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Volume 28(4); December 1995
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Original Articles
Temporary Threshold Shift of Vibration Sensation by Dental Handpiece.
Seong Ah Kim, Jong Young Lee, Doohie Kim, Soon Woo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):765-772.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was performed to investigate the possibility of temporary threshold shift (TTS) of vibration sense could induced by exposure to high-frequency vibration or by work position taking by dentists in drilling or polishing. The vibratory perception thresholds (VPT) of 28 healthy men were measured on the index fingertip pulp of dominant hand at 250Hz. The vibrating tool used in test was a low-speed handpiece of 34,000 rpm. For the TTS test, the dominant hand was exposed to high-frequency vibration and to work position for five minutes, respectively. The VPTs before and after vibratory exposure were 23.5+/-3.5 dB, 30.8+/-4.2 dB, respectively and VPT after work position was 23.7+/-4.6 dB. The difference between before and after vibartory exposure was statistically significant (P<0.001). The correlation of height, weight and BMl with baseline VPTs was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference of VPTs by smoking. These results suggest that high-frequency vibration from dental handpieces might cause the impairment of vibration sensation.
Summary
A study of the response of teachers and students on the traffic noise.
Ceung Ho Kim, Kyung Jong Lee, Young Hahn Moon, Jaehoon Roh, Myung Cho Yoon
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):773-782.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to reveal how the road traffic noise influences on the response of teachers and students, which composed of conversation, studying, relation, and physical disturbances. The research method used in this study was self- administrated questionnaire. Samples of the survey were composed of 420 persons(l14 teachers and 306 students) who are exposed to traffic noise less than 65 dB(A) from two junior high schools and 410 persons(140 teachers and 270 students) from two noisy junior high schools which the road traffic noise above 65 dB(A). In the response of both of the teachers and students in noisy(above 65 dB) schools complaints of disturbances of conversation, studying, relaxation, and physical disturbances are much higher than that of less noisy schools' teachers and students(p<0.01 ). On the occasion of time and season, the subjects answered the traffic noise cause high troublesome and stresses in the afternoon(12:00-17:00) and summer respectively. It is necessary to provide governmental comprehensive and fundamental measures to improve the noisy school environments.
Summary
Relationship of Body Fat Percent with Serum Lipid Level and Blood Pressure in Adults.
Seock Whan Lee, Tae Yoon Hwang, Chang Yoon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):783-794.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to clarify the relationship of body fat percent with serum lipid level and blood pressure in adults. The study subjects were 472 men and l89 women who visited Multiphasic Health screening center of Yeungnam university Hospital in Taegu from May 20 to September 30, 1994. The relationship of serum lipid and blood pressure with BMl, Katsura index, atherogenic index, which calculated from the health screening data and body fat percent measured by impedance fat meter(model SIF-819) were analyzed. Three groups were classified as Group I(men: body fat percent > or= 20, women: body fat percent > or= 25, Group II (men: 15 < or = body fat percent <20, women: 20 < or = body fat percent<25, Group III(men: body fat percent <15. women: body fat percent<20) In this study, Group I accounted for 3.2%in men, 3.7%in women. Weight was significantly different among three groups in both sexes(p<0.01) and height was not significantly different among three groups. In men, serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein. atherogenic index were significantly different(p<0.01). In women, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein were significantly different(p<0.05 but there was no differences in triglyceride and high density lipoprotein among three groups. BMl and Katsura index were significantly different among three groups in both sexes(p<0.01). In men, body fat percent was positively correlated with weight, BMl, Katsura index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, atherogenic index and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein. In women, body fat percent was positively correlated with age, height, weight, BMl, Katsura index, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein and atherogenic index, and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein. But there was no significant correlation between body fat percent and blood pressure in women. In multiple regression analysis for total cholesterol, fat percent, age and BMl were significant independent variables in men(p<0.05, R2=0.1286), and body fat percent and age in women(p<0.05, R2=0.3399). In case of LDL/HDL ratio, only BMl was a significant independent variable in men(p<0.01, R2=0.0954), and body fat percent, age and BMl in women(p<0.05, R2=0.3164). In multiple regression analysis, age, low density lipoprotein and total cholesterol were significant independent variables on systolic blood pressure in men(p<0.05, R2=0.1297), age and total cholesterol in women(p<0.055, R2=0.1705). On diastolic blood pressure, only age was a significantly independent variable in men(p<0.01, R2=0.0972) and women(p<0.01, R2=0..1218). From the result of this study, it could concluded that body fat percent was significantly associated with other obesity indices and serum lipid, but had no significant association with blood pressure. To establish the relationship of body fat percent with blood pressure, further study which consider other variables that may have an effect on blood pressure should be performed.
Summary
Factors Relating to Quitting in the Small Industries in Incheon.
Yeon Soon Ahn, Jaehoon Roh, Kyoo Sang Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):795-807.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out from 1993 to 1994 in the small industries in Incheon. The objectives of this study was in order to estimate the quitting rate, to identify its relating factors and to propose effective quitting management policy in the small industries. The results were as follows; 1. The quitting rate of 266 study workers was 42.1%(l12 workers). 2. Age, working duration, position, marital status were significant difference between the quitting group and the non-quitting group. 10 the quitting group, mean age was young, working duration was short, general employees and unmarried workers were many compared with the non-quitting group. 3. In the industry characteristics, total assets, total sales, sales per person, establishment duration and occupational health and safety status were significant difference between the quitting group and the non-quitting group. In the quitting group, total assets, total sales and sales per person were little, establishment duration of company was short and occupational health and safety status were poor compared with the non-quitting group. 4. In the quitting group, worker's response to employer's disposal about health and safety was more passive and the relation to employer with employee was significantly poor compared with the non-quitting group. 5. Multiple logistic regression analysis of quitting against family income per person, working duration, relation to employer with employee, occupational health and safety status in industry, worker`s response to employer's disposal about health and safety and sales per person was done. Working duration, occupational health and safety status, worker`s response to empolyer's disposal about health and safety were significant eiplainatory variables for quitting. Above results showed that the quitting rate was high and it was significant difference between the quitting group and non -quitting group according to characteristics of workers and of industries. Especially, it suggested that working duration, occupational health and safety status and worker's response to employers disposal about health and safety were significant quitting factor. Therefore, it should be reflected in the quitting management and the policy of steady employment.
Summary
Trends of Study and Classification of Reference on Occupational Health Management in Korea after Liberation.
Eun Hee Ha, Hye Sook Park, Young Bok Kim, Hyun Jong Song
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):809-844.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purposes of this study are to define the scope of occupational health management and to classify occupational management by review of related journals from 1945 to 1994 in Korea. The steps of this study were as follows: (l)Search of secondary reference; (2) Collection and review of primary reference; (3) Survey; and (4) Analysis and discussion. The results were as follows; 1. Most of the respondents majored in occupational health(71.6%), and were working in university (68.3%), males and over the age 40. Seventy percent of the respondents agreed with the idea that classification of occupational health management is necessary, and 10% disagreed. 2. After integration of the idea of respondents, we reclassified the scope of occupational health management. It was defined 3parts, that is, occupational health system, occupational health service and others (such as assessment, epidemiology, cost-effectiveness analysis and so on). 3. The number of journals on occupational health management was 510. It was slightly increased from 1986 and abruptly increased after 1991. The kinds of journals related to occupational health management were The Korean Journal of occupational Medicine(18.2%), several kinds of Medical College Journal(17.0%), The Korean Journal occupational Health(15.l%), The Korean Journal of preventive Medicine(15.l%) and others(34.6%). As for the contents, the number of journals on occupational health management systems was 33(6.5%) and occupational health services 477(93.5%). Of the journals on occupational health management systems, the number of journals on the occupational health resource system was 15(45.5%), occupational finance system 8(24.2%), occupational health management system 6(l8.2%), occupational organization 3(9.1%) and occupational health delivery system l(3.0%). of the journals on occupational health services, the number of journals on disease management was 269(57.2%), health management 116(24.7%), working environmental management 85(18.1%). As for the subjects, the number of journals on general workers was l85(71.l%), followed by women worker, white color workers and so on. 4. Respondents made occupational health service(such as health management, working environmental management and health education) the first priority of occupational health management. Tied for the second are quality analysis(such as education, training and job contents of occupational health manager) and occupational health systems(such as the recommendation of systems of occupational and general disease and occupational health organization). 5. Thirty seven respondents suggested 48 ideas about the future research of occupational health management. The results were as follows: (l) study of occupational health service 40.5%; (2) Study of organization system 27.1%; (3) Study of occupational health system (e.g. information network) 8.3%; (4) Study of working condition 6.2%; and (5) Study of occupational health service analysis 4.2%.
Summary
Predictors of breast-feeding discontinuation in some followed-up hospital-delivered mothers.
Choong Won Lee, Moo Sik Lee, Jong Won Park, Mi Young Lee, Mi Joung Kang, Dong Hoon Shin, Se Youp Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):845-862.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We followed prospectively some hospital-delivered mothers to identify characteristics of those not initiated breast-feeding and predictors of breast-feeding discontinuation in monthly telephone interviews. Recruits were composed of 482 mothers who delivered their babies at one university hospital and one OB/GYN clinic in september to November 1991. Breast-feeding discontinuation was defined as switch to 100% formula lasting more than one week regardless of solid foods. Average age of the study subjects was 27.3 years of age(standard deviation 3.2). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated native place, occupation, method of delivery and method of feeding considered to be better for maternal health were statistically significant(p<0.1) between initiators and non-initiators of breast feeding. In starting cohort(N=242) of those initiated breast-feeding, that median of breast-feeding discontinuation were 5 months and 25th and 75th percentiles were 3 and 9 months respectively. I Cox's proportional hazard model, mothers with 10~13 years of education were 2.63 times (95% confidence interval, CI 1.50~4.60 ) more likely to discontinue than those with less than 9 years of education and those with more than 13 years of education were 3.55 time (95% CI 1.99~6.33). Compared with house wife, mothers with part-time jobs were 1.99 times (95% CI 0.86~4.57) more likely to discontinue and those with employed full-time were 1.55 times (95% CI 0.96~2.51). These results suggest that the predictors of initiation and discontinuation of breast-feeding may be different and different target populations should be selected to promote initiation and to prevent discontinuation of breast-feeding according to the period after birth.
Summary
In Vivo Preperation of Standard Reference Materials of Lead in Blood.
K C Chung, H C Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):863-874.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This report describes a preperation and characterization of canine blood lead(pb) standard reference material(SRM). Three adult beagle dogs(A, B, and C)were orally dosed with gelatin capsules containing pb(No3)2, equivalent to 10~80mg Pb/kg body weight. Blood was drawn 24 hours after the dose from the cephalic vein into lead free 500ml Pyrex beaker in which EDTA.K was contained as an anticoagulant. The amount of lead given to individual dog was varied arbitrarily. Three month later, 3 canine animals were orally dosed with lead secondarily to make mixed SRM(Dl) which was mixed different concentrations of lead in bloods with Al, B1, and C1 in vitro. The SRMs for A, B, C, Al, Bl, Cl, and Dl were distributed 2ml each into more than 300 lead free bottles, and were stored in refrigerator at 4 degrees C. The amount of lead in canine whole blood samples were determined using a Varian 30A atomic absorption spectrophotometer(AAS) with a model GTA-96 graphite tube atomizer with D2 background correction and a Hitachi Z-8100 AAS with Zeemaan background correction. The sensitivity and detection limits for lead determination of varian 30A were 0.46 microgram/L,0.34 microgram/L, and 0.56 microgram/L,0.14 microgram/L of Hitachi Z-100, respectively. Day to day variations in determination of blood lead concentration in a certain sample were 31.11+/-1.36 microgram/100ml by Varian 30A, and 33.08+/-0.82/100ml by Hitachi Z-8100, show ing the difference of 3% between the two results. At the blood lead concentrations of 56.31+/-1.98 microgram/100ml(A), 40.89+/-0.80 microgram/100ml(B), 59.01+/-1.38/100ml(C), the precisions of replicated measurements by AAS were 3.52%, 1.96%, and 2.34% respectively. Coefficient variation(CV) of SRMs(A, B, and C) within a standard sample were ranged from 0.92% to 7.50%, and those between 5 standard samples were l.21%, 2.64%, and 1.11%, respectively, showing inter-vial variation of 1 microgram/100ml. Lead levels in SRMs during one month storage were unchanged. The overall recoveries were 89.6-100.4%, 91.6-101.9%, 90.3-100.0% for A, B, and C SRMs, means were 56.46+/-2.69 microgram/100ml, 39.35+/-1.89 microgram/100ml, 57.40+/-2.31 microgram/100ml, and measurement ranges were 52.88-59.26 microgram/100ml, 37.47-41.68 microgram/100ml, 54.80-60.69 microgram/100ml, respectively. Those results were laid within confidence limits values. The lead concentrations in the mixed sample(Dl) stored over one month period were ranged from 32.76 microgram/100ml to 33.54/100ml, with CV ranging from l.2% to 2.7%. The results were similar to each of single samples(Al, Bl, and Cl) in respect of homogeneity and stability. Results of the mixed blood sample analysed after 1 month storage at 4 degrees C by four other laboratories(Ll, L2, L3, L4) were similar with those of our laboratory(L5 ;31.18+/-0.24 microgram/100ml, acceptable range by CDC; 25.18-37.18 microgram/100ml), showing the concentrations of 25.91+/-1.19 microgram/100ml(L1), 34.16+/-0.22 microgram/100ml(L2), 35.68+/-0.85 microgram/100ml(L3), 30.95+/-0.46 microgram/100ml(L4) in a each samples.
Summary
Study on the lead exposure of workers in a litharge making industry.
Sang Bok Lim, Jung Kyu Lim, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):875-884.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to investigate the level of lead exposure of workers in litharge making industry and to evaluate how lead exposure, personal habit such as smoking and drinking affect the prevalence of lead related symptoms and other study variables, we investigate 114 workers(24 office workers and 90 lead exposed workers) in a litharge making industry. Study variables chosen were blood lead(PbB), zinc protoporphyrin in whole blood(ZPP), Hemoglobin(Hb), hematocrit (Hct), SGOT and SGPT. symptom questionnaires which had 15 lead exposure related symptoms were provided to all workers and filled up by themselves and reconfirmed by physician. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The mean value of PbB, ZPP and SGOT in lead exposed group were higher than those of non-exposed group, and there were no differences of means in other study variables. 2. The smoking and drinking rate of study subjects were 65.8% and 71.0% as a whole. Smoking rates were lower in non-exposed group than exposed group, but drinking rate were not. 3. There were no differences of mean values of study variables between smoker and non-smoker in non-exposed and exposed group, but there was a difference of mean value of SGOT between drinker and non-drinker in lead exposed group. 4. while the symptom prevalence of lead exposed group were higher in neuromuscular category than non-exposed group, those of non-exposed group were higher or same with exposed group in gastrointestinal and general symptom category. 5. The symptom prevalence of smoker were higher than non-smoker regardless of exposure. 6. The symptom prevalence of drinker were only higher in gastrointestinal symptom category than non-drinker. 7. In multiple stepwise regression analysis of lead related symptoms as dependent variable and blood lead, smoking habit, drinking habit and work duration as independent variables, drinking habit contributed to the gastrointestinal symptom category, whereas blood lead and smoking contributed to the neuromuscular symptom category. For the total symptoms work duration and smoking habit contributed significantly.
Summary
A Study on Image Difference between University Hospitals and Corporation Hospitals.
Haejong Lee, Kinam Jin, Heejung Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):885-898.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The objectives of this research are 1) to access different images held by three consumer groups (patients in university hospital, patients in corporation hospital, persons who are not currently visiting hospitals) on two types of hospitals(university hospitals and corporation hospitals), and 2) to investigate the personal factors affecting images of two types of hospitals. The data for this analysis were collected by questionnaire survey. A total of 403 interviews were conducted. Of these cases, 43 percent are male and 57 percent are female. The major statistical methods used for the analysis are paired t-test, factor analysis and multiple regression. The three consumer groups show a consensus that corporation hospitals are better than university hospitals in some aspects, such as kindness, facilities, and equipments. However, these groups disagree in certain images on two types of hospitals, such as popularity, credibility, and readiness for emergency. The images on two types of hospitals are varied by the respondents' sociodemographic characteristics such as age, sex, and by the type of hospital they are currently visiting.
Summary
Comparison of Weighted Needle Pinprick Sensory Thresholds and Sensory Nerve Conduction Studies in Diabetic Patients.
Jae Kwan Yoo, Seong Ah Kim, Jong Young Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):899-910.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to determine the correlation between weighted needle pinprick sensory threshold(PPT) and sensory nerve conduction tests. The subjects were 53 healthy controls, 31 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathic symptoms(DM) and 36 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathic symptoms(DN). PPT was measured on the index and little fingers, bilaterally, as well as under the lateral malleolus, bilaterally. In electrophysiologic assessment the left and right median, ulnar and sural nerves were studied. Each mean PPTs was high in order of controls, DM and DN. Age adjusted PPT was significantly different among three groups on right little finger(p<0.05) and left malleolus(p<(0.05), but not significantly different between DN and DM on other sites. Each sensory nerve conduction velocity and amplitude was statistically significantly different among three groups(p<0.05). Correlations of PPT with sensory nerve conduction velocity and amplitude were statistically significant on each site and ranged from -0.4203(left malleolus) to -0.5649(right index finger) and from -0.3897(left index finger) to -0.6200(right index finger), respectively. When electrophysiological study is not feasible, measurement of PPT may be helpful for the assessment of peripheral sensory neurological function.
Summary
Performance Ranges of the Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery among Female Workers Occupationally Not Exposed to Neurotoxic Agents in Manufacturing Industries.
Kyung Jae Lee, Se Hoon Lee, Hyoung Ah Kim, Won Chul Lee, Seong Sil Chang, Chung Yill Park, Chee Kyung Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):911-923.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
With increased use of neurotoxic agents in manufacturing industries, hazardous effects of neurotoxic agents pose significant problems in protecting health of workers who work in these industries. A normal range of neurobehavioral performance is required 10 study hazardous effects of neurotoxic agents among workers. However, such reference for Korean population is not available yet. The objective of this study is to estimate a normal range of neurobehuvioral test performance of female workers in Korea. Data for neurobehavioral test performance developed by the world Health organization were obtained from 165 female workers. Study Subjects, 140 production workers and 25 clerks, who voluntarily participated in this study were not occupationally exposed to neurotoxic agents. The mean age and the mean education years of them were 32 years and 10.9 years, respectively. Santa Ana dexterity, pursuit aiming, digit symbol, simple reaction time, and Benton visual retention tests among the Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery(NCTB) were included in the evaluation. Subjects were interviewed by a trained interviewer for their detailed occupational history. Mean(+/-SD) performance of the participants were: 45.7+/-7.1 and 41.9+/-6.4 in the Santa Ana dexterity test of the preferred and non-preferred hands; 191.9+/-38.6 in correct dot of the pursuit aiming test; 57.7+/-16.0 in the digit symbol test; 274.8+/-44.6 msec in the mean simple reaction time and 70.5+/-69.0 msec in the mean standard deviation of it; and 7.8+/-1.7 in the Benton visual retention test. Most neurobehavioral performance scores were correlated significantly with age and educational level. Educational level was found to be a significant independent variable which was associated with all test scores. Age was significantly associated with scores of pursuit aiming and digit symbol tests.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health