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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

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Volume 23(4); December 1990
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Original Articles
Effects of Cadmium on Superoxide Radical, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and ATPase Activity in Liver, Kidney and Testicle of Rats in Vtm and in Vivo.
Sung Moo Kim, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):371-390.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Production of free radicals of superoxide anion in tissues by cadmium, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase to protect tissue damages caused by the free radicals and ATPase that plays an important role in energy metabolism at cellular level were investigated. Experiments in viro were conducted with liver, kidney and testicle tissue homogenates of rats adding 0.05~0.50 mM cadmium chloride, and in vivo experiments administering single dose of 5mg of cadmium/kg of body weight in 0.1% cadmium chloride solution intraperitoneally 48 hours prior to evisceration. Production of superoxide radicals in liver and testicle increased with addition of cadmium in vitro, but not in kidney. In vivo experiments, however superoxide radicals slightly increased in liver and kidney but not in testicle. Superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD), catalase and ATPase (total, (Mg++)- & (Na+)- (K+)-) activity decreased in the presence of cadmium in dose dependent manner. Reduction of these enzyme activities varied not only with dosage of cadmium but also with type of tissue and between in vitro and in vivo experiment.
Summary
A Study on the Level of Air Pollution and Noise in Pusan Area.
G L Cho, D H Moon, J Lee, H R Sin, Y W Kim, H J Park, K T Pae
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):391-403.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to assess the degree of atomospheric pollution and noise and to contribute the health improvement of residents in Pusan, the author measured the levels of CO, SO2, NO2, TSP, HCHO and noise in 8 areas(industrial, residential and park areas) from January to March in 1990. The results were as follows: 1. Sasang industrial area was significantly higher (2.85 +/- 0.84ppm) in the average concentration of CO than other areas. However, there no areas to affect the human body in terms of CO concentration. 2. In general, industrial area was significantly higher (0.134 +/- 0.084ppm) in the average concentration of SO2, than other areas, and it was the lowest (0.009 +/- 0.005ppm) in the Namchon-dong area. 3. Industrial (0.033 +/- 0.009ppm) and residential area (0.029 +/- 0.004ppm) were significantly higher in the average concentration of NO2 than Park area (0.009 +/-0.001ppm). However, there were no areas to affect the human body in terms of NO2 concentration. 4. Sasang industrial area was the highest (580.4 +/- 415.26 microgram/m3) at the average concentration of TSP and Hae-Un Dae area was the lowest (97.22 +/- 37.86 microgram/m3). But TSP concentration showed the level to affect the human body in most areas. 5. Industrial area was significantly higher (2.25 +/-1.15ppb) in the average concentration of HCHO than residential (1.13 +/- 0.25ppb) and park area (1.33 +/- 0.20ppb). 6. Industrial area was significantly higher (77.28 +/- 6.92dB(A)) in the level of noise than residential (65.77 +/- 3.76dB(A)) and park area (64.65 +/- 5.25dB(A)). In comparison with regional Standard Noise Level, however, the average noise level of residential and park area was higher than that of the Standard. In general, the level of pollution of industrial complex areas was relatively higher than those of residential and park areas. Among the industrial areas, sasang area was worst in most items. Both SO2, and TSP showed the level to affect the human body in most of studied areas. It is necessary to install a new Air Quality Standard for HCHO to screen our environmental pollution.
Summary
A Study on the Nutritional Knowledge, Nutritional Attitude, Eating Practice and Food Intake of Womans University Students.
Eun Hee Ha, Sun Hee Kim, Ji Yong Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):404-415.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to analyze the relations among nutritional knowledge, nutritional attitude eating practice and total nutritional diagnosis and also to find the influencing factors of them. The survey was done during the period from April 1990 to June 1990 and the target population were Ewha Woman's University students (freshmen and senior) of whom 1,354 peoples were surveyed. The summarized results are as follows ; 1. For the learning environment, the percentage of completion on nutritional knowledge course was 28.6% and among them the department of foods and nutrition had the highest score(100.0%) and the next was dept. of medicine(53.4%). 2. To find the relation which the nutritional knowledge, nutritional attitude, eating practice and the total nutritional diagnosis influence on one another, the multiple correlation analysis was done. The attitude the practice were highly correlated with total nutritional diagnosis, but the correlation between nutritional knowledge and total nutritional diagnosis was not significant. The correlation between the practice and nutritional knowledge which were positively and significantly correlated with attitude respectively was positive but not significant. 3. The difference which were analyzed by department, grade and completion on knowledge course on the nutritional knowledge, attitude, eating practice were significant (p<0.01) by ANOVA. 4. The significant variables on nutritional diagnosis are the eating practice points, the grade, the knowledge course, the breakfast and the attitude (r2=10.3%) by multiple regression analysis. This study has the limitation that it did not consider the environmental factors of dietary life such as dietary culture, family environment, cultural habit. Therefore important points of these dietary studies are to extend to the practical nutritional education and dietary improvement for the national health not restricted to the local area or local population.
Summary
Medical Technology of North Korea: with Special Reference to the Content Analysis of Medical Textbooks.
Seok Goo Lee, Hyeong Ryeol Yoon, Gi Hyo Lee, Ok Ryun Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):416-427.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Unfortunately, we have poor knowledge of medical technology in North Korea. This study has thus attempted to identify the level and status of medical technology development through analyzing the contents of medical textbooks currently in use. This study has assumed that three factors are influencing the level and status of medical technology in a society ; the level of socio-economic development in general, the level of scientific technology revolution and health policy. Forty textbooks are collected for this purpose. The main findings are summarized as follows: 1) North Korea has strengths in that (1) its herb drugs, which are in a broad use, are cheaper, more safe and more attainable than bio-equivalent chemical ones, and (2) the development of its medical technology was carried out with emphasis on the practical and basic health needs. 2) North Korea has weaknesses in that (1) its medical diagnostic method largely depends on manual procedures, (2) the R & D investment in the development of chemical drugs, especially antibiotics, is very small, (3) the amount of medical equipments is in a absolute shortage, and (4) the medical technology is destitute of specialty, caused mainly by the overemphasis on Juche-Uihak or herb medicine. 3) Medical technology has two faces, positive and negative so that it cannot be successfully evaluated by one. It eventually acts a positive function for public health through developments of drug, equipment and new medical treatment method. But it is also true that it has negative effects such as the dehumanization of high cost medical technology, cost hike due to over-investments in expensive equipments, and the absence of wholistic care from overspecialization. 4) We have to consider economic status and the social needs of medical care in order to evaluate the medical technology of a society. It is also the ease with North Korea. A whole picture of the North Korean medical technology could be understood only if further comprehensive studies of medical technology are to be carried out for North Korea.
Summary
Social Factors in Recruiting Physicians and Dentists.
Seung Hum Yu, Chong Yon Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):428-435.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was designed to investigate whether recruitment of physicians and dentists has been restricted to a social network, such as familial or kinship groups. The data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire survey distributed to a sampling of general physicians, specialists (internists, surgeons, other specialists), and dentists in August 1990. The major findings are as follows: 1) Total number of respondents was 405; of these, general physicians made up 48.9%, internists 10.4%, surgeons 15.8%, other specialists 4.9%, and dentists 20.0%. 2) 38.5% of the respondents had physicians or dentists in their immediate family or were related in some way to one. Those from urban areas, whose parents were highly educated, and whose father was a professional had more physicians or dentists in their family or kinship. 3) Parents of 7.1% of the respondents, brothers or sisters of 10.1%, grand parents of 1.7%, uncles or aunts of 7.9%, and cousins of 22.0% were physicians or dentists. 4) The majority of physicians or dentists in familial or kinship network specialized in surgery, 32.3%, followed by internal medicine ; current worksites were noted as clinics by 30.8%, followed by general hospital, university hospital, and so on. The respondent's major discipline tended to follow familial or kinship example. Consequently, it was concluded that physicians and dentists have been recruited within restricted familial or kinship network.
Summary
Factors Affecting Selection of Delivery Facilities by Pregnant Women.
Choong Wan Lee, Seung Hum Yu, Hee Choul Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):436-450.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was designed to investigate the major factors affecting selection of delivery facilities by pregnant women. Five hundred women hospitalized at 23 Seoul-area delivery facilities, such as university hospitals, general hospitals, hospitals, and clinics were selected and given questionnaires from April 24 to May 7, 1990. A total of 350 questionnaires were collected and analysed for the study. The results are as follows; 1. In general, variables which significantly affected the choice of delivery facilities included the age of women, their educational level, the educational level of their husbands, monthly average incomes and residential areas. 2. In analyzing the obstetrical characteristics of the women, those variables significantly affecting the choice of delivery facilities were the gestational period, the facilities for prenatal care, the frequency of prenatal care, the type of delivery, the frequency of miscarriage, previous delivery experiences and the awareness on prenatal care. 3. In comparing the motivation factors for selecting the delivery facilities, all the factors except convenience and need for hospitalization differed significantly among delivery facilities. 4. The factor analysis was assessed for twenty possible factors motivating the choice of delivery facilities. Six factors including personal service, scale of the facility, reputation, urgency, convenience, and experience were noted explaining by 57.7%. 5. In the discriminant analysis used to clarify the major factors affecting the selection of delivery facilities, the 16 significant variables were regarded as independent variables, and the type of delivery facilities was considered a dependent variable. The stepwise method was applied to the analysis. Detected discriminant variables were the facilities for prenatal care, scale factor, personal service factor, urgency factor, convenience factor, reputation factor, experience factor, gestational period, types of delivery, frequency of miscarriage, age and income. These 12 discriminant variables were tested, with reference to discriminant prediction, on their importance in the choice of the delivery facility, by the discriminant functional formula. The test showed a hit-rate of 67.7%. The results suggest that general characteristics, obstetrical characteristics, and motivations for selecting the delivery facilities differ significantly according to the types of the delivery facilities. This study implies that all types of delivery facilities should attempt to acommodate characteristics and motivations of pregnant women. The facilities should be prepared to increase their patients satisfaction with required medical conditions by improving service and responding to the pregnant women's preferences.
Summary
Variation in resource utilization for inpatients among university teaching hospitals in city.
Hayoung Park, Euichul Shin, Kwongho Meng
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):451-464.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The variation in resource utilization for hospitalized patients who had a group of similar disease -- a Korean Diagnosis Related Group (KDRG) -- among the same type of hospitals was studied to assess the utilization variation due to the practice pattern of hospitals. Information about inpatients who were beneficiaries of the medical insurance for teachers and government officials discharged from 20 large university teaching hospitals in Seoul during 1986 and information about the hospitals were analyzed to achieve the study objective. A total of 20,223 non-outlier patients in 100 most frequent KDRGs were included in the analysis. Case charges after the review and length of stay (LOS) were used as measures of resource utilization during a hospitalization. A substantial variation among hospitals was found in most KDRGs: the ratio of the maximum and the minimum among the mean case charges of hospitals was greater than 2 in 83 KDRGs; the difference between the maximum and the minimum among the mean case charges of hospitals was greater than 100,000 Won in 94 KDRGs; the ratio of the maximum and the minimum among the mean LOS of hospitals was greater than 2 in 82 KDRGs; the difference between the maximum and the minimum among the mean LOS of hospitals was greater than 3 days in 94 KDRGs. The practice pattern of hospitals explained more than 20% of charge variation in 49 KDRGs and more than 20% of LOS variation in 43 KDRGs. The study results indicated need for a new health policy initiative for cost containment and quality assurance.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health