricular and submandibular swelling respectively. Aseptic meningitis was a complication in 2.9% of cases, orchitis in 1.3%, epididymitis in 0.9% and oophoritis in 0.6% respectively. The overall MMR vaccination rate was 59.1% and it decreased in accordance with increasing age. In students aged 10 years old or below, household contact and MMR vaccination status was significantly associated with infection, and only among students with household contact, the risk of one dose MMR(OR=10.22, 95% CI 2.92-35.78) and non-vaccination (OR=11.62, 95% CI 1.96-68.96) was significantly greater when compared with that of two dose vaccination. Among students aged 11 years old or above, household contact history was significantly associated and MMR vaccination status was not associated. CONCLUSIONS: Low vaccination rate and vaccine failure were thought to predispose the population for this large outbreak. To prevent sustained mumps outbreaks, a second MMR vaccination should be encouraged and catch up vaccinations should be given to elderly children who remain susceptible.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health