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Kyu Yoon Hwang 5 Articles
Different Effect of Blood Lead on Zinc Protoporphyrin by Gender in Korean Lead Workers.
Hyun Cheol Ahn, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):499-504.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate whether a relation between blood lead and zinc proto porphyrin(ZPP) was modified by gender in Korean lead workers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,304 male and 101 female subjects in 1997. The relation between blood lead and ZPP were evaluated with linear, exponential, and quadratic models. Then, the different effect of gender on the relation was examined by adding the interaction terms in the each model. RESULTS: Mean+/-SD of blood lead and ZPP level was different between male(27.7+/-10 microgram /dl and 51.3+/-23.4 microgram/dl) and female subjects(22.5+/-9.2 microgram/dl and 78.7+/-38.6 microgram/dl). After adjusting for possible confounders, the effect modification by gender was significant in linear(beta=1.119, p<0.001), exponential(beta=Exp(0.008), p<0.05), and quadratic model(beta= 1.388, p<0.001). In separate analysis, a quadratic relation between blood lead and ZPP was shown in male lead workers(beta=0.036, p<0.001), but an exponential relation in female lead workers(n=Exp(0.029), p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Our data showed that the increasing rate of ZPP in female were always higher than in male lead workers, suggesting that females were more susceptible to occupational lead exposure than males.
Summary
The effect of smoking and drinking habit on the health status of lead workers.
Choong Koo Lee, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Hwa Sung Kim, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):708-718.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the effect of smoking and drinking habit on the health status in lead using industries, 2,785 male workers in lead using industries (7 storage battery industries, 7 secondary smelting and related industries, and 4 primary metal and other manufacturing industries) were selected for this study. This study was carried out as a part of periodic health examination. Selected study variables were zinc protoporphyrin in whole blood (ZPP), SGOT and SGPT for laboratory test. Questionnaire for lead related symptoms and smoking and drinking habit was provided to all the workers and filled up by themselves and reconfirmed by physician. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The overall smoking and drinking rate of study population were 69.8% and 73.6%, respectively. While the smoking and drinking rate of storage battery workers were 68.8% and 72.3%, those of secondary smelting industries and other industries were 66.0% and 66.4% and 74.6 and 80.3% respectively. 2. While the mean values of blood ZPP of lead exposed workers were significantly higher than other group, those of SGOT of storage battery workers were significant higher than other worker. But there were no differences of mean values of other variables. 3. Smoking habit did not affect on the mean value of blood ZPP of workers in special health examination group, but there were significant differences of blood ZPP and SGOT between drinker and non-drinker. 4. Symptom prevalence of lead exposure were higher in drinking and smoking group than non-drinking and non-smoking group. 5. In multiple regression analysis of the total lead related symptoms, blood ZPP, SGOT, and SGPT as dependent variable, respectively, and age, work duration, blood ZPP, pack year and amount of alcohol drinking as independent variables, work duration, pack year, amount of alcohol drinking, age contributed to total symptoms; and age, work duration, pack year contributed to blood ZPP; and age, amount of alcohol drinking, work duration contributed to SGOT; and pack year contributed to SGPT.
Summary
A cross-sectional study on prevalence rate and contributing factors of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography.
Jae Eog Ahn, Jung Oh Ham, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Joo Ja Kim, Byung Kook Lee, Tack Sung Nam, Joung Soon Kim, Hun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):195-210.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Fatty liver is caused by derangement of fat metabolism and can be reversed by removal of contributing factors. The contributing factors of fatty liver is known to be overweight, chronic alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, and drug abuse such as tetracycline. This study was carried out on 1335 persons who visited 'Soon Chun Hyang Human Dock Center' from March to June 1990. In analysis of the data, prevalence of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram by age and sex, laboratory finding between fatty liver group and normal group, and odds ratio of known contributing factors, were compared. The results obtained are as following; 1) The prevalence rate of fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram is 29.6% in male and 11.5% in female. 2) Age groups with high prevalences are 40~50's in male (32.0%) and 50's in female (24.5%). 3) The fatty liver shows significant association with style (p<0.05), whereas not with hepatitis B-virus surface antigen (p>0.05). 4) All laboratory values except alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are elevated significantly in accordance with the degree of fatty liver (p<0.01). 5) Fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonogram showed so strong associations with body index, triglycerides and gamma-glutamyl transferase for males, and body index and fasting blood sugar for females that these factors may be used as supplementary data in establishing diagnosis of fatty liver. 6) Odds ratio of contributing factors are as follows; If the odds ratio of below 29 year of age is 1.0 then that of 30~39 is 1.74 (p=0.33), 40~49 is 2.47 (p=0.10), 50~59 is 2.86 (p=0.0570), over 60 is 1.81 (p=0.34). If the odds ratio of female is 1.0 then that of male is 5.67 (p<0.01). If the odds ratio of body index below zero is 1.0 then that of 0~9 is 5.08 (p<0.01), 10~19 is 12.37 (p<0.01), 20~29 is 29.19 (p<0.01), 30 above is 154.02 (p<0.01). If the odds ratio of below 99 mg/dl FBS is 1.0 then that of 100~120 is 106 (p=0.76), over 120 is 1.91 (p=0.02). If the odds ratio of below 29 micron/1 gamma-GT is 1.0 then that of 30~s59 is 2.11 (p<0.01), 60~90 is 1.87 (p<0.05), 90 above is 1.69 (p=0.15). If the odds ratio of below 149 mg/dl TG is 1.0 then 150~199 is 1.49 (p=0.05), 200~250 is 1.09 (p=0.77), 250 above is 2.53 (p<0.01). In summary, early diagnosis of fatty liver could be made by ultrasonogram supplemented with body index and serum triglyceride. The fatty liver could be preventive by avoiding contributing factors such as obesity, alcohol intake, high blood sugar appropriately.
Summary
Relationship of between blood lead level and lead related symptoms in low level lead exposure.
Kyu Yoon Hwang, Jae Eog Ahn, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee, Joung Soon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):181-194.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study intended to obtain an useful information on the prevalence of subjective symptoms, and to clarify the interrelationships between blood lead and lead related symptoms in low level lead exposure. The 93 male workers exposed to lead and 56 male nonexposed workers were examined for their blood lead (PBB), Zinc-protoporphy (ZPP), hemoglobin (HB) and personal history, and completed 15 questionnaires related to symptoms of lead absorption; also measured lead concentration in air (PBA) in the workplace. The results obtained were as follow; 1. The means of blood lead (PBB), blood ZPP and hemoglobin (HB) among workers exposed to lead were 26.1+/-8.8 microgram/dl, 28.3+/-26.0 microgram/dl and 16.2+/-1.2g/dl; whereas those of nonexposed workers were 18.7+/-5.1 microgram/dl, 20.6+/-8.7 microgram/dl and 17.3+/-1.1g/dl. The means of above three indicies between two groups showed significant difference statistically (p<0.05). 2. The means of blood lead (PBB), blood ZPP and hemoglobin of workers exposed to different lead concentration in air were as follows; When it was below 25 microgram/m3 , the indices were 24.7+/-79, 26.1+/-26.8 microgram/dl and 16.4+/-1.1 g/dl respectively; These indices were 27.1+/-8.5, 23.9+/-10.92 /dl and 16.2+/-1.3 g/dl when the lead concentration in air was 25~50 microgram/m3; and they were 3.4+/-9.3, 42.3+/-31.3 microgram/dl and 15.5+/-1.2 g/dl when the concentration of lead was above 50 microgram/m3. Although there were statistical difference in blood lead and hemoglobin among three different lead concentration in air, there was no statistical difference of blood ZPP among the three groups with different exposure levels (p>0.05). 3. The most frequently by complained symptom was "Generalized weakness and fatigue", and fewest symptom was "Intermittent pains in abdomen". 4. Only two symptoms out of fifteen symptoms checked by themselves revealed significant difference between exposed and nonexposed groups. These were "Intermittent pains of abdomen" and "Joint pain or arthralgia" (p<0.05). No positive correlation was found between the levels of blood lead and symptom groups categorized as gastrointestinal, neuromuscular and constitutional symptoms. 5. Blood lead (r=0.3995) and ZPP (r=0.2837) showed statistically significant correlation with mean lead concentration in air, whereas correlations were not demonstrated between blood lead and lead related symptoms or blood ZPP and lead related symptoms. 6. Blood lead (PBB) and ZPP showed association (r=0.2466) and the equation PBB=23.75+0.0842 ZPP was derived. 7. On stepwise multiple regression, using blood lead level as a dependent variable and ZPP, hemoglobin (HB), age, work duration (WD) and symptom prevalence as a independent variables, only ZPP significantly contributed a lot to blood lead level. 8. While the ZPP measurement was found to be a good indicator in evaluating health effect of lead absorption in low level lead exposure, lead related symptoms were not sensitive enough to evaluate of lead absorption in low level exposure.
Summary
A study on the status of working environment control and health management of workers in a manufacturing industries.
Jung O Ham, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee, Tack Sung Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):275-284.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To obtain the useful information for the status of working environment and health management of workers in manufacturing industries, comparision of results on the status of working environmental and health management of workers for 32 manufacturing industries in Chunam area from 1988 to 1989 was carried out. The results were as follows: 1. The rate of over-PEL(Permissible Exposure Limit) to for hazardous factors decreased significantly 23.5% in 1988, 18.3% in 1989 (p<0.05) and, the highest rate of over-PEL was the stone and sand handling industry, the highest rate of over-PEL was the dusty worplace as 38.5% in 1988, 35.2% in 1989. 2. The rate of workers exposed to hazardous factors in 1988 and in 1989 was 22.4% respectively, the rate of workers checked up special health examination was 40.1% in 1988, 75.3% in 1989. In stone and sand handling an dmedicochemical industries, none of workers exposed to hazardous factors was subjected to special health examination in 1988, but 75% of workers exposed to hazardous factors had checked up in 1989. 3. The 6 industries appointed as part-time factory physician among 17 industries which were supposed to have factory physician according to the Safety and Healthy Act of Korea, 6 out of 24 industries only appointed industrial hygienist, furthermore 4 out of 6 hygienists had another duty in addition to occupational hygiene itself.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health