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Soontae Kim 1 Article
Mortality Burden Due to Short-term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter in Korea
Jongmin Oh, Youn-Hee Lim, Changwoo Han, Dong-Wook Lee, Jisun Myung, Yun-Chul Hong, Soontae Kim, Hyun-Joo Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(2):185-196.   Published online March 29, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.514
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Excess mortality associated with long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been documented. However, research on the disease burden following short-term exposure is scarce. We investigated the cause-specific mortality burden of short-term exposure to PM2.5 by considering the potential non-linear concentration–response relationship in Korea.
Methods
Daily cause-specific mortality rates and PM2.5 exposure levels from 2010 to 2019 were collected for 8 Korean cities and 9 provinces. A generalized additive mixed model was employed to estimate the non-linear relationship between PM2.5 exposure and cause-specific mortality levels. We assumed no detrimental health effects of PM2.5 concentrations below 15 μg/m3. Overall deaths attributable to short-term PM2.5 exposure were estimated by summing the daily numbers of excess deaths associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure.
Results
Of the 2 749 704 recorded deaths, 2 453 686 (89.2%) were non-accidental, 591 267 (21.5%) were cardiovascular, and 141 066 (5.1%) were respiratory in nature. A non-linear relationship was observed between all-cause mortality and exposure to PM2.5 at lag0, whereas linear associations were evident for cause-specific mortalities. Overall, 10 814 all-cause, 7855 non-accidental, 1642 cardiovascular, and 708 respiratory deaths were attributed to short-term exposure to PM2.5. The estimated number of all-cause excess deaths due to short-term PM2.5 exposure in 2019 was 1039 (95% confidence interval, 604 to 1472).
Conclusions
Our findings indicate an association between short-term PM2.5 exposure and various mortality rates (all-cause, non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory) in Korea over the period from 2010 to 2019. Consequently, action plans should be developed to reduce deaths attributable to short-term exposure to PM2.5.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2010~2019년 한국의 초미세먼지 단기 노출로 인한 사망 부담을 추정하였으며 2010~2019년간, 초미세먼지 단기노출로 인한 전체원인 사망은 10,814명, 비사고 사망은 7,855명, 심혈관 사망은 1,642명, 호흡기 사망은 708명으로 추정하였다. 본 연구 결과는 대기오염 관리, 규제, 정책 수립에 있어 도움을 줄 것으로 예상한다.
Key Message
- We estimated mortality burden attributable to short-term exposure to PM 2.5 in Korea from 2010 to 2019 - Over the 10-years study period, the estimated excess deaths due to short-term exposure to PM 2.5 totaled 10,814 for all-causes, 7,855 for non-accidental, 1,642 for cardiovascular disease, and 708 for respiratory disease. - Our findings can assist in air pollution management, regulation, and policy-making.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health