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Woo Hyun Cho 21 Articles
Association of Hospital Procedure Volume with Post-Transplant Survival for Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation.
Choon Seon Park, Hee Kyung Moon, Hye Young Kang, Yoo Hong Min, Woo Hyun Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):26-36.
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OBJECTIVE
To examine the association between hospital procedure volume and treatment outcomes following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). METHODS: Out of 1, 050 patients who received allo-BMTs between 1998 and 2000 in 21 Korean hospitals, 752 with first allo-BMT and complete data were included in this study. Study subjects were divided into the following three groups according to cumulative hospital experience of all-BMTs during the study period: low (< 30 cases), medium (30-49) and high (> or =50 cases) volume. Patient outcome was defined as early survival at day 100 and one-year survival. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between hospital experience and survival at day 100 and one year. RESULTS: When the low volume group was defined as the reference group, the adjusted relative risks (RR) of survival at day 100 for the high volume group were 2.46 (95% CI, 1.13-5.36) for all patients, 2.61 (1.04-6.57) for those with leukemia, and 2.20 (0.47-10.32) for those with aplastic anemia. For one-year survival, adjusted RR for the high volume group were 2.52 (1.40-4.51) for all patients, 1.99 (1.01-3.93) for leukemia, and 6.50 (1.57-26.80) for aplastic anemia. None of the RR for the medium volume group was statistically significant. Patient factors showing significant relationship with survival were donor-recipient relation, human leukocyte antigen matching status, time from diagnosis to transplant, and disease stage. CONCLUSION: The study results suggest that the cumulative experience of hospitals in providing allo-BMT is positively associated with patient survival.
Summary
Customer's Intention to Use Hospital-based Health Promotion Services.
Myung Il Hahm, Myung Geun Kang, Choon Sun Park, Woo Hyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):108-116.
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OBJECTIVE
To determine the relationships between customer's attitude, the subjective norm and the intention to use hospital-based health promotion services. METHODS: This study was based on the theory of reasoned action, suggested by Fishbein and Ajzen. The subjects of this study were 501 residents of Seoul, Bun-dang, Il-san and Pyung-chon city, under 65 years, who were stratified by sex and age. A covariance structural analysis was used to identify the structural relationships between attitude towards health promotion programs or services, their subjective norm and their intention to use the aforementioned services. RESULTS: The subjective norm for using the health promotion programs or services provided by hospitals was a significant predictor of the intention to use, but the attitude towards the services was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a customer's reference group affects their use of the hospital-based health promotion services. Because the subjects of this study were restricted to specific urban areas, there are limitations to generalizing the study results. Despite the limitations of these results, they can serve as baseline information for the understanding of consumer's behavior toward hospital-based health promotion services.
Summary
Current Status of Hospital-based Health Promotion Programs in Korea and the Factors Influencing Their Introduction.
Sang Gyu Lee, Choon Seon Park, Myung Guen Kang, Myung Il Hahm, Soon Young Lee, Woo Hyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):399-407.
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OBJECTIVES
To investigate the current status of hospital-based health promotion programs in Korea and to elucidate the factors which affect to the process of implementation. METHODS: We conducted a mail survey of all 875 hospitals in Korea from March to May 2001. In reference to 12 specific kinds of health promotion programs, hospital CEOs were asked whether their hospital have such programs, whether they are fully staffed and whether the program is paid for by the patients. Contextual factors(location, hospital type, number of beds, length of operation, public/private status, economic level of the community, the level of competition) and organizational factors (the extent of market, compatibility with vision, formalization), strategic types of the CEOs (defender/analyser/prospector) were also surveyed. The relationships between each variable and the implementation of health promotion services, activation of services, and the target groups(patient/community resident) were analyzed by univariate analysis and the independent effects of these variables were examined with multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: 106 of 125 hospitals responding (84.8%) had more than one health promotion program. However, they showed fluctuations in the adoption rate of each programs, meaning that comprehensive health promotion services were not provided. Many programs were not fully staffed and few hospitals had paid programs. In factors affecting health promotion service implementation, private hospitals showed a higher rate in implementation than public hospitals. In contrast, when the competition among nearby hospitals was intense, the level of implementation of service lowered. In the strategic type of the CEOs, the prospectors were shown to have instituted more health promotion programs in their hospitals and the analysers had a greater tendency to have programs for community residents than the defenders. CONCLUSION: Considering the above results, contextual factors may contribute greatly to the introduction of health promotion services in Korean hospital, although the CEO's personal preference and organizational factors play a larger role in the activation of services. Additionally, the CEO's personal preference may be the major influencing factor in the introduction of programs for community residents.
Summary
Factors Associated with the Degree of Quality Improvement Implementation.
Sun Hee Lee, Kui Son Choi, Hye Young Kang, Woo Hyun Cho, Yoo Mi Chae
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(4):363-371.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To assess the degree of quality improvement (QI) implementation and to identify its associated factors. METHODS: A mailed questionnaire survey of the QI staffs at hospitals with 400 beds or more was conducted between September 15 and October 30, 2000. Of the 108 hospitals eligible for inclusion in our study, 79 participated, yielding a response rate of 73.1%. After excluding 12 hospitals that did not perform any QI activities, 117 responses from 67 hospitals were used in our analysis. The degree of QI implementation was measured using the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Criteria (MBNQAC). Factors evaluated for association with the degree of QI implementation were cultural, technical, strategic, and structural factors of the hospitals. RESULTS: The average QI implementation score across the 7 dimensions of MBNQAC was 3.34 on a 5-point scale, with the highest score for the area of customer satisfaction (3.88) followed by information and analysis (3.59) and quality management (3.35). The results of regression analysis showed that hospitals with a etter information system (p<0.05) and using scientific and systematic problem solving approach (p<0.01) tended to perform a higher degree of QI implementation. While statistically insignificant, positive associations were observed for the factors of group or developmental culture, the degree of employee empowerment, and the use of prospective strategy. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the most important factors contributing to active implementation of QI in Korean hospitals were the use of scientific skills in decision making, and having a quality information system to produce precise and valid information.
Summary
Dimensions of Consumer Ratings of a Hospital Outpatient Service Quality.
Ki Tae Moon, Seung Hum Yu, Woo Hyun Cho, Dong Kee Kim, Yunwhan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):495-504.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To examine various dimensions of consumer ratings of health care service with factor analysis and to find which factors influence the overall quality of health care service. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on outpatients of a general hospital located in Sungnam City. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess the consumer? ratings of health care service received. The response rate was 92.8% with a total of 537 persons completing the questionnaire. Factor analysis was performed on 34 items evaluating the quality of health care service. Items were grouped into 5 dimensions as a result of factor analysis and the reliability and validity of influence on patient service assessment were evaluated for each dimension. RESULTS: The 5 dimensions were as follows ; 1) physician services, 2) non-physician services, 3) process 4) facilities, and 5) cleanliness. A positive correlation with the quality of health care service was found for the dimensions of non-physician services and process, while no significant correlation was found for the dimensions of physician services, facilities, and cleanliness. CONCLUSIONS: The result of this study may provide basic information for the development of future self-administered questionnaires of consumer ratings and for the evaluation of quality improvement activities in hospital outpatient settings.
Summary
Structural Modeling of Quality, Satisfaction, Value and Purchase Intention in Health Care Service.
Kui Son Choi, Woo Hyun Cho, Sunhee Lee, Jung Mo Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(4):426-435.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To determine the relationships among quality, satisfaction, value and purchase intention in health care service. METHODS: The data were gathered from out-patients who had used hospital services. They were asked to assess service quality, satisfaction, service value, and purchase intention. A total of 557 usable questionnaires were gathered. The data were analyzed using SAS version 6.12. The analytic methods employed in the study were confirmatory analysis and covariance structural analysis. RESULTS: Service quality exhibited a significant and positive relationship with satisfaction, service value, and purchase intention. Furthermore, satisfaction had a significant and positive relationship with purchase intention. And finally, service value had a significant and positive relationship with both satisfaction and purchase intention. Based on these findings, it is evident that satisfaction was a mediator between service quality and purchase intention. Also service value played a mediating role between service quality and satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that service quality is an antecedent of satisfaction and service value, and exerts a stronger influence on purchase intentions than satisfaction and service value do. Thus, managers may need to emphasize service quality in health care.
Summary
A study on the trend in the length of hospital stay in Korea.
Woo Hyun Cho, Ki Hong Chung, Im Ok Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):51-66.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the trends of length of hospital stay (LOS), which is most likely to be a major attribute to hospital performance From 1984 to 1994, an average LOS of each hospital was analyzed by factors such as medical departments, bed size, occupancy rate, region and ownership. This study was analyzed changing rate of LOS during 11 years. This rate was calculated by simple regression, which was used only with hospital without missing data during 11 years. This study findings are as follows. 1. The results indicated that the average LOS was steadily increased until 1990 but it was slightly decreased after 1990. 2. This trend could be found in all hospital scale and all group of occupancy rate. Specifically this trends of LOS were found in internal medicine, corporate owned hospitals, and hospitals in major city. But LOS of individual owned hospital was continuously increased until 1994. 3. Means of changing rates of LOS were calculated from 1984 to 1994. If we divided it into two parts, before 1990 and after 1990, most changing rates of LOS before 1990 except individual owned hospital were found positive sign. The changing rates after 1990 were negative sign but small hospital(lesser then 200 bed), individual owned hospital, national & public hospital and hospital in small urban have little change of LOS after 1990. Finally from this results we thought that most hospitals in korea began to be concerned with LOS. Nevertheless LOS of several hospital such as small hospital or individual owned hospital was increased. And this trend may be caused by a few patients, low occupancy rate, or low profit. This trend of LOS is different from that of other countries. Perhaps this phenomenon is resulted from the reimbursement method. Because of fee for service reimbursement system in korea the hospitals didn't need to shorten LOS in order to save the cost and increase the profit. Therefore reform of hospital cost reimbursement method will be reduced to reduce hospital cost in korea. we thought that the korean health authority should consider the reimbursement method by unit of bundle of services, for example DRG and prepayment in the united states. This study presents some limitations such as on insight of severity of disease, case-mix measurement of hospital, and other clinical characteristics that can possibly affect LOS, However, this study reports an important trend in LOS from 1984 to 1994.
Summary
An Analysis of Small Area Variations of Hospital Services Utilization in Korea.
Woo Hyun Cho, Sun Hee Lee, Eun Cheol Park, Myong Sei Sohn, Se Ra Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(3):609-626.
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This study was conducted to investigate whether variations in hospital services utilization across small geographic areas in Korea existed, and if so, what factors are responsible for the variation. The claims data of the fiscal year 1992 obtained from the regional health insurance societies were used for the study. Main finding of the research can be summarized as follows: 1. External Quotients (EQ) of hospital expenditure per capita and hospital days per capita were 2.69 and 2.73, and coefficient of variation (CV) were 0.14,both, respectively. The EQ and the CV of admission rate were also 2.71, 0.15. The EQ and the CV of expenditure per admission were 1.73, 0.10 and those of hospital days per admission were 1.29, 0.06. All these statistics were statistically significant and this result provides strong evidence for the existence of small area variations. 2. Comparing patterns of variation among areas, the area which showed higher utilization amounts is cbansungp'o. Koje area, whereas the areas which showed lower utilization amounts are Yongju, Changhung, Miryang, Mokp'o, Koch'ang area. 3. Multivariate analytic methods were used to examine factors related to the variation across areas. In terms of the health resource availability variables, beds per capita or physicians per capita were positively associated with all utilization indices. As for the health service market structure variables, the proportion of health care institutions operating for less than 5 years was positively related to the expenditure per capita, hospital days per capita and expenditure per admission. In addition the proportion of lhe private health care institutions also had a negative relationship with total utilization amount and admission rate and the proportion of physicians under age 40 was negatively associated with expenditure per capita and expenditure per admission. With regard to the socio-demographic characteristics, proportion of medicaid population was positively related to hospital days per capita, and percentage of paved road was positively related to hospital days per admission. As a conclusion, wide variations existed across small areas in Korea and supply factors were found to be important in explaining the variation.
Summary
A study on the determinants of hospital profitability.
Ki Hong Chun, Woo Hyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(3):442-456.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Financial stability is the foremost prerequisite for the continuous growth and development of hospitals. The present study aimed at developing a deterministic model using the factors which affect the hospitals profitability and at discovering which factor affected the hospital profitability. The study conducted questionnaire surveys on all general hospitals, with the exception of special hospitals, with over eighty hospital beds. Of the 274 subject hospitals, 136 of them, consituting 49.6% of the whole, were used in the study. The results are as follow. 1. In the deterministic model, outpatient revenue was affected more by the number of physician visits than by outpatient service intensity. Inpatient revenue was found to be affected more by the number of discharged patients than by inpatient service intensity. However, the increase rate of the service intensity not only contributed in stepping up the operating margin by 4~8% in outpatient and 3~6% in inpatient, but it was statistically significant. 2. Among the factors which determined the operating cost within the deterministic model, the number of patients had a greater impact on the operating cost than the resource consumption per patient. 3. The resource consumption per patient were proved to have the greatest effect on the profitability within the probabilistic model. The management cost per adjusted patient, in particular, was proven to have a statistically significant effect on the profitability in all hospitals.
Summary
An Analysis on Factors Relating to Fiscal Deficit for Regional Health Insurance Program in Korea.
Han Joong Kim, Woo Hyun Cho, Sun Hee Lee, Hyung Kon Kang, Yang Kyun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):399-412.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was designed to investigate factors relating to fiscal deficit for regional health insurance. The financial statements for the fiscal year 1990 of nationwide 254 regional medical insurance societies were analyzed. Important findings are summarized below: 1. There were differences in the main reason for the financial deficit among regions when deficit and surplus societies were compared by regions. The total revenue per enrollee, especially revenue from the premium contribution of a deficit society was significantly smaller than that of a surplus society in large cities and counties. On the other hand, the total expenditure per enrollee of a deficit society was larger than that of a surplus society in small cities. 2. Both low premium irate at the beginning of health insurance program and less effort to increase the premium rate were main factors for the smaller revenue from the contribution of a deficit society in large cities and counties. 3. Larger expenditures per covered person of a deficit society in small cities were explained with larger medical expenditures especially for out-patients services rather than larger administrative expenses. 4. A regression analysis showed that utilization rates in out-patient services were significantly associated with income and numbers of total medical care institution per capita within a region where a health insurance society located. Also expenses paid by insurer per visit were associated with the proportion of utilization for tertiary care hospitals as well as the proportion of utilization of public health centers.
Summary
Factors affecting the price-reduction rates among the insurance medicines.
Hyoung Joong Kim, Woo Hyun Cho, Han Joong Kim, Byung Yool Cheon
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(1):64-72.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To provide the information necessary for the insurance medicine management plan, price discount rates among the insurance medicines were studied. A total of 2,107 items of insurance medicine of which prices were discounted via government inspections of real transactional process of insurance medicine were analysed. The conclusions are as follows; 1. Among the variables relevant to the characteristics of manufacturers, price discount rates of insurance medicines were statistically significant with production rankings of manufacturers, incorporation year, existence of investments by foreign corporation, existence of a research institute, and enrollment in the exchange. And among the variables relevant to the properties of medicines, the number of enrolled items which have the same components, classification, the date of new enrollment, the sales of items, and the number of raw materials in the items were statistically significant. 2. Stepwide multiple regression was done to identify the factors which affect the price discount rates of insurance medicines. The number of enrolled items which have the same components, production rankings of manufactures, classification number (medicines for function of tissue cells), incorporation year (1940-1949), existence of investments by foreign corporations, classification number (anti-germ medicines), number of raw materials in the items, the sales of items, and medicines whose major objective is not treatment were significant variables and the R2-value for these variables was 21.2%. Considering all of the above results, for management of insurance medicines, it seems important that the real transactional prices of insurance medicines should be identified systematically, focusing on the properties which affect the price discount rates of insurance medicines.
Summary
A Study on the Criteria for Selection of Medical Care Facilities.
Woo Hyun Cho, Han Joong Kim, Sun Hee Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(1):53-63.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
There are increasing interest and need for information on health care consumer with the significance of hospital marketing and strategic planning being increasingly emphasized. This study was conducted to investigate the criteria for selection of medical facilities according to the characteristics of health care consumer by the types of medical services on a sample of 1,500 population aged 20 years and above. Major findings are as follows; 1. When considering the criteria for selection of medical facilities into two factors, namely, quality or convenience factors, convenience factor was the major contributor for outpatient and dental services whereas it was quality factor for inpatient services. 2. Females and those residing in large cities selected medical facilities based on convenience factor in the outpatient services. In the case of inpatient service, persons who considered their present health status to be good and whose ages were 50 years old and above choose medical facilities based on quality factor. 3. Persons who considered medical facilities to be profit-making tended to choose medical facilities based on convenience factor for outpatient services. There were no differences in the cases of inpatient and dental services. 4. There was no significant difference on the criteria for selection of medical facilities according to the decision maker for selection or trust on medical facilities. On the use of health service information, selection of medical facilities was based on qPality factor for those who made more use of the information in the cases of outpatient and dental services. 5. Analysis using the logistic regression model on the criteria for the selection of medical facilities with the characteristics of health care consumer as independent variables was performed. The selection of medical facilities was significantly related with residential area, sex, and use of information on medical facilities for outpatient services and with age, average monthly income, and perception of health status for inpatient services. For dental services significant association with residential area and use of information on medical facilities was seen. The results of this study, despite some limitations, can be used as baseline data for marketing and strategic planning of hospital management.
Summary
The recent trend and determinants of service diversification in Korean hospitals.
Sun Hee Lee, Han Joong Kim, Woo Hyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(1):16-28.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Service diversification is recognized as an important strategy against turbulent environmental change. This study is designed to find out the trend of service diversification in Korean health care organizations and also to identify factors associated with the degree of service diversification. Data were collected from 69 hospitals out of 71 hospitals with over 300 beds. Important findings are summarized below. 1. Types of diversification are closely related to hospital size. Large hospitals have a tendency to provide sophisticated service requiring specialized skills and equipment, while small hospital have concentrated their efforts on health screening programs. 2. The more competitive and bigger hospitals are, the greater number of services that provide. Also, hospitals operating rational management information systems provide more services. Contrary to the expectation, hospitals with a low performance during last 3 years showed more service diversification. 3. A trend of more diversification was observed in hospitals whose chief executive officer used a prospector strategy. 4. A multiple regression analysis revealed that bed size, competitive environment, degree of rational management, and the growth pattern were significantly associated with teh service diversification.
Summary
An Evaluation of a Patient Referral System using Intervention Analysis.
Woo Hyun Cho, Hae Jong Lee, Myongsei Sohn, Chung Mo Nam, Seung Hum Yu
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(2):236-241.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to introduce the methodology of intervention analysis with time series data and to investigate the influence of the patient referral system on medical care utilization in Kangwha county. The data were obtained at the Kangwha Medical Insurance Society and we analysed the material based on the outpatient care fee. The results were as follows: 1. The average outpatient care utilization in the hospital decreased by 41.7% due to the patient referral system. 2. The utilization of the health institution increased by 278.8 persons per month due to the patient referral system. 3. The patient referral system did not influence the total outpatient care utilization. The methodology of intervention analysis, which detected the effect of intervention, will be helpful to the study of public health area.
Summary
A Comparative Study of Two Survey Methods for Health Services Research Modified Self-administered Questionnaire vs. Interview Survey.
Seung Hum Yu, Yong Ho Lee, Woo Hyun Cho, Chong Yon Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):431-441.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to compare the difference of two survey methods for health services research. Data were collected by means of two types of household survey conducted from March 11 to September 19, 1985. A probability sample of 30,613 persons was taken from 180 Enumerated Districts designated by the Economic Planning Board. The sample was divided into two groups systematically. One group was surveyed by the self-administered questionnaire and the other group was interviewed. Response rates were 81.4% and 90.6% respectively. The data were analyzed by the ratio of the results of the self-administered survey to those of the interview survey. No difference was observed in sex, age, residence, or occupation between the two groups. However the respondents' characteristics were statistically different between the two groups. The major findings of this study are as follows : 1. The morbidity rate was 142.5 per 1,000 persons during the two week period by the self-administered questionnaire survey and 74.3 per 1,000 persons with the interview survey method. The ratio of the morbidity rate by the self-administered questionnaire to that by the interview was 1.92, and the difference between the two rates were due to the personal characteristics. 2. The out-patient utilization rate was 10.2 visits per person per year by the self-administered questionnaire survey and 5.4 by the interview survey, and the ratio was 1.89; the admission rate was 3.2 times per 100 persons per year by the self-administered questionnaire survey and 1.9 times by the interview survey, and the ratio was 1.68. Differences due to the sociodemographic characteristics were greater in the out-patient utilization rates than in the admission rates. 3. Percentages of effective medical care demand were 90.2% in the self-administered survey and 92.3% in the interview survey; the ratio was 0.98 which was less than that of the morbidity rate and medical care utilization. But, differences of effective medical care demand occurred in persons with no occupation, and aged or low educated respondents. 4. Respiratory illness had the highest frequency in the two survey methods. But there was a slight difference between the two survey methods in morbidity composition. 5. It was concluded that data collected by the interview survey were inclined to be underestimated and this problem can be corrected by a modified self-administered survey.
Summary
Changing Patterns of Ambulatory Care Utilization of a Rural Community in a Regional Medical Insurance Scheme.
Seung Hum Yu, Woo Hyun Cho, Myongsei Sohn, Chong Yon Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):419-430.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was performed in a rural community, Kanghwa county which was introduced to a regional medical insurance pilot program in 1982. The purposes of this study were, firstly, to observe the changes in ambulatory care utilization in the three years 1982, 1983 and 1987 ; secondly, to analyse factors which convert perceived medical care needs to effective medical care demand. During the three periods, a serial interview survey was performed to determine the changes in medical utilization before and after the regional medical insurance program implementation. The number of subjects was 3,356 persons in the year 1982, 3,705 in 1983 and 2,745 in 1987. The results of the study were as follows : 1. Total ambulatory care utilization rates per 100 persons during a 2-week period were 23.6 in the year 1982, 21.8 in 1983, and 29.3 in 1987 ; and physician visit rates were 6.1 in 1982, 11.7 in 1983, and 14.9 in 1987. Thus, compared to the total utilization rate there was a definite increase in physician visit, and during the study periods there was a decrease in drug stores visits whereas an increase in hospital or clinic visits was noticed. 2. The rates of effective demand for medical care need were 70.7% in 1982, 70.5% in 1983 and 75.9% in 1987 ; and the rates of patients who visited physicians were 20.2% in 1982, 42.8% in 1983 and 35.6% in 1987. Thus, physician visits increased sharply by introducing the medical insurance program, but after the latent medical care demands were fulfilled, there was a slight decrease in the physician visits. 3. The number of acute symptoms and the number of chronic symptoms were common determinants of total ambulatory care utilization and physician visits. Besides the medical care need factors, age in 1982, sex and accessibility in 1983, and accessibility in 1987 were statistically significant determinants of the total utilization ; sex and accessibility in 1983, and education in 1987 were also statistically significant determinants of the physician visit. 4. For persons with perceived acute symptoms during the 2-week periods, accessibility in total utilization and age in physician visits were common discriminating factors of ambulatory care utilization in the three years, and education and income were also statistically significant variables For persons with perceived chronic symptoms, occupation and income were statistically significant discriminating variables commonly observed in total utilization and physician visits.
Summary
Projection of Physician Manpower Supply in Korea.
Seung Hum Yu, Woo Hyun Cho, Yong Ho Lee, Byung Yool Cheon
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):61-69.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In this study, the number of physicians presently living in Korea thoroughly estimated by several means and, on this bases, their productivity and level of supply were estimated. The results were as follows : First, the number of physicians who did not notify the Korea Medical Association in May 1987 were 10,110, including 4,093 emigrant physicians(40.5%), 861 military medical officers, 745 public health doctors, and 107 decreased physicians. A total of 1,330 physicians could not be identified by any effort. Second, among the 34,897 registered physicians as of May 1987, 29,933(85.8%) were residing in Korea, 4,115 physicians(11.8%) had emigrated to other countries, and 849 physicians(2.4%) were decreased. Practicing physicians defined as those in Korea who were not retired, serving in the military, or completing residencies or internships, comprised 78.6%(27,414 physicians) of the total number of registered physicians. Third, it is estimated that in the year 2000 the number of registered physicians, physicians residing in Korea, and practicing physician will be 75,040, 64,038 and 57,655, respectively and these are increases of 115.0%, 113,9%, and 110.3%, respectively, compared to 1987. Fourth, the population physician ratio will be 759 to one physician in the year 2000. Fifth, the productivity of physicians, as calculated by relative values defining the productivity of 35 to 44 year-old male physicians as 10, will increase 110.7% in the year 2000 compare to that of 1987, and this increment is almost the same level as that of physicians supply. From the results of the present analysis of physicians manpower and supply projection, it can be recognized that the development of a regular notification system is necessary in order to identify precisely the number of physicians. Also a policy a physician supply is essential in order to adjust in advance the number of physicians, otherwise there will be surplus to the medical demand.
Summary
Health Care Utilization and Its Determinants among Island Inhabitants.
Seung Hum Yu, Woo Hyun Cho, Chong Yon Park, Myung Keun Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1987;20(2):287-300.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Island regions suffer from a shortage of health care in part because they are less developed, they cover a widespread area relative to the population, and due to transportation barriers. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of illness and the magnitude of medical care utilization, and to investigate the determinants of utilization in these area. The data were collected by means of a household survey conducted from February 16 to 25, 1987 on 5 islands which were selected in consideration of the size of the population, the distance from the main land, and the distribution of health care facilities. The household response rate was 89.1% (491 of 551 households), and 1971 persons were surveyed. The major findings of this study are as follows: 1) The morbidity rate of the island inhabitants was 27.7% during the two weeks, and 25.5 chronic illnesses and 9.1 acute illnesses per 100 persons, were noted. Differences in the magnitude of illness were statistically significant by sex, age, education, and family size. 2) The magnitude of total ambulatory care utilization was 16.8 visits per 100 persons during the two weeks, which was less than that of other regions; and differences in the magnitude of total ambulatory care were statistically significant by sex, age, education, occupation, and family size. 3) Unmet needs were classified as 56.0% in chronic illnesses and 19.6% in acute illnesses; and differences in unmet needs were statistically significant by sex, age, education, occupation, income, and family size. 4) Statistically significant determinants in medical care utilization included the frequency of acute illness and chronic illness, and income in total utilization; the frequency of chronic illness and acute illness, and medical care insurance in physician visits. 5) According to the results of the path analysis, need factors had the greatest effect on utilization, and predisposing factors had more indirect effects through enabling or need factors than direct effects.
Summary
A Study on the Health Care Utilization in Korea.
Seung Hum Yu, Yong Ho Lee, Woo Hyun Cho, Young Pyo Hong, Byoung Won Jin, Sang Jai Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):137-145.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A Nationwide health care utilization survey was conducted from March 11 to September 19, 1985 to assess the level of illness and the magnitude of medical care utilization. A probability sample of 15,427 persons was taken from 180 Enumerated Districts designated by the Economic Planning Board. Of those 4,500 housewives were proxy respondents. A interview was conducted with pre-tested questionnaire schedule which was recorded by well trained interviewers. Age and sex compositions of the study population were similar to those of general population structure in 1985. The major findings of this survey are as follows: 1) A total of 64.5% of the study population lived in city area and 35.5% lived in county area. 2) While no difference was observed in interview rate between city and county area, it showed statistically significant difference in the medical security program coverage rate between the two areas(44.7% and 37.1%, respectively). 3) Morbidity rate was 79 per 1,000 persons during the two week periods. There was difference in age and sex adjusted morbidity rates between city and county area. Furthermore morbidity rates by the status of the program were significantly difference between the two areas. 4) Average ambulatory care utilization rate was 7.2 visits per person per year and average admission rate was 1.8 per 100 persons per year. There was significant difference in average ambulatory care utilization rate by the program. but no significant difference in medical utilization rate between city and county area. 5) The major symptoms of the perceived illness was the respiratory system(44.1%). 6) A total of 50.4% of the perceived illness among the covered group by the program were treated at the hospital and clinics, but those who are not covered used primarily drug stores(61.3%).
Summary
Hospital Services Utilization by Insured and Non-insured Patients for Cesarean Section in a University Hospital.
Seung Hum Yu, Woo Hyun Cho, Dai Kyu Oh
Korean J Prev Med. 1981;14(1):53-58.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to discover difference that may exist in quantity of medical care services, length of stay and hospital changes between insured and non-insured patients, records for primary Cesarean section patients discharged between July 1978 and June 1980 from a university hospital were examined. In addition, Cesarean section rates among the total deliveries for a two-year period between the groups were studied. The results showed that volume of services was greater and length of stay was longer among the insured, however, charges were higher among the non-insured. Cesarean section rates were statistically significantly different between insured and non-insured patients for every age group except the group of 35 or more.
Summary
Relationships Between the amount of the Premium and Benefits and Utilization of Enrollees in a Health Insurance Cooperative.
Woo Hyun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):47-51.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study attempts to assess the effect of the 1st class health insurance program to the income redistribution among the participants in a unit health insurance cooperative. One health insurance cooperative, located in Seoul, with 1558 members and 768 households was selected for this purpose. The relationships between amount of premium payed and benefits from the cooperative were compared. Necessary data were obtained from the bills submitted to the health insurance cooperative by the contracted medical institutions from 1st January 1977 to 30th June 1979. Households and individuals were the unit of the assessment. The indicators measuring income redistribution effect were the ratios between the benefit and expected benefit and the ratios between the mean benefit. The major finds were : 1. The ratios between the benefits and the expected benefits were lower than 1 in the high income group and greater than 1 in the middle and lower income group. This fact imply that the income redistribution effect was shown in the studied group. It was shown that the middle income group received the greatest benefit, and then the lower income group. 2. The ratios between the benefit and the mean benefit of the households in the higher standard income grade, were found to be higher. This means that the equity of the benefits of households were not achieved by the policy of the health insurance plan. 3. The health insurance utilization rates of the higher standard income group, measured by the household unit, were higher, and by the individual unit, the same rates of the middle income group were higher than other groups.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health