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Volume 27(4); December 1994
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Original Articles
The Education of Preventive Medicine in Medical College in Provision for 21st Century.
K H Maeng
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):653-658.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
The Object of Education in Preventive Medicine Residentship.
Y O Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):659-664.
  • 1,675 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Twelve-year Study on Body Mass Index Changes of Obese Adolescents.
Yun Ju Kang, Il Suh, Chang Ho Hong, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):665-676.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to observe the longitudinal changes in BMI (Body Mass Index) of obese and non-obese 3rd. grade high school students in Seoul for 12 years and to see the trends of overt weight gain in obese adolescents. The results are as follows; 1. The average annual increasing rates of body mass indices in male students were 1.14kg/m2 in obese group and 0.59 in non-obese group. In female students, the average annual increasing rates of body mass indices were 0.93kg/m2 in obese group and 0.53kg/m2 in non-obese group. 2. The change rate of BMI for 12 years was significantly higher in obese group than non-obese group. 3. Puberty had less influence on the change rate of BMI in obese group compared to non-obese group. 4. In obese group, 71.8% of the variance in BMI at 17 can be predicted by BMI at 16 years in male students. In female students 44.4% can be predicted by BMI at age 16. 5. Among the 17-year-old obese students, 58.8% of the males and 56.2% of females were found not to have been obese at 7 years of age. 6. Among the 17-year-old obese students, those who were obese at 7 years of age were found to have higher BMI at later ages than those who were in the non-obese group. Obese adolescents were more likely to be obese in their childhood than non-obese group. There was no optimal age for the significant weight gain and the increasing rate of BMI was constantly higher in obese group than in non-obese group. Due to the fact that child obesity in early age contributes to obesity in adolescence, close observation is advised on the other hand, a large proportion of obese adolescents can be preventable by early interventions, because about 50% of obese adolescents were not obese in early elementary school age.
Summary
Serum Pepsinogen Levels as a Screening Test of Gastric Cancer and Adenoma in Korea.
Jang Rak Kim, Jin Hak Choi, Young Chai Kim, Ok Jae Lee, Kyu Il Cho, Han Woo Lee, Dae Yong Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):677-692.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To evaluate the validity of serum pepsinogen levels as a screening tool for gastric cancer and adenoma, immunoradiometric assays of serum pepsinogen I level (PG I), II level (PG II) and esphagogastroduodenal endoscopies were done in 757 health examlnees. Serum PG I level was higher in subjects with active duodenal ulcer (n=45, 75.2+/-34.3 microgram/l(mean+/-standard deviation), p<0.01) and gastroduodenal ulcers (n=8,756+/-19.8 microgram/l, p<0.05), and was lower in those with gastric adenoma (n=4,37.7+/-37.2 microgram/l, p<0.2) than those with normal, mild gastritis findings or ulcer scars (n=378, 56.6+/-24.9 microgram/l). Serum PG II level las higher in subjects with active duodenal ulcer (17.2+/-13.8 microgram/l, p<0.2), active gastro-duodenal ulcers (l8.3+/-7.4 microgram/l, p<0.2) and gastric carcinoma (n=3, 23.8+/-10.9 microgram/l, p<0.05) than those with normal, mild gastritis findings or ulcer scars (14.5+/-7.9 microgram/l). Serum PG I/PG 11 ratio was higher in subjects with active duodenal ulcer (5.1+/-1.6, p<0.05) and was lower in those with chronic gastritis (n=107, 4.1+/-1.7, p<0.05), gastric polyp (n=19, 3.9+/-1.4, p<0.2), gastric adenoma (n=4, 2.1+/-1.9, p<0.01) and gastric carcinoma (n=3, 2.7+/-1.2, p<0.1) than those with normal, mild gastritis findings or ulcer scars (4.5+/-1.7). Serum PG 11 level increased with age until 6th decade, whereas serum PG I/PG II ratio decreased with age in 378 subjects with normal, mild gastritis findings or ulcer scars. The screening criteria of serum PG I<70 microgram/l and PG I/PG II ratio<3.0 for detecting gastric cancer and adenorna gave a positive rate of 15.7%, sensitivity of 57.1% and specificity of 84.7%.
Summary
An Epidemiologic Investigation on an Outbreak of Anthrax Occurred in Kyongju by Eating Dead Cow's Meat.
Hyun Sul Lim, Hae Kwan Cheong, Joung Soon Kim, Heechoul Ohr, Dong Mo Rhie, Ho Hoon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):693-710.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This epidemiologic study was carried out to investigate cause and magnitude of food-poisoning like epidemic occurred among inhabitants of a village who have eaten dead cow's meat near Kyonng in February of 1994, around lunar new year. The investigation consisted of interview survey on all inhabitants of 77 households (l11 males and 119 females) and their visitors (40 males and 35 females), skin test with anthraxinum(Russian product), study on clinical characteristics for the patients hospitalized, and microbiologic examination on microbes isolated from cow's meat, patient and soils of dead cow's barn. The results obtained are as followings; 1. The proportion of the inhabitants who ingested the dead cow's meat was 36.4%. The incidence rate of the disease was 65.1% for males, 41.7% for females and the cases were distributed evenly for all age groups. The group ingested raw meat showed higher incidence than the group ingested cooked meat. There was no case among people who did not eat the meat. 2. The most clinical symptoms were significantly more frequent among cases than non-cases; sore throat (57%), nausea (51%), fever(47%), indigestion(43%), cough(41%), anorekia(41%), abdominal distention(41%), and abdominal pain(39%) were the major symptoms among cases. 3. Among 29 cases hospitalized out of total 61 cases, three patients, all old and feeble persons, deceased from the disease resulting in 4.9% fatality rate among total patient and 10.3% among hospitalized. Septicemia and meningitis were the causes of the deaths. 4. Three strains isolated from patients, and three strains from dead cow's meat and soil revealed typical microbiologic characteristics of Bacillus Anthracis, which also proved to be fatal to experimentally infected mice.
Summary
A Preliminary Epidemiologic Study on Korean Veterans Exposed to Herbicides in Vietnam War.
Joung Soon Kim, Hyun Sul Lee, Hong Bok Lee, Won Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Sung Soo Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):711-734.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Among chemical agents in herbicides, dioxin(2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-rho-dioxin: a chemical contaminant in herbicides sprayed during the vietnam war has been known to be the major agent causing toxic effects. Approximately 320,000 korean soldiers participated the vietnam war from 1964 to 1974. Although the potential hazards of the herbicides among Korean veterans exposed were implicated, the problem had not been a public issue until 1991 when Korean veterans were informed U. S. companies, the herbicides manufacturer payed fund, from which a trust fund for New Zealand and Australian Class members were established in 1985. After a series of appeals and demonstration by the korean veterans demanding medical care and compensation for their serious health damages, a bill of medical care and compensation for herbicides victims was promulgated in March 1993 and become effective from May 1993. This study was carried out with two major objectives: the first to understand the health problems caused from the herbicides by reviewing literatures published, and the second to examine the nature and extent of health impacts among Korean veterans exposed and to develop valid study methods for the major study by interviewing and reviewing records on a part of veterans (638 persons) registered and completed medical examination in Seoul Veterans Administration Hospital from June to october 1993. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The literature review of 107 papers revealed that: l) Dioxin is teratogenic, carcinogenic and affects almost all organs including nertous, endocrine, and reproductive systems in animal experiments. 2) The diseases showing evidence of causal association were Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's disease, lung cancer, lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloroacne and polyneuropathy when judged on the basis of consistency in study results and biological plausibility. 2. Interview and medical record review study on 638 veterans, though limited validity owing to lack of control group, crude estimates of dioxin exposure levels (no biomarkers measurable), and uncertainty of diagnosis, showed that: 1) Most of the study subject's were in their 40's of age and had been dispatched to vietnam during the period from 1965-1970 around one year. 2) Most frequently complained symptoms in medical examination were motor weakness(32%), sensory abnormalities in extremities(23%), skin diseases(22%), and pain in extremities(20%) whereas in interview they were more frequent in order of skin problem(44%), motor weakness (38%), sensory abnormalities and pain in extremities(l7% and 19% each). Kappa indices on the same category of complaints between two sources of information were variable and relatively low. 3) On medical examination, only a part of the 638 subjects had initial impression (442 pts) and final diagnosis (218 pts) suggesting decision making on diagnosis appeared to be difficult even with all available modern medical technologies; in initial impression disorders from peripheral and central neuropathy were predominant whereas in final diagnosis various types of skin disorder were most frequent. 4) when dose-response relationship between several conditions (from questionnaire) and arbitrary exposure scores were examined by CMH linear trend test, spontaneous abortion, sexual problems and health problem of offsprings showed statistically significant linear trends. However, pregnancy, accident and suicidal attempts did not show any relationship in this study capacity. 5) Among complaints, psychosis and neurosis(anxiety, phobia) in interview study, and memory disorder and psychosis in medical record study revealed linear trend. 6) Skin disorder was the only condition showing linear trend in initial impression and none in final diagnosis on medical examination. Even though objective to select out dioxin-related disease or group of diseases from this study was not achieved the research experiences provided firm basis for developing various methodological approaches. 3. From this preliminary study we concluded that a larger scale major epidemiologic study on health impacts of herbicides among Korean veterans exposed is not only indispensible but also well designed study with more valid exposure information and diagnosis may be able to establish causal relationship between certain groups of diseases and exposure to the herbicides among Korean veterans.
Summary
Evaluation of the Completeness and Validity of the Registration in the Implementation Study of Seoul Cancer Registry(ISSCR).
Myung Hee Shin, Yoon Ok Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):735-746.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The incidence data(1991.7.1~1992.6.30)from the Implementation study of seoul cancer Registry(lSSCR) were evaluated in terms of its completeness and validity. Two indicators for the completeness, Mortality/Incidence ratio(M/I ratio) and Age-specific Incidence Curve, showed fairy good registration throughout the age-sex specific strata, except the strata aged over 75 years old. The strata had very high M/I ratio(over 100%) and decreasing pattern of incidence, which suggested incomplete registration of cancer in this group. The active surveillance by a ISSCR staff improved the registration rate especially among elderlies. From the site specific M/I ratio, we found that liver cancer had oddly high M/I ratio. Since this high M/I ratio of liver cancer appears consistently in other reliable cancer registries, it is more like to be due to the highfatality of it rather than incomplete registration. The validity of the incidence data was assessed by three indicators; Histological verification (HV%), Primary Site Unknown (PSU%), and Age Unknown(Age UNK%). The average HV% were 77% for men and 85% for women, which were slightly lower than those of other reliable cancer registries This low HV% might be due to the considerable size of relative frequency of liver cancer in Korea, regarding the fact that the diagnosis of liver cancer is made mostly by non-biopsical radiologic methods (CT, Ultrasono, Angiography, MRl etc.). The level or PSU% and Age UNK% were in acceptable range, but not low enough, especially in terms of Age UNK%. Although ISSCR data had acceptable quality in general, it is needed to have more hospitals participate in the registry surveillance, to make registry data merged with death certificate data regularly, and educate the registration staffs to be more competent and dedicated.
Summary
A Baseline Study on the Choice of Optimal Screening Test Items among Workers with Abnormal Liver Function Tests on Workers' Periodic Health Examination.
Hae Kwan Cheong, Hyun Sul Lim, Gyu Hoi Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):747-762.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Workers', periodic health examination is the main tools used to manage the health problems of most workers in Korea. The most common health problem found in workers' periodic health examination is liver disorder. Liver disorder is also one of the most common health problems in general population and one of the leading causes of mortality in adult population. Regulation proposed by government(NO. 207, Ministry of Labor, 1992) defines the criteria for selection of workers with the liver dysfunction for further evaluative examination and the examination items used for diagnosis of the workers with liver dysfunction. This study was designed to evaluate the proficiency of each examination items presently defined in Regulation and propose the optimal examination items for detection of the liver disorders found by workers' periodic health examination. Study subjects are 186 workers with abnormal liver function tests in screening examination of workers' periodic health ex amination. Questionnaire survey including past history of liver disorder, drinking history, height and weight was done. Physical examination by physician, routine test items defined by Regulation (SGOT, SGPT, gamma- GTP, protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin, alkaline phoshatase, alpha-feto protein, HBsAg and anti-HBs), anti-HCV antibody test and liver ultrasonography were done. Results are as follows; 1. Result of evaluative examination utilizing only the items defined in Regulation was; There were 75 workers with suspected liver disorder(40.3%), 63 with no liver dysfunction(33.90%), 13 with suspected hepatitis B(7.0%), 10 workers with hepatitis B(5.4%) 10 workers with hepatitis B carrier state(5.4%), 10 with alcoholic liver disorders(5.4%), 5 with fatty liver(2.7%). When alternative diagnostic criteria applying additional examination items (drinking history, body mass index, anti-HCV antibody and ultrasonography) diagnosability of liver disorder was increased. When all four items were included, final results were; 23 workers (l7.8%) with hepatitis B(10 carriers, 13 suspects and 10 hepatitis B), 10(5.4%) with hepatitis C(4 carriers, 5 suspects and 1 hepatitis C), 13(7.0%) with alcoholic liver disorder, 45 (24.2%) with fatty liver (40 suspects, 5 fatty liver), 41 0%) with suspected liver disorders and 44(23.7%) with normal liver. 2. Of examination items defined by Regulation, only SGOT, SGPT, gamma-GTP and HBsAg were significantly different in abnormal rate and mean value, and all other laboratory findings did not showed significant difference between two groups. Drinking history, body mass index and anti-HCV antibody test which are the items that authors included in this study, also showed significant difference between two groups. Utilization of body mass index(BMI) for abnormal liver function group in diagnosis of fatty liver had high specificity(97.6%) but sensitivity (22.3%) was low. Therefore we suggest that SGOT, SGPT, gamma-GTP, HBsAg, alcohol drinking history, BMI and anti-Hcv Ab were useful for diagnosis of liver disorders among worker's periodic health examination.
Summary
Combined Effect of Vibration Intensity, Grip Temperature, Noise and Pushing Power on Grip Forces and Skin Temperatures of Fingers.
Kyungsim Koh, B Griefahn, M Fritz, P Brode
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):763-776.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Recent studies reveal that grip forces during the hand-arm vibration are most significant for the genesis of vibration-induced white finger syndrome. Therefore, exerted grip forces and skin temperatures or fingers were regarded as dependent variables in experiments and the effects of grip temperature, noise, pushing force, vibration and the combined effect of vibration and pushing force were studied. The objectives or the present study were, first, to varify and compare the changes of grip force affected by grip temperature, noise, pushing force, vibration and the combined effect of vibration and pushing force and, second, to observe the reaction of finger skin temperature affected by above factors. Forty-six healthy male students(25.07+/-2.85) participated in five systematically permuted trials, which endured 4 minutes each other. Experiments were executed in a special chamber with an air temperature of 21 C. In each experiments, the subjects were exposed to five experiment types: (l) grip force of 25 N only, (2) pushing force of 50 N, (3) acceleration of vibration 7.1m/sec2(z-direction), (4) pink noise or 95 dB(A) and (5) combination of pushing force 50 N and acceleration of vibration 7.1m/sec2. A repeated-measures analysis of variance(ANOVA) was performed on the grip force to test whether it was affected by noise, pushing force, vibration and pushing force. The present results show that vibration was significantly related to the increase of grip force, but the other factors, such as pushing force, noise and grip temperature had no significant influence on the increase of grip force and that the reaction of finger skin temperature were significantly affected by the skin temperature at start of experiment and grip temperature, not grip force and other experimental conditions. Therefore, we suggest that the management for decreasing the grip force is meaningful to prevent the occurrence of Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS).
Summary
Job Analyses of Health Care Managers in Group Health Care System.
Kyoo Sang Kim, Chong Yon Park, Jaehoon Roh
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):777-792.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
For developing the Group Health care system, health managers' job structure were analysed in the aspects of content, amount, and process. As a trial research, data were collected by a standardized job analysis table to 6 doctors, 40 nurses, and 11 industrial hygienists of Group Health Care System. Health care managers were performing complex and intellectual jobs such as health education for workers, managing health care, conference as well as more simple jobs like as filling diary. Especially, job was consisted of general job and health care management job in the proportion of 1:2.18. The major general job were data management related with the health statistics, and major health care management jobs were managing health care, health counselling, environmental management of working sites. Each specific jobs were required differentiated intellectual capacity, creativity, autonomy, psychic stress, and physical work; most respondents perceived that health care management jobs should require more inputs than general jobs Additionally job satisfaction and perceived need on specific job items were analysed. Results of this research, suggested through the field experiences in working sites, should be considered for improving the Group Health Care System.
Summary
The Study on Volume Relationships in Several Diseases.
Sunhee Lee, Yonggweon Jwa
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):793-806.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Investigating the existence of volume-outcome relationships for specific disease groups relates directly to the policy issue of whether, and how, specific inpatient services should be regionalized. This study examined whether medical costs and lengths of stay as outcomes were affected by changes in volume within hospitals. Based on the claims data obtained from National Federation of Medical Associations, each six disease categories from medical and surgical conditions were selected and 29,720 cases from 1,266 hospitals were analyzed. Main findings of the research can be summarized as follows: 1. Analyzing volume and cost per case relationship, tonsillectomy class 1, hernia procedure class 0, appendectomy and cesarean section class 0,1 in surgical conditions showed negative relationship significantly. In cases of medical conditions, costs per case in respiratory neoplasm class 2, COPD class 1, 2, digestive malignancy were also related to volume negatively. 2. Comparing volume with length of stay per case, lens procedure class 0, hernia procedure class 0, appendectomy class 0,1 cesarean section class 1 in surgical conditions showed negative relationships significantly. In medical conditions, volume of respiratory neoplasm class 2, COPD class 1,2, digestive malignancy class 0 were associated with negatively. 3. within same disease categories, changes in cost and length of stay per case to volume were more remarkable in severe cases. These results suggested a significant inverse relationship between disease cases and cost, length of stay per case as outcome variables.
Summary
Changes in Medical Practice Pattern before and after Covering Intraocular Lens in the Health Insurance.
No Ah Choi, Seung Hum Yu, Hey Young Min, Eun Wook Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):807-814.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study is to find out changes in medical practice at a university hospital before and after covering intraocular lens (IOL) from the health insurance benefit. The coverage started on March 1, 1993 and a total of 596 cases who were discharged from July 1 to December 31, 1992 and 580 cases who were discharged from July 1 to December 31, 1993 were analyzed. Since the standard reimbursement scheme was changed from March 1, 1993, the charges for 1992 were transformed into 1993 scheme. Major findings are as follows: Average length of stay was statistically significantly decreased from 8.24 days in 1992 to 6 86 days in 1993. Charges except IOL has been statistically significantly decreased from 501,000 won in 1992 to 444,000 won in 1993. Charges for drugs and injection have been reduced. However, charge per day for them was not much different. This is due to decrease in length of stay. Charges for laboratory tests and radiologic examination were quite the same. charges which are not covered by the insurance remained the same. The revenue of the hospital was reduced as expected. However, the hospital reduced the length of stay and increase the turnover rate in order to compensate the potential loss of revenue due to the difference of reimbursement between the out-of-pocket expense and the insurance coverage. By introducing the IOL benefit in the insurance, the insured pays less, hospital generates more revenue through shortening the hospital stay, and the total medical care cost becomes less nationwidely.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health