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Won Young Lee 2 Articles
Determination of Appropriate Sampling Time for Job Stress Assessment: the Salivary Chromogranin A and Cortisol in Adult Females.
Ran Hi Hong, Yun Jung Yang, Sang Yon Kim, Won Young Lee, Yeon Pyo Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):231-236.
  • 5,663 View
  • 165 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to determine the appropriate sampling time of the salivary stress markers, chromogranin A (CgA) and cortisol as objective indices of job stress assessment in adult females. METHODS: The subjects were 20~39-year-old women (13 office workers, 11 sales-service workers, and 11 college students) who were eligible for the study and free of acute and chronic medical conditions. Salivary CgA and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Saliva samples were collected (2ml each) at 7:00, 8:00, 10:30, 12:00, 17:30, and 22:30 on a typical day. Salivary CgA and cortisol levels, according to sampling time, were compared among the three groups using general linear model. The full version of the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS), which includes socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, work-related characteristics, and BMI, was used to access the subjects' job stress. Multiple regression analysis of the job stressors identified by the KOSS was performed on salivary CgA and cortisol levels. RESULTS: The salivary CgA level peaked at 7:00 (time of awakening), then decreased and were maintained at a low level throughout the day, and increased slightly at 17:30. The salivary cortisol level increased steeply within the 1st hour after awakening, followed by a gradual decrease by 12:00, and was then maintained at a low level throughout the day. The salivary cortisol levels of subjects who worked < or =5 days per week and graduated from the university were significantly lower at 8:00 (p=0.006). The salivary cortisol levels of non-smokers were significantly lower at 7:00 (p=0.040) and 8:00 (p=0.003) compared to smokers. There were no significant differences in salivary CgA and cortisol levels at 10:30 and 12:00 in general characteristics. The regression coefficients on salivary CgA level were significant with interpersonal conflict at 17:30 and job insecurity at 22:30. Regression coefficients on salivary cortisol level were significant with organizational system and total job stressors at 17:30. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the appropriate sampling times for the salivary stress markers, CgA and cortisol, are at 7:00 (time of awakening), 8:00 (1 hour after awakening), 17:30 (early evening), and 22:30 (before sleep).


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A Preliminary Epidemiologic Study on Korean Veterans Exposed to Herbicides in Vietnam War.
Joung Soon Kim, Hyun Sul Lee, Hong Bok Lee, Won Young Lee, Young Joo Park, Sung Soo Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(4):711-734.
  • 2,010 View
  • 25 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Among chemical agents in herbicides, dioxin(2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-rho-dioxin: a chemical contaminant in herbicides sprayed during the vietnam war has been known to be the major agent causing toxic effects. Approximately 320,000 korean soldiers participated the vietnam war from 1964 to 1974. Although the potential hazards of the herbicides among Korean veterans exposed were implicated, the problem had not been a public issue until 1991 when Korean veterans were informed U. S. companies, the herbicides manufacturer payed fund, from which a trust fund for New Zealand and Australian Class members were established in 1985. After a series of appeals and demonstration by the korean veterans demanding medical care and compensation for their serious health damages, a bill of medical care and compensation for herbicides victims was promulgated in March 1993 and become effective from May 1993. This study was carried out with two major objectives: the first to understand the health problems caused from the herbicides by reviewing literatures published, and the second to examine the nature and extent of health impacts among Korean veterans exposed and to develop valid study methods for the major study by interviewing and reviewing records on a part of veterans (638 persons) registered and completed medical examination in Seoul Veterans Administration Hospital from June to october 1993. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The literature review of 107 papers revealed that: l) Dioxin is teratogenic, carcinogenic and affects almost all organs including nertous, endocrine, and reproductive systems in animal experiments. 2) The diseases showing evidence of causal association were Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's disease, lung cancer, lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloroacne and polyneuropathy when judged on the basis of consistency in study results and biological plausibility. 2. Interview and medical record review study on 638 veterans, though limited validity owing to lack of control group, crude estimates of dioxin exposure levels (no biomarkers measurable), and uncertainty of diagnosis, showed that: 1) Most of the study subject's were in their 40's of age and had been dispatched to vietnam during the period from 1965-1970 around one year. 2) Most frequently complained symptoms in medical examination were motor weakness(32%), sensory abnormalities in extremities(23%), skin diseases(22%), and pain in extremities(20%) whereas in interview they were more frequent in order of skin problem(44%), motor weakness (38%), sensory abnormalities and pain in extremities(l7% and 19% each). Kappa indices on the same category of complaints between two sources of information were variable and relatively low. 3) On medical examination, only a part of the 638 subjects had initial impression (442 pts) and final diagnosis (218 pts) suggesting decision making on diagnosis appeared to be difficult even with all available modern medical technologies; in initial impression disorders from peripheral and central neuropathy were predominant whereas in final diagnosis various types of skin disorder were most frequent. 4) when dose-response relationship between several conditions (from questionnaire) and arbitrary exposure scores were examined by CMH linear trend test, spontaneous abortion, sexual problems and health problem of offsprings showed statistically significant linear trends. However, pregnancy, accident and suicidal attempts did not show any relationship in this study capacity. 5) Among complaints, psychosis and neurosis(anxiety, phobia) in interview study, and memory disorder and psychosis in medical record study revealed linear trend. 6) Skin disorder was the only condition showing linear trend in initial impression and none in final diagnosis on medical examination. Even though objective to select out dioxin-related disease or group of diseases from this study was not achieved the research experiences provided firm basis for developing various methodological approaches. 3. From this preliminary study we concluded that a larger scale major epidemiologic study on health impacts of herbicides among Korean veterans exposed is not only indispensible but also well designed study with more valid exposure information and diagnosis may be able to establish causal relationship between certain groups of diseases and exposure to the herbicides among Korean veterans.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health