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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

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Volume 25(2); June 1992
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Original Articles
Estimation of Cancer Mortality among Koreans with Reference to Kyongsangnam-do Area.
Moo Song Lee, Tae Soo Park, Yoon Ok Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):115-126.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To estimate the cancer mortality rates among Koreans, a mortality survey was carried out in the province of Kyongsangnam-do. The study population are the beneficiaries of Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC), Kydngsangnam-do area, among which the 3,867 deaths occurred from January, 1989 to December, 1990, were reviewed to confirm the cancer deaths. These were based upon the death certificates and medical utilization records before dying which were available through the computerized databases on medical care utility of KMIC. The survey was conducted along three steps. At first, the death certificates were examined, as a second step medical utilization records were reviewed, and finally direct contacts to the family members of the deceased were done. As a result, 990 deaths were found due to cancer. Using them, age and sex specific cancer(all sites and several sites) mortality rates were estimated. Overall cancer mortality rate in the area was estimated 138.7 per 100,000 person-years in males, and 65.7 in females, respectively. And the orders of site-specific cancer mortality rates were the cancers of stomach, liver, lung, esophagus, and cancers of the hematopoietic system among males, In females, followed by gastric cancer, cancers of lung and liver are the 2nd and 3rd in rank, respectively and cancers of breast and uterine cervix are the 4th and the 5th in rank.
Summary
Association of Serum Copper and Zinc Levels with Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Myung Soo Hyun, Suk Kwon Suh, Nung Ki Yoon, Jong Young Lee, Seoung Hoon Lee, Mu Sik Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):127-140.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was done to identify the association between serum copper and zinc levels and the cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), and to evaluate its diagnostic value on liver diseases. Sixty-three healthy persons, 60 patients with cirrhosis and 33 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were rendomly selected and investigated for their general characteristics from October 1990 to August 1991. For analysis of the biochemical markers in liver function test and the serum copper and zinc levels, their fasting venous blood were sampled at 9:00 to 11:00 in the morning and centrifuged to separate the serum within one hour. All the samples were immediately analysed for biochemical markers and stored at -20 C in polypropylene tubes further copper and zinc analysis. Mean of serum copper levels was 91.97+/-4.76 microgram/dl in control, 106.21+/-2.73 microgram/dl in cirrhosis and 127.05+/-0.77 microgram/dl in HCC. The value of HCC was statistically significantly higher than that of the control and cirrhosis(p<0.05). Serum zinc levels were 110.82+/-7.24 microgram/dl in control, 68.10+/-5.43 microgram/dl in cirrhosis and 63.78+/-2.20 microgram/dl in HCC. The values of cirrhosis and HCC were statistically significantly different among three groups(p<0.05). Test total protein, albumin, ALP and total bilirubin of biochemical markers of liver function were statistically significantly different among three groups(p<0.05). Differences between cirrhosis and HCC for ALT and AST, and between the control and HCC for direct bilirubin were not statistically significant. Biochemical markers statistically significantly correlated with serum copper and zinc levels and Cu/Zn ratio(p<0.05), were variable in three groups. In multiple logistic regression, odds ratio of serum copper level and Cu/Zn ratio had no statistically significance on the cirrhosis and the HCC, but that of serum zinc was statistically significant as 0.951 and 0.952 (p<0.05). Serum copper and zinc levels and Cu/Zn ratio were not statistically significantly different between the cirrhosis and HCC. Albumin, ALP, zinc, total bilirubin and age among all variables were selected as main variables for three-group discriminant analysis. Percentage of "grouped" cases correctly classified by these five variables was 98.4 for control, 73.4 for cirrhosis, 75.7 for HCC and 84.0 for all subjects. This study suggests that zinc may has an independently inhibitory effect on the liver disease and serum zinc level is considered to play a role as diagnostic marker on the hepatic disorders and be more useful than serum copper level and Cu/Zn ratio in diagnosis of the liver diseases.
Summary
A Study on Speed and Changes of Physical Reaction due to Alcohol Intake.
Chul Hyun Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):141-147.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out not only to determine blood alcohol levels by time but also to examine the changes of working ability and reaction speed after ingestion of alcohol. Fifteen healthy students aged from 21 to 27 volunteered as subjects for this study. Liguor (So)oo) in concentration of 25% ethyl alcohol was administrated with the amount of lml of ethyl alcohol per kg of body weight to the subjects. The concentration of alcohol in the blood were determined by the "Alcohol Sensor 100" at 5, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after the administration of alcohol. Also, the choice reactiontest, the eye-hand coordination test and kraepelin test were examined at the same time after checking of alcohol concentration in the blood. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. 1. Mean blood alcohol level changes resulting from administration of lml of ethyl alcohol per kg of body weight were 0.16%(160+/-57mg/100ml, 0.10%(100+/-42mg/100m1), 0.08%(80+/-36mg/100ml) and 0.03% (30+/-24mg/100%1) at the 3, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after the administration respectively. The peak in the concentration of blood alcohol was 5 miniutes after the ingestion according to alcohol examination by the respiration. 2. As for choice reaction test, reaction times became prolonged as blood alcohol levels increased. The reaction time showed a significant changes when the blood alcohol concentration reached 0.08% or more after alcohol ingestion. 3. In eye and hand coordination test, the accuracy of the performance became decreased as blood alcohol levels increased. The difference of accuracy of the test was significantly shown when alcohol levels in the blood reached 0.08% or more after alcohol intake. 4. As for kraepelin test, the abilities of calculation also became lowered as blood alcohol levels increased. The abilities of calculation differed signigicantly from control group when aichool levels of 0.08% and more.
Summary
Relationship of Low Blood Cadmium and Zinc to Blood Pressure.
Duk Hee Lee, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):148-156.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relationship between blood cadmium, blood zinc and cadmium/zinc ratio and hypertension. Eighty-three hypertensive and seventy-seven normotensive study subjects matched for age and sex were selected from the workers who had no history of job-related cadmium exposure, in Ulsan city and it's vincinity, Korea. The blood cadmium in hypertensive group was 2.90 etag/mL, which was significantly higher than that of control group, 1.99 etag/mL(P<0.01). After stratifing for smoking and age variables, the relationship was still remained. The blood cadmium/zinc ratio in hypertensive group was 2.46, which was significantly higher than that of control group, 1.65(P<0.01). After stratifing for smoking and age variables, the relationship was still remained. There was no significant difference in blood zinc between hypertensive and control group. On multiple logistic regression analysis, the blood cadmium/zinc ratio is highly significant than blood cadmium. In conclusion, there is the possible relationship between blood cadmium level which has been known to be within normal limits and hypertension. But, further cohort studies to define the effect of cadmium on human hypertension are required.
Summary
A Study of Immunological Function in Workers Occupationally Exposed to Toluene.
Suk Kwon Suh, Jong Young Lee, Swoung Hoon Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):157-161.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To assess the immunological function of toluene exposed group, the proportions of T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, CD 4 cell, CD 8 cell, the ratio of CD4 to CD8 (CD4/CD8) in peripheral blood were measured on twenty-one toluene exposed workers and twelve healthy workers who did not have previous history of toluene exposure. In addition, to evaluate the present status of toluene exposure, urinary hippuric acid concenturations were measured in exposed group. The mean concenturation of urinary hippuric acid was 2.84 g/creatinine g in exposed group. The proportions of T lymphocyte, B lymphocyte, CD8 cell and CD4/CD8 of exposed group were slightly lower than non-exposed group except the proportion of CD4 cell which was similar in both groups. But these differences were not statistically different in both groups. The proportions of T lymphocyte and CD4 cell were significantly correlated with the length of duration in exposed group (P<0.05)
Summary
The Type of Anemia in Organic Solvent Workers by MCV and RDW.
S J Kim, S H Ohm, D H Kim, C U Lee, J H Chun, S C Kim, K T Pae
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):162-171.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The hematologic effect by low-concentration and repeated exposure to mixed organic solvent remains obscure. This study was performed to evaluate the hematologic effect by mixed organic solvent exposure, especially on the type of anemia by mean corpuscular volume(MCV) and red blood cell distribution width(RDW). The subject were 64 organic solvent workers(male 4, female 60) and 78 general workers(male 18, female 60) who showed anemic tendency in worker's health examination which carried out by Pusan Paik Hospital from January to December, 1988. The author gained some hematologic findings (hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, WBC, MCV, MCHC, platelet count, ESR, RDW) from auto-analysis method by coulter counter S plus IV, and compared the type of anemia by MCV and RDW. In the pilot study for estimating the prevalence of anemia according to the type of job, the prevalence rate was higher in organic solvent workers than in public officials as 10.9% and 4.1% respectively. There were statistical significance in the value of hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC, platelet count, ESR, RDW between the two study groups with more severe anemic tendency in organic solvent workers. The type of anemia in organic solvent workers was microcytic and anisocytic with the mean value of 68.28+/-8.3fL of MCV and 19.1+/-4.0% of RDW.
Summary
A Study on Serum Zinc Concentration in some Methamphetamine Abusers.
Hyung Il Moon, Hoo Rak Lee, Soo Il Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):172-179.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The author investigated the zinc concentrations in sera of 110 methamphetaimine abusers (male 87, female 23) and of 41 healthy official workers(male 29, female 12) using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. The serum zinc concentrations were analysed according to hepatitis C virus antibody(Anti HCV), hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) value in both groups. The analytical results were obtained as follows; 1. The mean zinc concentration of MAP abuser group(298.5+/-246.9 microgram/100 microliter) was 2.5 times higher than that of control group(118.8+/-25.4 microgram/100 microliter). 2. The distribution of zinc concentration in both groups were skewed pattern. 3. The zinc concentration were higher in Anti HCV-positive group and abnormal ALT value group than Anti HCV-negative group and normal ALT value group. But HBs-Ag positive group had lower zinc concentration than HBs-Ag negative group. 4. The number of anti HCV-positive subjects was increased and the zinc concentration were decreased in proportion to the abusing duration of MAP.
Summary
Effects of Multiple Exposures to Pesticides on Plasma Cholinesterase Activity and p-nitrophenol Excretion in Rats.
Bong Suk Cha, Jung Gyun Park, Jong Ku Park, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):180-188.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The effects of multiple exposures to pesticides on plasma cholinesterase(ChE) activities and urinary p-nitrophenol excretion were evaluated in rats. Rats were received single dose i.p. with LD50/100(mg/kg) of organophosphorous(OP), organophosphorous-organochroline(OP-OC), organophosphorous-carbamate(OP-CAB), organophosphorous-organoarsenate(OP-OA) pesticides for 4 consecutive days. In repeated administration of pesticides, plasma ChE activities were decreased, but urinary p-nitrophenol were increased after the first injection and then decreased gradually. The recovery rates of ChE activities and p-nitrophenol excretion at 48 hours after the fourth infection were delayed in comparison with the baseline value of 24 hours before the first injection. Statistical significances were found between OP and other groups except OP-OA group after the second injection in plasma ChE activities, but in urinary p-nitrophenol excretion there was statistical significance only between OP and OP-CAB.
Summary
The Occupational Health Problems and its Priority for Solving in the Inchon Area.
Kyung Jong Lee, Myung Hwa Cho, Chong Yan Park, Dong Chun Shin, Jae Hoon Roh, Young Hahn Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):189-198.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to compare the occupational health concerns and opinions among 4 groups: workers, employers and managers, government officials, and health & safety managers. It could help establishing occupational health plans efficiently and providing the way to solve health problems in workplaces in the Inchon area. The delphi technique which is used for deciding group opinion was adopted for this study. Questionnaires regarding health problems and their priorities in the workplaces were sent to four groups three times. All items were measured by five degree ordinal scales. The four groups agreed with questionnaire items, improvement of working environment, occupational health concerns of the employers, the health concerns of workers, and measurement and analysis of working environment, as the upper five priorities for solving the occupational health problems. Besides with the first five priorities, health examinations, health education, and occupational diseases were suggested as important health problems in workplace.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health