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Volume 10(1); October 1977
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Original Articles
Health Status in Urban Slum Area.
Im Won Chang, Kyu Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):3-15.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to find out health problems among inhabitants in slum areas in Kwanak-Ku, Seoul, a series of health survey was conducted upon 510 households by interview from March to December, 1976. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Employments of householders were unstable; Out of 508 householders, 164(32.3%) were unemployed and 184(36.2%) were daily or temporary employees. 2. Average number of households per house was 2.0 and average area of residential room per person was 4.0m2. 3. 476(93.3%) out of 510 households were supplied with tap water and rest of them made use of ground water as a source of drinking water. 4. Only 279(18.3%) out of 1527 live births were delivered at medical facilities, 496(32.7%) were at home attended by doctors or midwives and 358(25.1%) took prenatal care. The above findings were worse in urban slum area than in other urban area of relatively high economic level, but were better than in rural area of less medical facilities. 5. Initiation of treatment were delayed until their illnesses were advanced in most of the households, 472(92.5%) out 510. In the early stage of the illness, 131(25.6%) of the households sought physicians in their clinics or general hospitals and 250(40.9%) visited chemists, to buy drugs at first hand. Frequency of visits to physician increased to 52.8% as the disease aggravated in later stages. 6. Cost of medical expenditure per household amounted to 815 won, and was paid to, in the order of chemists, physicians, chinese herb stores, chinese herb doctors. 7. Concerning the health knowledge of the inhabitants, 273(53.9%) out of 506 respondents were aware of the infectivity of pulmonary tuberculosis, and 68(13.4%) of them checked regularly their chest findings by X-ray at least once every two years. 8. As for the family planning, although 448(87.3%) out of 510 respondents were in favor of it, 213(41.8%) of them were actually practicing contraception. 9. About 40.6% (125 respondents) of them obtained information and knowledge concerning contraception through personal contact with family planning workers. 10. Nutritional status of housewives was generally poor: 49(38.3%) out of 128 housewives were found to be anemic and average serum protein level was 7.5+/-0.82 g/dl.
Summary
Clinical Aspects among Platers.
Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):16-24.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This is a result of clinical examination for workers working with Chromic acid and Chromium compounds in the plating room of their companies. I selected two companies that the plating process and the kinds of plating were similar. One (SW Co.) was more or less improved the operating environment with the ventilation machine so on and another (SR Co.) did not it so. The former was examined at March 29th 1977, the latter was at June 28th 1976. But the respiratory communicable diseases, flue or common cold so on were not spreaded there at that time. The clinical aspects were compared between the group of SW, and SR. The swelling and hyperemic signs of nasal mucous membrane and the experience of nasal bleeding were about 50%, generally, in all the groups. The following problem was dizziness or vertigo. The nasal signs in the group SW (improved ventilation of the room air) were relatively weak, but in another, it was come what severe;-there was necrotic sign with thick nasal clast. They were only used of gauze mask when the vapors of various solvents were deeply full in the room. And there was very high rate of bronchial signs, sputum or coughing in the group of SW improved ventilation so called, than another one. I suppose that it means chronic inflammatory change of the bronchial mucous membrane with deeper signs, due to the individual protectors were carelessly or not used according to the improving of the operating environment. Theses nasal signs mentioned the above were not nearly in the other groups had not been done the Chromium plating. The status of RBC, Hb and Ht, of urine protein and urobilinogen were mostly in normal range. But the number of WBC was more or less showed with a positive cor-relation to the working duration.
Summary
An Investigation on Acute Drug Intoxication.
Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):25-33.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The epidemiological informations on 1828 cases of acute drug intoxication admmitted to the emergency rooms of 5 general hospitals, 4 in Seoul City and 1 in Incheon City from Jan. 1974 to Dec. 1974, were reviewed for statistical analysis. More detailed information on 796 cases from 3 hospitals were available in terms of the causative agent. The general findings obtained are as follows; 1. The sex ratio of the patient is 1.26 females to 1 male and this figure is almost consistent with the reports of previous authors. 49.7% of total cases were found in the age group of 20-29, which indicate the highest in percent distribution of age. 2. The incidence of acute drug intoxication was different by the season as the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. 3. As the cause of the intoxication, the attempted suicide occupied the single highest one with 91.7%. 4. The kind of causative agents varies with season as more economic poisons in the summer time and more drugs in the winter time.
Summary
Measuring Myun Health Worker's Performance by Time-Activity Approach.
Han Joong Kim, Moon Shik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):34-43.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study attempts to examine the performances of Myun Health Workers-the frontline workers in the Korean rural health care delivery system. The time-activity approach was mainly utilized as a measuring tool. This study was undertaken in September 1976 with 35 Myun Health Workers at the Kang Wha Country. The pretested time-activity approach sheets were filled out daily for one month by those Myun Health Workers themselves. Statistical means and variances of analysis were utilized for statistical method in comparing some activities and functions converged into time distribution. Findings: 1. The workers's average working hours derived in this study is 8 hours and 48 minutes per day, which takes half an hour longer than normal schedule. 2. They spend 56% working hour for direct services, in other words, the main function, 22% for supportive function, and 22% for other activities, the unrelated health services. 3. Considering the total working hours of main function, out-center activity is far more than in-center services with the ratio of 70% to 30% respectively, which proves, therefore, that the main activity of the workers is home visiting. 4. It takes 20 minutes purely for home visition and takes 14 minutes for transportation. 5. This research also indicates that such factors as characteristics of the health workers and myun influence in shaping the structures of the worker's function and activity: a. The workers whose working site is located is myun office spend 15% among total working hours in carring out official myun activities, which is incidentally unrelated to health services, while the health subcenter have no rooms for administrative jobs for myun office. b. The workers whose office is in health subcenter contribute much time in doing main function and those working in special project distribute more time in performing supportive function. c. The types of workers are another dominant factor to influence the components of worker's functions and activities. d. MPW II, whose function is reorganized by special project in 2 myuns shows different pattern of time distribution compared to the TB worker orFP worker in the ordinatry area. MPW II distributes their time evenly in performing MCH program, T.B. program, F.P. program and education activity, while the unipurpose workers engage in carring out only their dominant role. e. Another variables which involve th variation of the worker's activity can be illustrated with the variables like target population, size of myun and convenience for transportation, among which the latter two are remarkable factors in determining the time for out-center service.
Summary
Study on the Ideal Adapted Body Weight of Korean Adults Men with Reference to 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 Age-group.
Soon Young Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):44-51.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In oder to determine values for the body weight by height groups for Korean adults men who are fully grown up 4028(30-39 age-group:2318, 40-49 age-group: 1340, and 50-59 age-group:370) apparently healthy males subjects were randomly selected for the measurement of body weight by height groups. 1) The average body height and weight of Korean adult men were 168.3+/-4.6cm and 63.4+/-7.1kg in 30-39 age group, 167.7+/-4.7cm and 63.4+/-7.4kg in 40-49 age group, and 167.3+/-5.2cm and 63.3+/-8.0kg in 50-59 age group. 2) A correlation coefficient of r=+0.52(P<0.001) between body height and weight was found in 30-39 ate group of 2318 subject, r=+0.48(P<0.001) in 40-49 of 1340 and r=+0.53(P<0.001) in 50-59 of 370 with the aid of there coefficients of linear regression body weight and height were established for male as follow; for 30-39 age group, Y(weight in kg)=0.81X(height in cm)-73.02, 40-49 age group, Y(weight in kg)=0.74X(height in cm)-61.82, 50-59 age group, Y(weight in kg)=0.82X(height in cm)-73.83. 3) With the aid of above listed various equation standard values for body weight by height group, with over weighing and under weighing values were established. 4) Standard bodyweight of Korean was lower than those of American, Japanese and several other formulas for ideal body weight.
Summary
Evaluation of Health Status of College Students by Cornell Medical Index : In Conjunction with their Academic Grade.
Duck Won Joo, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):52-58.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
By evaluating the health status by Cornell Medical Index in conjunction with their academic grade, we attempted to find out whether any health condition may affect on their academic carrier. CMI health questionnaire was filled out by student and matched with one's own academic score of the previous year. Academic score was classified into 5 grades: excellent, very good, good, fair and poor. Difference in number of questions between sections was corrected by standard score method with means of 50 and standard deviation of 10. Differences in number of "yes" answers between sections and between groups of students in each grade were statistically tested by two-way variance analysis method. On the other hand, influence of neuropsychiatric factors (section M-R) on the academic carrier was analyzed by X2-test with Fukamachi's classification. The following were the results obtained in this study : 1) Number of "yes" answers in sections related to mood and feeling pattern(section M-R) were appeared to be influential to academic carrier in male students, but not in female students. 2) Generally speaking, in groups of higher academic grade, number of "yes" answers in each section was on an average 50 or less, and in groups of lower academic grade, the number was 50 or more depending on sections. 3)Number of "yes" answers between sections and between groups in each academic grade were significantly different both in male and female college students. 4) It was noteworthy that data obtained from CMI questionnaire might be variable subjective by examines with some factors at the time of administration.
Summary
Mineral Water Investigation on 10 Area in Seoul.
Hyung Suk Kim, Do Suh Koo, Yang Won Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):59-61.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We are calling the erupting ground water as drug water or mineral water in Korea and thinking those water and food making water. Authors tried to investigate the evidence of contamination by user on the 10 erupting ground water and gained following results: 1. All of the mineral waters on 10 area in Seoul were unfittable to drinking water standard. 2. In the view of the bacteriology 80% were contaminated by coliform group. 3. The highest value of the free carbon dioxide contents were 652.96 ppm at Sam Sun Mineral Water.
Summary
Exploring H.M.O. Feasibility in the Korean Health Care Delivery Settings.
Ok Ryun Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):62-70.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
An Epidemiological Study of Clonorchiasis Sinensis and Paragonimiasis Westermani Prevailed among the People of a Rural County.
Kijoon Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):71-79.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An epidemiological study of clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis westermani prevailed among the people of a rural county. The author studied the infection rates of clonorchiasis sinensis and paragonimiasis westermani in the ingabitants of Chungsong Gun, Kyungbuk Province, Korea. The examinations were carried out from March 1965 to November 1965 fowards 1.303 inhabitants whose ages were ranging from three months to over sixty years. All the inhabitants were tested intradermally with clonorchis and paragonimus antigen and then confirmed the eggs by M.G.L. technique and sputum test. The results of the examination were summarized as follows : 1. Out of the persons tested, 15.8% were infected with clonorchiasis sinensis. 2. Out of the persons tested with paragonimus antigen, 20.9% were infected with Paragonimus westermani. 3. The infection rate of paragonimiasis was higher than that of clonorchasis, 4. The infection rate of clonorchiasis in male was 20.8%(147 out of 706), while that in female was 7.1%(58 out of 597). The infection rate of paragonimiasis in male was 21.2%(150 out of 706), while that in female was 20.1%(120 out of 597). 5. The maximum infection rates of clonorchiasis and paragonimiasis were observed among the 45-49 age group(65.2% and 43.5%) respectively, however it was gradually decreased in the senile group. 6. By occupation, the maximum infection rate of clonorchisasis was observed in policemen(45.7%) and the maximum carrier of eggs(by sputum test) was observed in unemployed(paragonimiasis). 7. By education, the maximum infection rate of clonorchiasis was observed in the unemployed(28.9%) and the maximum carrier of eggs(by sputum test) was observed in the unemployed(paragnomiasis).
Summary
Voluntary Sterilization in Rural Korea.
Joong Ja Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):80-85.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The Korean family planning program began in 1962, originating both in a concern for fmaily well-being and in a concern over a high population growth rate which was cancelling advances in economic capacity, The new program was frank and vigorous in its advocacy of birth control. In recent years, voluntary sterilization as a family planning method has many attributes that cause users of contraceptives to regard it as an ideal method in Korea. A point of these view, author performed a follow-up study on effects of vasectomy and tubal ligation on sociomedical aspects of total 136 men sterilized and 96 women sterilized in SunSan Gun, Kyungpook Province as of Jul6y, 1977. The results were summarized as follows : An average age of vasectomized men was 37.0 and that of tubal ligated women, 34.9. The average duration of marital life was 13.9 years in men sterilized and 14.6 years in women sterilized. An average number of living children at the time of sterilization was 3.6 in men sterilized and that of living children, 3.7 in women sterilized. The most predominant reason for the sterilization was birth control in both (91% in men, 52% in women) and the most common motivating socilitator was family planning field workers (71% in men, 48% in women). About 51 percent of men sterilized and 50 percent of women sterilized were used contraceptive methods before the operation. Experience of induced abortion is reported in 65 percent of wives of men sterilized and 64 percent of women sterilized. In sexual feeling after sterilization, respondents showed increasing coital frequency 21 percent in men sterilized and 10 percent in women sterilized. Sixty-five percent in men sterilized and 64 percent in women sterilized would recommend the operation to others.
Summary
An Epidemiological study for on Outbreak of Typhoid Fever.
Chin Hyung Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):86-93.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An epidemiological study was conducted, from April 28 to June 3, 1975, to investigate source and course of infection of typhoid fever occurred in Munhyeon dong, Nam Gu, Busan. The obtained results were as follows : 1. The entity of unknown febrile disease was identified as Salmonella typhi, D group and it's symptoms were abdominal pain, diarrhea, hepatomegaly, nausea and vomiting, splenomegaly, rose spots, tenderness of ileocecal region etc., in that order. 2. The average duration from onset to recovery was 25.2 days and incidence rate was 39.5 per 1,000 population. 3. The source of infection was presumed a charity patient. 4. By the duration of report on the cases from onset, 10-19 days group was the highest. 5. The positive rate of initial stool culture was 38.9% and secondary was 5.6%. 6. Distribution of the cases by age and sex showed that 5-9 years old group was the highest as 30.5%, and male was higher than female. 7. Distribution of the cases by education level, under primary school as 66.6% was the highest. By the living standard, the highest was low income earner group as 77.8%. 8. Utilization rate of medical facilities was drug store (41.7%), herbal drug (8.3%), clinic (5.6%) in that order.
Summary
An Effect of Revolutions Per Minute (r.p.m.) in the Noise Characteristics.
Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):94-101.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Noise pollution, both in the environment and in the workplace, has been recognized as a major health hazard - one that can impair not only a person's hearing but also his physical and mental well-being. As industrialization progresses, the prevalence rate of occupational diseases is increasing, especially hearing loss, which has the highest prevalence rate among the occupational diseases. The major cause of noise is the construction of various large industries without any regulation of noise sources. Therefore, we must establish an enactment to control mechanical noise sources as soon as possible. For the purpose of controlling the noise source, we must have exact data about such things as the sound level, the frequency of the peak sound and the revolutions per minute (r.p.m.) of the machine (a measure of the power of its motor). This study was undertaken in order to define the noise characteristics, the power of the machine's motor, the change of the sound level and the peak sound as the r.p.m. increases, and the permissible exposure time, The sample size of this study was 74 machines at 11 plaints in 6 industries. The results are as follows : 1. The breakdown of the types of mechanical noise noted was : 63.6% continuous normal sound, 26.9% intermittent sound, 4.7% continuous repeating sound and 4.6% impulsive sound. 2. With respect to the type of industry, the overall sound level was the highest in the mechanical industry, with 103+/-2.8 dB(A), and lowest in the textile industry, with 89.2+/-1.43 dB(A). 3. With respect to the type of machine, the highest sound level was 124 dB(A) caused by Gauzing(II), in the mechanical industry, and the lowest was 76 dB(A) caused by Attachment (Jup Check) (I) in the timber industry. 4. The shortest permssible exposur time to gauzing(II) in the mechanical industry was less than 15 minutes. 5. Among 74 machines, 68.2% of the peak sound was situated in the high frequency range (52.7% at 2 KHz and 1.4% at 8 KHz). 41.8% of the peak sound was in the middle frequency range (4.1% at 250Hz, 14.8% at 500Hz and 22.9% at 1KHz). 6. If one machine had two motors or more, the peak sound was shifted to the low frequency range. 7. As the r.p.m. increased, the overall and peak sound levels increased without any change of the frequency of the peak sound. 8. whenever the machines had the same king and the same r.p.m., the overall and peak sounds were changed by the physicochemical characteristics of the raw materials and the management.
Summary
Studies on Sickness in Rural Residents.
Jae Kwon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):102-108.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A study on the sickness distribution and mode of treatment in rural area was conducted during the period from July '75 to Aug. '75 using 1,225 households, 7,918 population (4,017 male, 3,901 female) and 343 cases that found during the period of survey who had been lived in nammyon, Hwasoongun, Chonnam. The summarized results were as follows : 1. Average family number per household was 6.5 and prevalence rate was 43.3 (21.2 for male, 22.1 for female). 2. General sickness distribution by classification of disease according to W.H.O. was highest in disease of the nervous system and sense organs (21.3%), and important others were disease of the digestive system (16.9%) and disease of the respiratory system (14.8%). In male, distribution was in order of downward disease of digestive system, disease of nervous system and sense organs, disease of skin, cellular tissue, bones and organs of movement , and disease of respiratory system. In female, distribution was in order of downward disease of nervous system and sense organs, disease of respiratory system, disease of digestive system, and disease of skin, cellular tissue, bones and organs of movement. 3. Types of treatment in both sexes were showed that home and folkmedicine (41.1%), pharmacy (24.5%), admission to hospital or clinic (16.9%), out-patient clinic (10.8%) ad herbmedicine (6.7%) in downward order. Hospital and clinic utility rate was 27.8% (31.5 for male, 24.0 for female) and it was highest in 0-4 age groups and lowest in 40-49 year age groups. 4. Hospital and clinic utility rate was highest in neoplasms, and the other hands, disease of the nervous system and sense organs and disease of the digestive system were the highest groups in the all types of treatment other than hospital and clinic. 5. On the results of treatment not, exactly replied answer was the highest (41.7%) and only 16.0% said complete recovery, In completely recovered cases, hospital and clinic using group was predominant (58.2%) and in aggravated cases home and folkmedicine using group was highest.
Summary
A Study on the Usefulness of Birth Registration Data in Rural Korea.
Chung Ok Ji, Young Key Kim, Ki Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):109-117.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The onprovement of civil registration reguires continuous study rather than periodic efforts. More and better statistics, however, are urgently required to formulate development programs and planning, Data obtainable from the civil registration are usually marred by errors of omission which are difficult to correct. This study aimed at finding out the problems occurring when a set of crude birth registration data in a rural area is used. Data Sources of this study are : 1) For birth registration : government birth registration records obtained from myun office and other government offices. 2) for the actual number of births : birth and child records from the Kang Wha Community Health Project. The study area is Sunwon Myun and Naega Myun in Kang Wha Gun, Gyunggido. The reference period for the accumulated data is one full year : Jan. 1st 1975 - Dec. 31st 1975. Major findings are as follows : If the number of registered birth is compared with the actual number of births which occurred in the target area, the former os far greater than the latter. The general assumption usually is , that the actual number of exceeds the registered number of birth in Korea. The observation from this specific study in this specific target area, shows the opposite trend. The number of births which actually occurred during the year of 1975 in the study area namely 256. The difference comes mainly from the fact that many cases of births from other areas were registered in the target area. In other words birth is not registered where it occurred but where the permanent residence address is. Among 550 births registered in the target area 66% did not occur in the target area. Only one third of all registered births were registered within the legal period for birth registration which is 2 weeks. 34% of the registered births actually occurred in 1974, but were registered in 1975. In 55% of the cases a difference was observed between the actual data of birth and the registered data of birth. From the 256 births which occurred in the target area, only 153 births (59%) were registered at the myun office and the remaining 130 births (41%) were not resistered there in the year of study. 6% of the 550 cases listed as registered have no separate registration sheets. Nevertheless, they definitely have been registered in the birth list at the myun office. 3% of the 550 cases are not recorded in this list but have a separate registration sheet at the myun offices. In conclusion, birth registration data have many errors and problems. Their usefulness as a source for vital and other statistics should be reconsidered. A series of sound methological studies will be necessary to establish their actual usefulness. A continuous and permanent compulsory system of birth recording is needed.
Summary
A Study Delinquents of Korean Army Prisoners.
Jae Bok Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):118-124.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The features of crimes, their causes and backgrounds of 70 army delinquents, comparing with the controls, were studied from Nov. 1st, 1976 to Nov. 20, 1976. The results were as follows : 1. Most of the delinquents were from the a diverse circumstances i.e. low education level, poor economic status, farmers and had got married. 2. The majority of the delinquents occurred within the first 2 years of the enlistment. 3. The rate of the parent-loss of the criminals was definitely higher than that of the controls. (48.6%) 4. Escapers from military service were over the half of them, and violence, steal and embezzlement were followed, The motivations of the escape from the military service was mostly domestic problem and illness ; but a lot of the criminals also escaped for amusement and pleasure. 5. The prognosis of them was relatively favorable and constructive.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health