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Volume 32(4); December 1999
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Meta-Analysis
Meta Analysis of Symptom Improvement through Eradication of Helicobacter pylori in Patients with Non-ulcer Dyspepsia.
Sung Jun Kim, Sang Hwa Ohm, Ki Won Jeong, Won Chang Shin, Jong Rae Cho, Hye Suk Shon, Ki Taek Pae
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):427-434.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to determine, by reviewing the literature, whether treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia affects symptoms. METHODS: We retrieved the literature using MEDLINE search, with nonulcer dyspepsia and Hericobacter pylori and treatment as key words, which were reported from 1984 to 1998, and manual literature search. The criteria for inclusion was as follows; 1) The paper should have confirmed nonulcer dyspepsia as case definition. 2) The paper should have performed a randomized, blind trial. 3) Confirmation of Helicobacter pylori eradication should be done 4 weeks after treatment. 4) studies with no information on measurement of symptoms after treatment were not accepted. The percentage of patients with symptom improvement after eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection was calculated. Cumulative odds ratio was compared by fixed effect model and random effect model as sensitivity and funnel plot was used to evaluate publication bias. RESULTS: The overall effect size of symptom improvement was calculated by cumulative odds ratio. Cumulative odds ratio of random effect model was 4.16(95% CI: 1.55-11.19). Before integrating each effect sizes into common effect size, the homogeneity test was conducted and random effect model was selected(Cochran's Q=41.08 (d.f=10, p<0.001)). The heterogeneity across studies was evaluated and the different methodological aspects of studies led to differences between study results. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia results more symptom improvement. In studies that shows the opposite results there are methodological aspects explaining the heterogeneity.
Summary
Original Articles
Twelve-year Incidence of Hypertension and Its Risk Factors in a Lean Population: the Kangwha Study.
Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh, Kang Hee Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Chang Soo Kim, Chung Mo Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):435-442.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to examine the twelve-year incidence of hypertension, and to find risk factors for the incidence in adult population in Kangwha County, Korea. METHODS: In 1986, 413 males(mean age 37 years) and 434 females(mean age 33 years) were examined in the Kangwha Study. Among 764 non-hypertensive participants, 164 males and 214 females were reexamined in 1998. Blood pressure(BP) was measured with standard mercury sphygmomanometers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the relative risk of risk factors on the incidence of hypertension. RESULTS: During the 12-year period, 68 of 164 males and 53 of 214 females developed hypertension. In a multiple logistic model adjusted for age and pulse rate, baseline BP, baseline body mass index(BMI) and BMI change during the follow-up period were significantly related to the incidence of hypertension. Adjusted relative risk(RR)s of baseline high-normal BP were 3.90(95% CI: 1.81-7.84) in males, and 12.72(95% CI: 3.70-30.73) in females. Compared with lower baseline BMI group, adjusted RRs of middle baseline BMI group were 2.66(95% CI: 1.19-5.70) in males, and 2.33(95% CI: 0.95-5.55) in females. Adjusted RRs of upper baseline BMI group were 3.52(95% CI: 1.53-7.67)in males and 3.63(95% CI: 1.50-8.43) in females. Increase of BMI was positively related to the incidence in males(adjusted RR=2.71, 95% CI: 1.00-6.71) and females(adjusted RR=3.05, 95% CI: 1.29-6.88). CONCLUSIONS: The twelve-year incidence of hypertension was 41.5% in males, and 25.8% in females. Baseline BP, baseline BMI, and BMI change were strongly related to the incidence of hypertension.
Summary
Association of Anthropometric Indices with Prevalence of Hypertension in Korean Adults.
Bong Keun Choe, Lack Seong Son, Tai Young Yoon, Joong Myung Choi, Soon Young Park, Dong Joon Lew
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):443-451.
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OBJECTIVE
To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence and the four commonest anthropometric measurements for obesity(body mass index(BMI), wasit-hip ratio(WHR), waist circumference(WC) and body fat in Korean adults. METHODS: We studied the cross-sectional association of the anthropometric indices and blood pressure in 1,197 individuals( who were participants in the population-based cohort study). Hypertension was defined as blood pressure 160/95 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medication. Informations on life-style factors were obtained from personal interview. RESULTS: There were close associations between BMI, WHR and WC with blood pressure in both men and women. After age adjustment, BMI and WC showed significantly positive correlation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels in both men and women. Odds ratio(ORs) of being hypertensive were estimated comparing the highest to the lowest quantile, adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol intake levels, education attainment. The simultaneously adjusted ORs of being hypertensive, comparing the highest vs the lowest categories, was for BMI 2.0(95% confidence interval(CI)=0.9-3.2) in men and 3.2 (95% CI=1.7-6.1) in women, for WC 2.1(95% CI=1.0-4.4) in men and 3.1(95% CI=1.6-5.9) in women, for fat(%) 4.2(95% CI=1.9-9.5) in men and 2.1(95% CI=1.2-3.6) in women. CONCLUSION: In addition to measures of overall obesity(BMI) as well as central obesity(WHR, WC), body fat(%) was independently associated with prevalence of hypertension. Among obesity indices, body fat was the most predictor variable in hypertensive state in male and BMI was in female.
Summary
A Cohort Study on Risk Factors for Chronic Liver Disease: Analytic Strategies Excluding Potentially Incident Subjects.
Moo Song Lee, Dae Sung Kim, Dong Hyun Kim, Jong Myun Bae, Myung Hee Shin, Yoon Ok Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):452-458.
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OBJECTIVES
The authors conducted the study to evaluate bias when potentially diseased subjects were included in cohort members while analyzing risk factors of chronic liver diseases. METHODS: Total of 14,529 subjects were followed up for the incidence of liver diseases from January 1993 to June 1997. We have used databases of insurance company with medical records, cancer registry, and death certificate data to identify 102 incident cases. The cohort members were classified into potentially diseased group(n=2,217) when they were HBsAg positive, serum GPT levels higher than 40 units, or had or has liver diseases in baseline surveys. Cox' model were used for potentially diseased group, other members, and total subjects, respectively. RESULTS: The risk factors profiles were similar for total and potentially diseased subjects: HBsAg positivity, history of acute liver disease, and recent quittance of smoking or drinking increased the risk, while intake of pork and coffee decreased it. For the potentially diseased, obesity showed marginally significant protective effect. Analysis of subjects excluding the potentially diseased showed distinct profiles: obesity increased the risk, while quitting smoking or drinking had no association. For these intake of raw liver or processed fish or soybean paste stew increased risk; HBsAg positivity, higher levels of liver enzymes and history of acute liver diseases increased the risk. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggested the potential bias in risk ratio estimates when potentially diseased subjects were included in cohort study on chronic liver diseases, especially for lifestyles possibly modified after disease onset. The analytic strategy excluding potentially diseased subjects was considered appropriate for identifying risk factors for chronic liver diseases.
Summary
Nitric Oxide-Mediated Cytotoxicity of Manganese in Basal Ganglia Neuronal Cells.
Dong Hoon Shin, Yong Wook Jung, Jae Hoon Bae, Dae Kyu Song, Won Kyun Park, Bok Hyun Ko, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):459-466.
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OBJECTIVES
We have investigated to manifest whether manganese-induced neurotoxicity is mediated by nitric oxide(NO) in the rat primary neuronal cultures and assess the effect of Mn2+ on the N-methyl-D aspartate(NMDA) receptors. METHODS: We have used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)assay to examine the effect of cytotoxicity of MnCl2 in neuronal cells . NO production was determined by measuring nirites, a stable oxidation product of NO. The neurons in the rat that contains neuronal nitric oxide synthase(nNOS) were examined by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The effects of Mn2+ on the NMDA receptors was assesed by the whole cell voltage clamp technique. RESULTS: We showed that the NO release and NOS expression were increased with 500uM MnCl2 treatment and an NOS inhibitors, NG-nitro-L-arginine , prevented neurotoxicity elicited by manganese. In the electrophysiological study, Mn2+ does not block or activate the NMDA receptors and not pass through the NMDA receptors in a neurons of basal ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that manganese neurotoxicity in basal ganglia was partially mediated by nitric oxide in the cell culture model.
Summary
In Vitro Magnetometric Evaluation for Toxicity to Alverolar Macrophage of Arsenic Compounds.
Young Chae Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):467-472.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxicity of gallium arsenide(GaAs), indium phosphide(InP) and indium arsenide(InAs) all of which are used as the semiconductor eletments in semiconductor industry. METHODS: Cytotoxicity in the alveolar macrophage was evaluated by the measurement of in vitro magnetometry, LDH release assay and histological examination. RESULTS: The relaxation curves by the in vitro magnetometry showed that GaAs has the cytotoxicity for the alveolar macrophage which is more significant in the higher dosages, while this cytotoxicity is not appeared in the groups added with InP or InAs or PBS. In the decay constant for two minutes after magnetization, GaAs-added groups showed a significant decrease with increasing doses, but both InP- and InAs-added groups did not show any significance. The LDH release assay showed a dose-dependent increasing tendency in the GaAs-, InP- and InAs-added groups. In terms of cellular morphological changes, GaAs-added groups revealed such severe cellular damages as prominent destructions in cell membranes and their morphological changes of nucleus, while InP- and InAs-added groups remained intact in intracellular structures, except for cytoplasmic degenerations. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that GaAs is more influential to cytotoxicity of alveolar macrophages than InP and InAs.
Summary
Health Effects from Odor Pollution in Sihwa Industrial Complex.
Soo Hun Cho, Seong Woo Choi, Sun Mean Kim, Young Su Ju, Jae Yong Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):473-481.
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OBJECTIVES
In recent days, the problem of odor pollution in community near Sihwa Industrial complex, Kynuggi Province is becoming of significant public concern. We have investigated the health effects of the Sihwa residents from odor pollution comparing with other less polluted areas. METHODS: The Ansan and Kuri Cities were selected as control areas. The parents of the elementary and middle school students in these three areas were surveyed with structured questionnaire twice, Nov 1997 and June 1998 each. As a exposure index, the ambient air concentrations of five major air pollutants(particulates, O3, SO2, NO2, CO) and subjective odor perception were used. We have focused health outcomes such as the prevalence of nonspecific irritant symptoms, respiratory disease among family members and the score of quality of life(QOL). RESULTS: Although the mean concentrations of major air pollutants except particulates were similar or lower in Sihwa than other areas, the odor perception rate and the monthly odor perception days were significantly higher. It suggested that odor producing chemical compounds are the major source of environmental pollution problem. There were higher prevalence rates of nonspecific irritant symptoms and respiratory disease among family members in Sihwa than other control areas. The QOL score was also lower in Sihwa. The odor perception proved to be a most important factor in reporting adverse health effects and lowering the QOL score. CONCLUSION: The residents living near Sihwa industrial complex were suffering from more adverse health symptoms and poorer QOL status than control areas. And it may be due to environmental odor pollution from industrial complex. Therefore, further research will be needed for monitoring of the responsible chemicals emitted from industries.
Summary
Cancer Incidence in Kangwha County(1986 - 1992).
Soh Yoon Kim, Heechoul Ohrr, Hyung Gon Kang, Suk Il Kim, Sang Wook Yi
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):482-490.
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OBJECTIVES
This paper presents the information on the incidence of cancer from the population-based cancer resistry in Kangwha County. Material and METHODS: This investigation is based on Kangwha cancer registry. The data included cases of cancer diagnosed from 1986 through 1992. The diagnosis of cancer was confirmed by a team of physicians and nurses with the medical records kept in the clinics and hospitals based on the diagnostic criteria recommended by WHO. Home visitings were also made to cancer patients confirmed in every 6 months for the follow up and for the collection of relevant information directly from the patients. RESULTS: A total of 992 cancer cases were registered during 1986 - 1992. The age-adjusted cancer incidence rate of all site is 201.7 in men and 110.7 in women. The most common cancer is the stomach cancer in both sexes. The age-adjusted incidence rate of the stomach cancer is 65.9 in men and 25.0 in women per 100,000 population. The lung cancer(33.8) and liver cancer(27.7) are next common cancers in men. The cervical cancer(21.8) and lung cancer(8.4) are next in women. CONCLUSION: The most common cancer is the stomach cancer in both sexes. The annual age-adjusted incidence rate of the stomach cancer is 65.9 in men and 25.0 in women per 100,000 population.
Summary
Meta-analysis on the Blood Lipids as Risk Factors of Coronary Heart Diseases in Koreans.
So Yeon Ryu, Ki Soon Kim, Yang ok Kim, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):491-493.
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OBJECTIVES
To determine the relations between seven blood lipids such as total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride(TG), HDL-cholesterol(HDL), LDL-cholesterol(LDL), apolipoprotein A-1(Apo A1), apolipoprotein B(Apo B) and lipoprotein(a)(Lp(A)) and the coronary heart diseases(CHD), the quantitative techniques of meta-analysis were applied to studies of blood lipids and CHD in Koreans. METHODS: We searched the Korean and the English literature published from 1980 to August, 1997 by manual search and bibliography review. Information on sample size, study design, participant characteristics(gender, age) and blood lipid levels were abstracted by reviewers using inclusion criteria. Estimates of the effect sizes of blood lipid levels on CHD in Koreans and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effect models. RESULTS: We identified 16 case-control studies to apply meta-analysis. The overall effect sizes for CHD were 20.3(95% CI : 14.23-26.22) in TC, 24.8(95% CI : 12.6-36.86) in TG, 15.16(95% CI : 3.99 - 26.33) in LDL, -3.48(95% CI : -5.79 - -1.17) in HDL, -9.78(95% CI : -16.98 - -2.58) in Apo-a1, 17.88(95% CI : 9.72 - 26.05) in Apo B and 18.95(95% CI : 17.88 - 20.02) in Lp(a). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that seven blood lipids were significantly associated with CHD in Koreans. Well-designed and prospective studies between blood lipids and CHD in Koreans should be performed.
Summary
Different Effect of Blood Lead on Zinc Protoporphyrin by Gender in Korean Lead Workers.
Hyun Cheol Ahn, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):499-504.
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OBJECTIVES
To evaluate whether a relation between blood lead and zinc proto porphyrin(ZPP) was modified by gender in Korean lead workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,304 male and 101 female subjects in 1997. The relation between blood lead and ZPP were evaluated with linear, exponential, and quadratic models. Then, the different effect of gender on the relation was examined by adding the interaction terms in the each model. RESULTS: Mean+/-SD of blood lead and ZPP level was different between male(27.7+/-10 microgram /dl and 51.3+/-23.4 microgram/dl) and female subjects(22.5+/-9.2 microgram/dl and 78.7+/-38.6 microgram/dl). After adjusting for possible confounders, the effect modification by gender was significant in linear(beta=1.119, p<0.001), exponential(beta=Exp(0.008), p<0.05), and quadratic model(beta= 1.388, p<0.001). In separate analysis, a quadratic relation between blood lead and ZPP was shown in male lead workers(beta=0.036, p<0.001), but an exponential relation in female lead workers(n=Exp(0.029), p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the increasing rate of ZPP in female were always higher than in male lead workers, suggesting that females were more susceptible to occupational lead exposure than males.
Summary
Effects of Job Strains on Absenteeism from Work.
Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Hong Ryul Choi, Hyong Sik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):505-512.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between job strains and absenteeism from work. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, and the study subjects consisted of 1,166 workers who were employed in the small-sized industries. A self administered questionnaire was used to measure the general characteristics, job characteristics(job demand, job control), and social support(coworker support, supervisor support) at work. The Job Content Questionnaire(JCQ) was used to assess job demand(2 items) and decision lattitude(10 items). Social support at work (10 items) was measured using JCQ. Sick absence was collected using self-report and were rechecked by the attendance record of their company. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between job strain and sick absence were estimated. The modifying effect of social support was evaluated by stratification. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between job strain and sick absence. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, the variables related to sick absence were age, marital status, occupation, job demand. Four distinctly different kinds of level of job strain were generated by the combination of job demand and job control: low strain group, high strain group, active group, and passive group. The crude odds ratio of high job strain was 1.78(95% CI: 1.26-2.53), and those of active group and passive group were 1.33(95% CI: 1.07-1.66) and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.88-1.47), respectively. The odds ratio of high job strain after adjusting for age and occupation were still significant. The odds ratio of high job strain in low social support was 5.96(95% CI: 2.45-14.51), but that in high social support was 0.73(95% CI: 0.26-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Job strain was associated with increased risk of absenteeism from work, and social support at work modified the association between job strain and sick absence.
Summary
A Nested Case-Control Study on the High Normal Blood Pressure as a Risk Factor of Hypertension in Korean Middle-aged Men.
Jong Myon Bae, Yoon Ok Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):513-525.
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OBJECTIVES
'High-normal blood pressure' is a factor influencing decision to initiate targeted intensive intervention strategy in westernized populations. JNC-VI offered the vigorous lifestyle modification for persons with 'high-normal blood pressure', who could be early detected. As a hypertension seems to be the result of multiple genetic factors operating in concert with associated environmental factors, it will be necessary to identify the high-normal blood pressure as a risk factor of hypertension for applying primary prevention strategy in Korean people. METHODS: Although cohort study design might be adequate to recruit incidence cases, to keep time sequence of events, and to prevent information bias, nested case-control study was chosen for avoiding measurement errors because hypertension is a benign disease. Source population was the 'Seoul Cohort' participants and follow-up was done by using Korea Medical Insurance Corporation's database on the utilization of health services from 1Jan93 to 30Jun97. Incidence cases were ascertained through the chart review, telephone contacts, and direct blood pressure measurements. Controls included the pairing of 4 individuals to each case on the basis of age. RESULTS: As 75 % of 247 incident cases had high-normal blood pressure, the crude odds ratio for hypertension was 2.04 (95% CI 1.47-2.83). Another statistically significant risk factors of hypertension were body mass index, dietary fiber, alcohol consumption, weekly activity and history of quitting smoking. The multivariate odds ratio of high-normal blood pressure adjusted for all risk factors was 1.84 (95 % CI 1.31-2.56). Among high-normal blood pressure group, body mass index, weekly ethanol amounts, weekly physical activity, and dietary fiber except history of quitting smoking were still risk factors of hypertension. CONCLUSION: 'High-normal blood pressure' is a risk factor for hypertension in Korean middle-aged men, which represents that the vigorous lifestyle modification for persons with 'high-normal blood pressure' is need.
Summary
Incidence and Risk Factors for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Middle-aged Men: Seoul Cohort DM Follow-up Study.
Dong Hyun Kim, Yoon Ok Ahn, Sung Woo Park, Moon Gi Choi, Dae Sung Kim, Moo Song Lee, Myung Hee Shin, Jong Myon Bae
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):526-537.
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OBJECTIVES
It is known that the prevalence of diabetes mellitus(DM) appears to be rapidly increasing in recent times in Korea, presumably due to a westernized diet and change of life style followed by rapid economic growth. Based on the Seoul male cohort which was constructed in 1993, this study was conducted to estimate the annual incidence rates of DM through 4 years' follow up and to determine which factors are associated with DM risk in Korean middle-aged men. METHODS: Among 14,533 men recruited at baseline, 559 were excluded because they reported a history of diabetes or were found to be diabetes at 1992 routine health examination. During 4 years follow-up, 237 incident DM cases were ascertained through chart reviews and telephone contacts for those who have ever visited hospitals or clinics under suspicion of DM during 1993-1996 and the biennial routine health examinations in 1994 and 1996. RESULTS: In this study the annual incidence of DM among the study population was estimated to be 0.5 per 100. This study showed that fasting glucose level at initial baseline examination was a powerful predictor of risk for diabetes several years later(fasting blood glucose of > or = 110 mg/dl compared with < or = 80 mg/dl, Hazard Ratio[HR]=15.6, 95% Confidence interval[CI]=9.1-26.6) after considering potential covariates such as age, family history, smoking and alcohol history, body mass index, physical activity, total energy intake, and total fiber intake. Adjusted hazard ratios of family history of diabetes was 1.95(95% CI=1.38-2.75); of obesity as measured by BMI(BMI > or = 25.3 compared with < or = 21.3) was 7.19(95% CI=3.75-13.8); of weight change during middle life(>10kg compared with 5) was 1.77(95% CI=1.16-2.69); of smoking(current vs none) was 1.93(95% CI=1.06-3.51); and fat intake(upper tertile compared with lower tertile) was 1.88(95% CI=1.01-3.49), while fiber intake was associated with the reduced risk(HR=0.36, 95% CI=0.19-0.67). CONCLUSION: The factors identified in this study indicate that the greatest reduction in risk of diabetes might be achieved through population-based efforts that promote fiber intake and reduce obesity, smoking, and fat intake.
Summary
Validation of the International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition Based Injury Severity Score(ICISS).
Yoon Kim, Ku Young Jung, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):538-545.
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OBJECTIVE
To compare the predictive power of International Classification of Diseases 10th Edition(ICD-10) based International Classification of Diseases based Injury Severity Score(ICISS) with Trauma and Injury Severity Score(TRISS) and International Classification of Diseases 9th Edition Clinical Modification(ICD-9CM) based ICISS in the injury severity measure. METHODS: ICD-10 version of Survival Risk Ratios(SRRs) was derived from 47,750 trauma patients from 35 Emergency Centers for 1 year. The predictive power of TRISS, the ICD-9CM based ICISS and ICD-10 based ICISS were compared in a group of 367 severely injured patients admitted to two university hospitals. The predictive power was compared by using the measures of discrimination(disparity, sensitivity, specificity, misclassification rates, and ROC curve analysis) and calibration(Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics), all calculated by logistic regression procedure. RESULTS: ICD-10 based ICISS showed a lower performance than TRISS and ICD-9CM based ICISS. When age and Revised Trauma Score(RTS) were incorporated into the survival probability model, however, ICD-10 based ICISS full model showed a similar predictive power compared with TRISS and ICD-9CM based ICISS full model. ICD-10 based ICISS had some disadvantages in predicting outcomes among patients with intracranial injuries. However, such weakness was largely compensated by incorporating age and RTS in the model. CONCLUSIONS: The ICISS methodology can be extended to ICD-10 horizon as a standard injury severity measure in the place of TRISS, especially when age and RTS were incorporated in the model. In patients with intracranial injuries, the predictive power of ICD-10 based ICISS was relatively low because of differences in the classifying system between ICD-10 and ICD-9CM.
Summary
Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Korea: Prevalence, Pattern of Use, and Out-of-pocket Expenditures.
Sang Il Lee, Young Ho Khang, Moo Song Lee, Hee Jo Koo, Weechang Kang, Changgi D Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):546-555.
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OBJECTIVES
To determine the prevalence, pattern, and out-of-pocket expenditure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization in Korean adult population. METHODS: We conducted a representative telephone survey of 2,042 persons aged 18 or older. Data about any health problem, details of their use of medical doctors(MDs) offices/hospitals/ pharmacies services and CAM during the preceding 12 months were collected with structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The utilization rate of CAM among Korean adults was 29% in one year. A total of 231 kinds of CAM was identified from this survey. Annual out-of-pocket expenditure associated with CAM use in 1998 amounted to pound $1.88 billion and was comparable to 40.8% of out-of-pocket expenditure paid for MDs offices/ hospitals/pharmacies services. Among those(N=424) who paid for both MDs offices/hospitals/pharmacies services and CAM, 35.8% paid more for CAM. CAM gave more satisfaction than western medicine to those who had experience of both types of therapy. About half of CAM users were willing to recommend CAM to others. Disclosure rate to physician among CAM users was not high(40.6%). CONCLUSION: CAM became a popular source of health care in Korea. Korean spent a substantial amount of out-of-pocket money on CAM without any public control. Because CAM use is likely to be increased rapidly through lay referral system, health policy makers and health professionals should pay more attention to CAM for making appropriate utilization of CAM.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health