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Kyou Chull Chung 16 Articles
Effects of Cadmium on Superoxide Radical, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase and ATPase Activity in Liver, Kidney and Testicle of Rats in Vtm and in Vivo.
Sung Moo Kim, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(4):371-390.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Production of free radicals of superoxide anion in tissues by cadmium, activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase to protect tissue damages caused by the free radicals and ATPase that plays an important role in energy metabolism at cellular level were investigated. Experiments in viro were conducted with liver, kidney and testicle tissue homogenates of rats adding 0.05~0.50 mM cadmium chloride, and in vivo experiments administering single dose of 5mg of cadmium/kg of body weight in 0.1% cadmium chloride solution intraperitoneally 48 hours prior to evisceration. Production of superoxide radicals in liver and testicle increased with addition of cadmium in vitro, but not in kidney. In vivo experiments, however superoxide radicals slightly increased in liver and kidney but not in testicle. Superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD), catalase and ATPase (total, (Mg++)- & (Na+)- (K+)-) activity decreased in the presence of cadmium in dose dependent manner. Reduction of these enzyme activities varied not only with dosage of cadmium but also with type of tissue and between in vitro and in vivo experiment.
Summary
Seasonal variation of water qualities in the upper and middle reaches of the Han River(1998.8~1989.9).
Sang Jun Lee, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):106-116.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to investigate of water qualities in the upper and middle reaches of the Han River. For this purpose, water was sampled at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges of the Han River in Seoul and analysed from August, 1988 to September, 1989. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Water quality at 1st Han-River Bridge was more polluted than that at Kwangjin Bridge. 2. Except biological oxygen demand (BOD), turbidity, suspended solid (SS), dissolved oxygen (DO), DO saturation (DOS), ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) and chloride ion (Cl-) at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges were lower as compared with the previous data before redevelopment of the Han River. 3. SS, DO and pH at Kwangjin and 1st Han-River Bridges could be classified to the 1st grade in environmental water quality standard. DOS at Kwangjin Bridge was over 100% and that at 1st Han-River Bridge was below 100% in the Han River. BOD at Kwangjin Bridge could be classified to 2nd grade and that at 1st Han-River Bridge to 3rd grade in environmental water quality standard. 4. The higher the level of water was, the lower the levels of turbidity and SS, and NH3-N was decreased with increasing water level at 1st Han-River Bridge. DO was decreased as water temperature went up but DOS was increased with DO. BOD was positively correlated with nitrite-nitrogens. 5. Turbidity and SS at the both sites and Chloride ion (Cl-) at Kwangjin Bridge were increased in July and August. And DO at the both sites and NH3-N at 1st Han-River Bridge were decreased in at July and August.
Summary
Dose-Response Relationship between Catalase and Superoxide dismutase Activity in Testes of Acutely Intoxicated Rats by Cadmium.
Bo Young Park, Jung Duck Park, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):295-306.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Dose-response relationship among blood cadmium concentrations, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were studied with acutely intoxicated rats by cadmium. The Sprague-Dawley male rats to which single dose of 1-32 mg/kg CdCl2 were administered into peritoneal cavity were sacrificed by decapitation at 3-36 hours after the administration. Cadmium concentrations in blood increased significantly with dose of CdCl2 administered and reached peak level at 3 hours later. Catalase activities in rats' tests were not correlated with exposure time elapsed after the administration in rats to which 1-2 mg/kg of CdCl2 were administered, but they showed linear relationship with time in groups to which 4-32 mg/kg of CdCl2 were administered. Cu, Zn-SOD activities in tests of acutely intoxicated rats by cadmium were not altered either by dosage or by time elapsed after the administration. Mn-SOD activities in the tests were also not influenced by dosage of 1-2 mg/kg CdCl2, but remarkably inactivated by dosage of 4-32 mg/kg CdCl2 with time elapsed after the administration. Neither catalase, Cu, Zn-SOD nor Mn-SOD activities of tests were correlated with blood cadmium concentrations in acutely intoxicated rats by cadmium.
Summary
Knowledge and Practice of College Entrants Toward Hepatitis B.
Sung Ai Chi, Kyou Chull Chung, Jong Yoon Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):31-46.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to designate a status necessary for establishment of preventive measures and guidelines of health education against hepatitis B in the course of secondary school education, knowledge and practice toward hepatitis B virus infection was surveyed by a questionnaire method on total of 4,855 college entrants in the academic year of 1987 and analyzed the data collected using IBM PC(Trigem 88-II) with SAS package program. About two percent of college entrants had past history of HBV infections not showing any difference between both sexes and geographical regions. About one third(33.7%) of total students had tested hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), only 4% had tested hepatitis B surface antibody(HBsAb) and vaccination rate amounted to 24.6%, one fourth of total subjects. Both serological tests and vaccination were most commonly performed during adolescence, showing higher rates in female students than in male students. The rates also seemed to be higher in those from urban cities than those from rural cities. Students who had acquired correct knowledge that hepatitis B was infected by virus were amounted to 78.5% of college entrants, and remaining 21.5% had misunderstood that rickettsia, bacteria, fungi or parasites were casual agents. Female students were better aware of the causal agents than male students but there was no difference between places of growth. As for mode of transmission of HBV, 51.5% of male students and 47.7% of female students had correct knowledge. A very few student had known that fact that HBV was transmitted by body fluids such as tear (6.9%), nasal discharge(10.1%) and semen or vaginal secretion(19.2%) and majority(75%) of students had misunderstood that hepatitis B virus would be transmitted per os through food ingestion. Approximately one half(48.9%) of college entrants had correctly whom to be vaccinated. Approximately one half of the students knew that hepatoma(57.8%) and liver cirrhosis(57.4%) might complicate with hepatitis B virus infection, whereas 12.0% of the students responded that bronchitis was one of the complications of hepatitis B infection. In summary of the above results, we highly recommend that health education program for eradication of hepatitis B virus infection should be introduced in curricula of secondary school education in this country.
Summary
Residual Mercury in Soy-Bean Sprouts by Steps of Cooking.
Jun Yong Chung, Jung Duck Park, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(2):307-313.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was carried out in order to estimate the residual amount of mercury in soy-bean sprouts in each steps of cooking. Samples were taken at markets and also cultured at home without applying the mercury containing pesticides as control. Mercury was determined by dithizone method. It was disclosed that soy-bean sprouts purchased at markets contained 1.32+/-0.274 ppm, 13 times as high as the maximal allowable concentration of mercury in food recommended by Ministry of Health and Social Affairs. Mercury contents, however, dropped off steadily by steps of cooking: rinsed with distilled water and boiled in distilled water showing concentrations of 0.11+/-0.025 ppm in boiled sprouts and 0.03+/-0.022 ppm in sprout-soup. These values were not statistically different from those in control samples, and not exceeded the maximal allowabled levels of mercury in food. It can be concluded that the use of mercury containing pesticides in the cultivation of soy-bean sprouts is not so serious problem as it has been suspected in respect of food contamination, but careful attention must be paid to indiscriminate use of mercury containing pesticides as they may contaminate air, water and soil and secondarily bring harm to human health through food chains.
Summary
Evaluation of Energy Cost in Terms of Oxygen Uptake by Measuring Heart Rate During Tennis Games.
Byung Hee Cho, Kyou Chull Chung, Yeon Pyo Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):289-294.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The energy expended while playing tennis was determined from the players heart rate and from the amount of oxygen they consumed. This study was made using eight healthy but unathletic male college students. Expired air was collected for 2 minute periods during each game by the Douglas bag method. Samples were collected when serving and receiving. The air collected was measured using a wet test gas meter. The amount of air collected was expressed in STPD. Oxygen consumption was determined by measuring the oxygen content of the expired air with a Orzat gas analyzer. The energy expended during the tennis games was calculated indirectly. The caloric coefficient of oxygen was multiplied by the volume of oxygen consumed. The caloric coefficient of oxygen varied from 4.6 to 5.1 kcal/liter of oxygen. In this study the value of 5 kcal/liter of oxygen was used in the calculations. The accuracy of the measurements of energy expended was tested using regression analysis of the measured volume of oxygen. The mean values of heart rate, oxygen consumed and energy expended did not vary when the activity of serving and receiving was compared. The mean value of oxygen consumed during play was 1.4329+/-282 ml/min or 21.6+/-4.0 ml/kg/min. The energy expended was 7.15+/-1.46 kcal/min or 6.45+/-1.23 kcal/kg/min. The values were equivalent to 5.5 mets. When the levels of oxygen consumed were estimated using the formulas, they were found to be higher than the measured levels. The estimated amounts, however, were within 25% of the measured amounts.
Summary
Changes in Oxygen-Pulse During Treadmill Walking.
Chang Hoon Lee, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):281-288.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In search for a method of evaluating the cardiopulmonary function. 74 male and 33 female volunteers ages 18~25 were subjected to this study. The subjects walked on a treadmill at speed of 2,4,6 and 8km/hr with 0,5,10,15,20 and 25% grade of inclination, respectively, for a measurement of heart rate and oxygen-pulse. Heart rate was measured every 5 seconds at resting state and during walking by telemetric method using Heart Checker 108 System (Senoh Co., Japan). Oxygen concentration was measured by Douglas bag method collecting expired air for 5 minutes at rest, and for 2 minutes at the end of each walking exercise. Oxygen concentration in an expired air was analyzed with Orzat gas analyzer and expressed in terms of STPD. Oxygen-pulse was defined as an amount of oxygen consumed at every heart at a cellular level. The followings were the results obtained from this study. 1. Mean values of oxygen-pulse at resting state was 3.1+/-0.11 ml/beat in male and 2.5+/-0.87 ml/beat in female, respectively. 2. Mean values of oxygen-pulse during treadmill walking were increased in proportion with the load of exercise, namely, the speed and grade of inclination, from minimum of 7.1 ml/beat upto maximum of 18.2 ml/beat in male and from minimum of 4.2 ml/beat upto maximum of 12.7 ml/beat in female. 3. Both linear and logarithmic regressional relationships between oxygen-pulse and speed of walking and grade of inclination were observed in both sexes. Predicted values of oxygen-pulse by logarithmic regressional formula on speed and on grade of inclination were better coincided with the measured values than those predicted by the linear regressional formula.
Summary
Measurement conditions for cadmium in urine by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
Ho Chun Choi, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1984;17(1):269-280.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The optimum conditions for measuring cadmium content of less than 0.2ppm by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry were investigated. The cadmium in urine was extracted by APDC-MIBK for the analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry after ashing them by a wet method. 1. Optimum conditions by APDC-MIBK and DDTC-MIBK extractions. The acidic aqueous solution was prepared with appropriate amount of 0.1N nitric acid, 5ml of 25% (W/V) sodium potasstum tartarate, 10ml of saturated ammonium sulfate, and 2ml of 2% APDC(or 1 ml of 5% DDTC) chelating agent. The total volume of solution was adjusted to 55ml and pH to 2~10 (or 7~10). The aqueous solution was extracted with 10ml MIBK. Concentration of Triton X-100 did not effect the absorbance for APDC-MIBK extraction of cadmium, but absorbance decreased as the concentration increased for DDTC-MIBK extraction. The sensitivity and detection limits for the cadmium determination from APDC-MIBK extraction were 0.0038ppm and 0.0102, 0.0022ppm and 0.0116 for DDTC-MIBK, and 0.0132ppm and 0.0034 for 0.1N nitric acid. APDC-MIBK and DDTC-MIBK extractions were 3 times higher than 0.1N nitric acid for the sensitivity. 2. Excretion of cadmium in 24-hour urine by APDC-MIBK extraction. Determination of cadmium in urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry of A.A. (Cd=2 mA) mode and B.C. (Cd=4 mA) mode and B.C. (Cd=4mA, D2=20mA) mode showed some difference (p<0.05). The difference of cadmium determination and recovery according to method of standard additions and standard calibration curve method in urine was not significant (p>0.05, 93.48+/-11.78%, 94.83+/-22.00%). Excretion of cadmium in 24-hour urine collection from normal person and variance analysis within measurement variation was not significant (p>0.05), but between inter-individual was significant (0.05). Determination of cadmium content by two different methods of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry and dithizone colorimetry showed that the results from the two methods can be described by a regression line with a good correlation (y=1.0153x-0.2927, x=Cd by D.C., y=Cd by A.A.S., r=0.8651*, p<0.01).
Summary
A Study on Distribution of Heavy Metals in Normal Korean Tissues.
Seong Gil Jang, Byung Yul Moon, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1982;15(1):95-110.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
For the purpose of investigation to identify the quantities of heavy metals contained in the tissues of the Korean people, a series of analyses was conducted with atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure the amount of lead, cadmium and copper distributed in various tissues, such as brain, liver, kidney, heart, lung, spleen, large intestine, hair, muscle, fat, stomach, costal cartilage, blood and urine, obtained from 30 cadaverous bodies who were believed not exposed to the said heavy metals during their life time either occupationally or therapeutically. 1. Lead content: Inter-individual difference was noted in lead contents in each tissue, vis., the average content of lead in hair was the highest with 14.90+/-9.74 ppm. The next was in costal cartilage that contained 5.06+/-3.86 ppm. The average contents of lead in liver, kidney and muscle were the lowest in value, showing 1.11+/-0.92 ppm, 0.73+/-0.48 ppm and 0.06+/-0.06 ppm, respectively. The lead contents in tissues of children under the age of 10 were significantly lower than those of adults, and the higher values were shown in finales than in females in general. The lead contents in most of the tissues such as hair, costal cartilage, kidney, lung, fat, stomach, large intestine, heart, muscle and urine were well correlated with age. 2. Cadmium content: The average content of cadmium in kidney appeared to be the highest, of ether tissues showing 20.7+/-29.82 ppm, and liver came nest with the value of 1.17+/-0.99 ppm. It was estimated that 83.9% of the total cadmium absorbed into the body was stored in kidney, 4.7% in liver, and the remaining 11.4% was distributed in the rest of the tissues. Cadmium contents in tissues showed difference between both sexes showing higher values in the females than in the males, which was quite contrary to the lead content. Cadmium contents in tissues steadily increased in amount with age, showing a significant correlation with age in all tissues. 3. Copper content: The average content of copper in hair was the highest with 10.36+/-2.21 ppm, and liver came next with 6.31+/-1.24 ppm. The copper that was absorbed into the body w4s distributed in each tissue: 29.9.% in hair, 18.2% in liver, 5~11% in brain, heart and kidney, and 3.0~3.5% in stomach, blood, and lung. The copper contents in tissues of children under the age of 10 showed significantly higher values in liver, kidney, heart and large intestine than those of the adults. The copper contents in brain, costal cartilage and fat were well correlated with age showing the highest correlation coefficient of 0.870 (p<0.01) in brain tissue. There was no difference in copper contents in tissues between both sexes, and the values were, in general, lower than those for Japanese.
Summary
Some Statistical Considerations for the Estimation of Urinary Mercury Excretion in Normal Individuals.
Hee Sook Park, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1980;13(1):27-34.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Purpose
of this study is to find out proper means of estimating the urinary mercury excretion the normal individuals. Whole void volume was collected every 2 hours beginning from 6 o'clock in the morning until 6 o'clock next morning. Mercury excretion in each urine specimen was measured by NIOSH recommended dithizone colorimetric method (Method No. : P & CAM 145). Urinary concentration of mercury was adjusted by two means : specific gravity of 1.024 and a gram of creatinine excretion per liter of urine comparing the data with the unadjusted ones. Mercury excretion in 24-hour urine specimen was calculated by adding the amounts measured with the hourly collected specimens of each individual. Statistical analysis of the urinary mercury excretion revealed the following results : 1. Frequency distribution curve of mercury excreted in urine of hourly specimens was best fitted to power function expressed in the form of y=ax(b), Adjustment of the urinary mercury concentration by creatinine excretion was shown to be superior (y=1674x(-1.52)), r(2)=0.95) over nonadjustment(y=2702x(-1.57)), r(2)=0.92) and adjustment by specific gravity of 1.024(y=4535x(-1.66), r(2)=0.93). 2. Both log-transformed mercury excretion in hourly voided specimens and mercury excretion itself in 24 hour specimens showed the normal distributions. 3. The frequency distribution of mercury adjusting the urinary concentration of mercury by creatinine excretion was best fitted to a theoretical normal distribution with the sample means and excretion was best fitted to a theoretical normal distribution with the sample means and standard deviation than those unadjusted or adjusted with specific gravity of 1,024. 4. Average urinary mercury excretions in 24-hour urine specimen in an individual were as follows : a) Unadjusted urinary mercury excretions. mean and standard deviation :18.6+/-13.68 microgramHg/liter. median : 16.0 microgramHg/liter. range : 0.0-55.10 microgramHg/liter. b) Adjusted with specific gravity. mean : 20.7+/-11.76 microgramHg/liter x 0.024/(S.G.-1.000). median : 20.7 microgramHg/liter x 0.024/(S.G.-1.000). range : 0.0-52.9 microgramHg/liter x 0.024/(S.G.-1.000). c) Adjuested with creatinine excretion. mean and standard deviation : 10.5+/-6.98 microgramHg/g creatinine/liter. median : 9.4 microgramHg/g creatinine/liter. range : 0.0-26.7 microgramHg/g creatinine/liter. 5. No statistically significant differences were found between means calculated from 24-hour urine specimens and those from hourly specimens transformed into logarithmic values. (P<0.05).
Summary
Suitable Weight-Height Type Indixes for the Evaluation of Nutritional Status.
Chi Soon Yoon, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1979;12(1):24-30.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to find out the most suitable weight-height index out of the weight/height(p)-type indices that could be used for the evaluation of nutritional status in an epidemiological survey and for the screening of the obesity. The subjects were chosen randomly, 2,182 males and 719 females from college students and office workers in Seoul districts. The 'best' power-type weight-height index for Korean men and women of all ages from 16 to 59 was found to be weight-height(1.54) for males and weight-height(1.42) for females. Weight-height(2)(Kaup index), however, was the best suited weight-height index for each age group of both sexes except that relative weight (weight-height) was considered to be desirable to apply for males of teen-aged and of over fifties and for females of over forties of age. Normal ranges of Kaup index values for males and females of each age group were presented in tables 5 and 6. These findings suggest that Korean are generally leaner than other ethnic groups of the same sex and age.
Summary
Evaluation of Health Status of College Students by Cornell Medical Index : In Conjunction with their Academic Grade.
Duck Won Joo, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1977;10(1):52-58.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
By evaluating the health status by Cornell Medical Index in conjunction with their academic grade, we attempted to find out whether any health condition may affect on their academic carrier. CMI health questionnaire was filled out by student and matched with one's own academic score of the previous year. Academic score was classified into 5 grades: excellent, very good, good, fair and poor. Difference in number of questions between sections was corrected by standard score method with means of 50 and standard deviation of 10. Differences in number of "yes" answers between sections and between groups of students in each grade were statistically tested by two-way variance analysis method. On the other hand, influence of neuropsychiatric factors (section M-R) on the academic carrier was analyzed by X2-test with Fukamachi's classification. The following were the results obtained in this study : 1) Number of "yes" answers in sections related to mood and feeling pattern(section M-R) were appeared to be influential to academic carrier in male students, but not in female students. 2) Generally speaking, in groups of higher academic grade, number of "yes" answers in each section was on an average 50 or less, and in groups of lower academic grade, the number was 50 or more depending on sections. 3)Number of "yes" answers between sections and between groups in each academic grade were significantly different both in male and female college students. 4) It was noteworthy that data obtained from CMI questionnaire might be variable subjective by examines with some factors at the time of administration.
Summary
Determination of Lead in Urine by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry.
Nam Won Paik, Bock Sang Yoon, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(2):377-382.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
Alterations of Blood Cholinesterase Activity and Urinary Para-nitrophenol Excretion After Exposure to Organophorus Insecticides.
Byung Kook Lee, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1974;7(1):115-121.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to evaluate the health hazard due to organ orphosphorus insecticides, we measured the blood cholinesterase activity and urinary para-nitrophenol among 56 exposed subjects. They are orchard workers, rice plant workers and smithion factory workers. The clinical symptoms were also checked by physicians. We also measured the blood cholinesterase activity and urinary para-nitrophenol excretion of 20 urban people and 15 rural people who had never been exposed to organophosphorus insecticides in order to compare them according to age, sex and geographical differences. And these results were also compared with those of exposed groups. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The normal plasma cholinesterase activity and cell cholinesterase activity were 0.861+/-0.148 delta pH/hr and 0.822+/-0.154 delta pH/hr. And normal para-nitrophenol in urine was 1.21+/-0.52 mg/liter. 2. No significant difference was existed in blood cholinesterase activities and urinary para-nitrophenol excretion according to sex, age and geographical difference. 3. The plasma cholinesterase activity and cell cholinesterase activity of orchard workers, rice plant workers and smithion factory workers were 0.682+/-0.189 delta pH/hr, 0.775+/-0.160 delta pH/hr, 0.754+/-0.123 delta pH/hr and 0.691+/-0.082 delta pH/hr, 0.756+/-0.117delta pH/hr. And significant decreases in blood cholinesterase activities were existed among orchard workers and smithion factory workers compared with control group. 4. The urinary para-nitrophenol excretions of orchard workers, rice plant workers and smithion factory workers were 1.33+/-0.66 mg/liter, 1.19+/-0.88mg/liter and 1.37+/-0.67mg/liter and there were no significant difference between exposed groups and control group. 5. The clinical symptoms complained during and after organophosphorus insecticides exposure were frequently ranked by headache (67.7%) and vertigo (64.5%) and muscular ataxia and weakness (51.6%).
Summary
Oxygen Pulse in Load Carrying.
Byung Kuk Lee, Tal Sil Bae, Hang Ki Jin, Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1972;5(1):105-110.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
On 6 healthy adult males aged 20-30 years, oxygen pulse was observed during carrying sand bags weighting 10, 20 and 30kg on a level treadmill running with speeds of 3,4 and 5 km/hr. The results obtained were as follows. 1. Oxygen pulse during load carrying on a level treadmill was proportionately increased with an increase of work load, average oxygen uptake per minute. Regression equation of oxygen pulse (y: ml/beat) on the average oxygen uptake (x:l/min) required for each grade of work was expressed as y=3.34x + 5.99, sy.x=0.858. 2. Oxygen pulse reached the highest value 2-5 minutes after the start of load carrying, and thereafter it decreased gradually to some extend as the load carrying was continued. Rate of decrease in the oxygen pulse was gerater in lighter works. 3. In lighter works requiring less than 2.0 l/min of oxygen uptake, oxygen pulse was larger in case of carrying a losd by embrace, in both hands and on head than on back or on shoulder.
Summary
Epidemiological Study of Air Pollution and Its affects on Health of Urban Population.
Kyou Chull Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1969;2(1):5-22.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The urban population of our country is rapidly increasing due to many factors of social structure, and sociologists are predicting that the increase rate of the urban population will be over 50% in 1980's. Above all, the population of the capital city of Seoul, is at present more than four millions. Such centering of people in cities, together with the improvement of the standards of living, caused rapid increase in the amount of fuel consumption, and this consumption of fuels became one of the primary sources of the air pollution in cities. Moreover, the heavy traffic, construction of many tall buildings, and the increasing number of new factories due to the industrial development-all these are contributing to make the matter of air pollution worse and in worse in the Metropolitan, whose geographical location is quite unfavorable considered from the view point of air pollution. Most homes in Seoul use briquet as fuel, while oils are used in tall buildings. The CO, SO2, and smoke that come from burning of these furls are a great threat to the health of the urban population. With the purpose of examining the influence of air pollution upon the public health, written inquiries were made upon respiratory diseases, and the carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood was measured to determine whether the air pollution may affect the health of the urban population. Method of Health Examination. (1) Investigation of Respiratory Diseases. Patients' records were examined to finure out the monthly ambulance rate of respiratory patients to the total number of patients treated. On the other hand, by using the questionnaire form approved by the Medical Research Council's Committee on Research into Chronic Bronchitis, investigators interviewed the examinees and inquired into the respiratory symptoms. (2) Measuring of Carboxyhemoglobin Saturation. From the ear lobe of the examinees, with the use of the melangeur for the white blood cell counting, blood was taken, and after diluting it ten times with 0.1% Na2Co3, again diulting it 20 times with 0.5% Na2 CO3, its absorbancy was measured. The following results are obtained from the investigation. (1) It was found out that 7.7% of the total patients under treatment were suffering from upper respiratory infection, acute or chronic bronchitis. bronchial asthma. Pulmonary emphysema and bronchiectasis. of them all, patients with upper respiratory infection numbered the greatest with 4.8% and patients with acute or chronic bronchitis the next with 2.1%, and their monthly ambulance rate was high form December to February during the winter, and form April to May and Form September to October during the changeable seasons. (2) The daily ambulance rate of respiratory patients, it was revealed, had a close connection with the concentration of So2 and Co2 in the air. (3) It was found out that men were more subject to respiratory disease than women, and both men and women were more liable to the diseases with the advancing of age. (4)People living at Choong-ku with the heavy traffic and in the industrial zones of Yeundungpo had high frequency of respiratory symptoms. (5) Considered from the view point of occupations, high frequency was found among those without job, with jobs unknown, merchants and industrial workers, whose social status was rather low and traffic policemen who were always exposed to the exhaust gas of cars. As for women, the frequency was detected in the order of those from high to low, housewives who were exposed to briquet gas, women with jobs unknown, women without jobs, whose social status was low. (6) Ex-smokers rallier than smokers, of both sexes, had higher frequency. As for moll, heavy smokers had high frequency, while in women light smokers had rather high frequence which was presumed to be due to their average old age. (7) Men's average of carboxyhemoglobin saturation was 9.48%, while women's was 11.3%, higher than men's. (p<0.05). Age meant no difference in the case of men, but as for women, the saturation was remarkably high between the ages from 20 to 60. (8) No regional difference was detected in the carboxhemoglobin saturation. (9) The carboxyhemoglobin saturation was found, in the case of men, in the order of office workers, traffic policemen, students, the unemployed, merchants and industrial worker; drivers and as for women, the order was housewives, office worker merchants and industrial workers. (10) No significant correlation was found between the carboxyhemoglobin saturation and the concentration of Co detected in kitchens, or between the carboxyhemoglobin saturation 2nd the passing of time after exposure to briquet gas. No difference of carboxyhemoglobin saturation was detected between smokers and non-smokers, and the degrees of smoking: only, significant negative correlation was found between the passing of time after smoking and the carboxyhemoglobin saturation. It is true that air pollution causes or aggravates the respiratory diseases, increases the carboxyhemoglobin saturation in the blood, but what seems to be more hazardous to the health is tile air polluted by the briquet gas in the kitchens and on-dol rooms rather than the atmospheric pollution.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health