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Jong Hak Chung 8 Articles
Development of Korean Neurobehavioral Test Battery - Assessment of the Validity of Traditional and Computerized Neurobehavioral Tests.
Jong Hak Chung, Chang Yoon Kim, Joon Sa Kong, Man Joong Jeon, Park Chin Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):692-707.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Aim. A neurobehavioral test for workers exposed to organic solvents in the workplace can be affected by many factors : age, education, motivation, ethnicity, etc. To apply more suitable neurobehavioral test for Korean workers, we evaluated the validity of several items of computerized and traditional neurobehavioral tests. Methods. We have applied eleven tests : four items of computerized neurobehavioral test(Swedish Performance Evaluation System) including Addition, Symbol-Digit, Digit Span, and Finger tapping speed, and seven items of traditional neurobehavioral test consisting of Addition, Digit-Symbol , Digit Span, Benton visual retention test, Pursuit aiming, Pegboard, and Tapping. These tests were performed on 96 workers exposed to solvents, and 100 reference workers. The concurrent and construct validities were evaluated by group difference, correlation with age, educational level, hippuric acid level, neurotoxic symptom, current exposure level, multitrait-multimethod matrix, factor analysis, and discriminant analysis. Results. Statistically significant differences were observed between the workers exposed to solvents and referents in computerized Symbol-Digit, Finger tapping speed, traditional Digit-Symbol and Pegboard. The computerized Symbol-Digit, traditional Digit-Symbol, Addition, Benton visual retention test, and Pegboard were found to be related to the age. The performance of computerized Symbol-Digit, Addition, and traditional Digit-Symbol were found to be related to the educational level significantly. The computerized Symbol-Digit, Finger tapping speed, and traditional Digit-Symbol were found to be related to hippuric acid, and neurotoxic symptom. The discriminability of Finger tapping speed, and Pegboard was better than the other tests. In discriminant analysis, the model with two variables, the computerized Symbol-Digit and Pegboard, classified almost 70 percent of the workers correctly. Conclusions. These results suggest that the computerized Symbol-Digit, Finger tapping speed, and Pegboard are more satisfactory for our purpose, and the Addition, Tapping, Benton visual retention test, and Pursuit aiming are less valid than other items. These may allow the reasonable selection of core neurobehavioral tests for workers exposed to solvents in Korea.
Summary
A cohort study on blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration of workers in storage battery factory.
Man Joong Jeon, Joong Jeong Lee, Joon Sakong, Chang Yoon Kim, Jung Man Kim, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(1):112-126.
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To investigate the effectiveness of the interventions in working environment and personal hygiene for the occupational exposure to the lead, the blood zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP) concentrations of 131 workers ( 100 exposed subjects and 31 controls ) of a newly established battery factory were analyzed. They were measured in every 3 months up to 18 months. Air lead concentration (Pb-A) of the workplaces was also checked for 3 times in 6 months interval from August 1987. Environmental intervention included the local exhaust ventilation and vacuum cleaning of the floor. Intervention of the personal hygiene included the daily change of clothes, compulsory shower after work and hand washing before meal, prohibition of cigarette smoking and food consumption at the work site and wearing mask. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the controls was 16.45+/-4.83 microgram/dashliter at the preemployment examination and slightly increased to 17.77+/-5.59 microgram/dashliter after 6 months. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed before the factory was in operation (Group A) was 17.36+/-5.20 microgram/dashliter on employment and it was increased to 23.00+/-13.06 microgram/dashliter after 3 months. The blood ZPP concentration was increased to 27.25+/-6.40 microgram/dashliter on 6 months (p<0.01) after the employment which was 1 month after the initiation of intervention program. It did not increase thereafter and ranged between 25.48 microgram/dashliter and 26.61 microgram/dashliter in the subsequent 4 results. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed after the factory had been in operation but before the intervention program was initiated (Group B) was 14.34+/-6.10 microgram/dashliter on employment and it was increased to 28.97+/-7.14 microgram/dashliter (p<0.01) in 3 months later(1 month after the intervention). The values of subsequent 4 tests were maintained between 26.96 microgram/dashliter and 27.96 microgram/dashliter. Mean blood ZPP concentration of the exposed subjects who were employed after intervention program had been started (Group C) was 21.34+/-5.25 microgram/dashliter on employment and it was gradually increased to 23.37+/-3.86 microgram/dashliter (p<0.01) after 3 months, 23.93+/-3.64 microgram/dashliter after 6 months, 25.50+/-3.01 microgram/dashliter (p<0.01) after 9 months, and 25.50+/-3.10 microgram/dashliter after 12 months. Workplaces were classified into 4 parts according to Pb-A. The Pb-A of part I, the highest areas, were 0.365 microgram/m4, and after the intervention the levels were decreased to 0.216 microgram/m4 and 0.208 microgram/m4 in follow-up test. The Pb-A of part II which was resulted in lower value than part I was decreased from 0.232 microgram/m4 to 0.148 microgram/m4, and 0.120 microgram/m4 after the intervention. The Pb-A of part III was tested after the intervention and resulted in 0.124 microgram/m4 in January 1988 and 0.081 microgram/m4 in August 1988. The Pb-A of part IV was also tested after the intervention and resulted in 0.110 microgram/m4 in August 1988. There was no consistent relationship between Pb-A and blood ZPP concentration. The blood ZPP concentration of the group A and B workers in the part of the highest Pb-A were lower than those of the workers in the parts of lower Pb-A. The blood ZPP concentration of the workers in the part of the lowest Pb-A increased more rapidly. The blood ZPP concentration of the group C workers was the highest in part III. These findings suggest that the intervention in personal hygiene is more effective than environmental intervention, and it should be carried out from the first day of employment and to both the exposed subjects, blue color workers and the controls, white color workers.
Summary
Association of Lifestyle with Blood Pressure.
Ree Joo, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(3):497-507.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to evaluate the association of various lifestyle with blood pressure. The data were obtained from the individuals who got routine health examination in Department of Occupational Medicine, Yeungnam University Hospital from June to September, 1996. Among these people, we selected 130 cases of hypertensives(97 males, 33 females) and 150 normotensives(70 males, 80 females) and study was conducted. The authors collected the information of the risk factors related to hypertension such as age, family history of hypertension, fasting blood sugar, serum total cholesterol, alcohol consumption(g/week), smoking history, relative amount of salt intake(low, moderate, high), the frequency of weekly meat consumption, BMI, daily coffee consumption(cups/day) and the frequency of regular exercise(frequency/week) through questionnaire and laboratory test. By simple analysis, BMI was significantly associated with hypertension in male(p<0.05), and the frequency of weekly meat consumption was significantly associated with hypertension in female(p<0.05). Using logistic regression model, elevated odds ratio was noted for fasting blood sugar, serum total cholesterol, family history of hypertension, alcohol consumption, salt intake and BMI, and reduced odds ratio was noted for coffee consumption and exercise in male but fasting blood sugar(odds ratio=1.022, 95% CI=1.000-1.044), family history in both of parents(odds ratio=3.301, 95% CI=1.864-4.738), salt intake(odds ratio=1.690, 95% CI=1.082-2.298) and BMI(odds ratio=1.204, 95% CI=1.065-1.343) were statistically significant(p<0.05). In female, elevated odds ratio was noted in serum total cholesterol, family history of hypertension, BMI and meat consumption. Of all these variables, the family history of hypertension in either of parents(odds ratio=4.981, 95% CI=3.650-6.312), family history in both of parents(odds ratio=16.864, 95% CI=14.577-19.151), BMI(odds ratio=1.167, 95% CI=1.016-1.318) and meat consumption(odds ratio=2.048, 95% CI=1.133-2.963) showed statistically significant association with hypertension in female(p<0.05).
Summary
Lead Concentrations of Pigeon's Tissue as Indicator of Lead pollution in Air and Soil.
Yung Woo Byun, Tae Yoon Hwang, Jung Jeung Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):15-26.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It has been studied that a variety of fauna and flora are sensitive biological indicators which reflect the severity of regional pollution of heavy metals, but in the center of part of Taegu city the controversial issue of lead poisoning attributable to the atmosphere which contains an increased concentrations of lead has been raised recently, it is usually hard to find suitable plants or animal in the areas with heavy traffic. Pigeons are ubiquitous in and around Taegu city area, inhabiting even the most densely populated areas with heavy traffic with its small body size, high metabolic turnover, and rather limited mobility, a pigeon, as a biological indicator is expected. This study was conducted to monitor lead pollution in the Taegu and kyongju city in Korea. We measured the lead content of the various tissue of three groups of feral pigeon(Columbia livia) and soil and atmospheric lead concentration. First group was obtained io heavy traffic area in Taegu City, the second group was obtained a park in Taegu city and the third group was obtained light traffic area in kyongju city. The air and soil lead concentration of heavy traffic area in Taegu city was 0.11 microgram/m2, 4.96 microgram/g, that of park in Taegu city was 0.05 microgram/m3, 2.65 microgram/g and that of light traffic area in kyonngju city was 0.03 microgram/m3, 0.01 microgram/g. The lead content of lung, blood, kidney, femur and liver of feral pigeons in heavy traffic area in Taegu city was significantly higher than pigeons obtained in a park in Taegu city and low traffic density area in Kyonfju city(p<0.01). But stomach lead content of three group did not reflect a significant difference. In this study positive correlation was found between atmospheric lead concentrations and the concentration of lead in the pigeon's lung(r=0.5040, p<0.001), blood(r=0.3322, p<0.01), kidney(r=0.4824, p<0.001), femur(r=0.7214, p<0.001) and liverer (r=0.4836, p<0.01). we can also found positive correlation between soil lead concentrations and the concentration of lead in the pigeon's femur(r=0.4850, p<0.001), kidney(r=0.4850, p<0.001) and liver(r=0.4386, p<0.01). In the pigeon`s tissue there were significant correlations between concentration of lead in the blood and kidney(r=0.4818, p<0.001), femur(r= 0.6157, p<0.001) and liver(r=0.3889, p<0.001). In conclusion, at the heavy traffic area in Taegu city, lead concentrations found in the atmosphere and soil are reflected in the lead concentrations of different tissue of urban pigeons. It is suggested that the tissue of pigeons can be good biological indicators of environmental lead pollution.
Summary
Health Assessment of Shift Workers in a Automobile Manufacturing Plant.
Jung Jeung Lee, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(1):103-122.
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An investigation on psychophysiological health and social well-being of shift workers been carried out on workers of a automobile manufacturing plant in Ulsan. for 1 month from April, 1993. This cross-sectional survey compared shift workers(n=544) with day workers(n=l15). Each subject completed a questionnaire about his personal habit background. shift schedule. sleep and eating patterns. subjective digestive symptom and psychological well-being and distress using the General Well-Being schedule(GWB) by self administrated questionnaire that was developed for the U. S. Health and Nutrition Examination surveys (HANES I). chi-square analysis was used for discontinuous data and the t-test was used for continous data to determine whether differences noted between the two groups. In terms of sleep quality, a greater percentage of shift workers frequently had trouble getting back to sleep once awakend(p<0.01) and a greater percentage of shift workers awakend tired or sleepy frequently more often than day workers(p<0.05). In rating the quality of their sleep, more shift workers rated their sleep fair to poor than day workers, and greater percentage of shift workers felt tired or sleepy at work two or more times per week(p<0.01) and a much higher percentage of shift workers felt tired or sleepy after work every days(p<0.01). In terms of sleep patterns, a much higher percentage of day workers reported uninterrupted sleep per 24hours than shift workers. The shift workers reported different eating patterns from day workers but there were no statistically significant and rate of their appetite. Thirteen percent of day workers reported the best appetite but only 6.6% of shift workers had the best appetite. The gastric complaints is more frequent in shift workers than day workers(p<0.01). Among subscores in General Well-Being Schedule, anxiety, depression, positive well-being and vitality subscale of shift workers were lower than those of day workers(p<0.05) and general health and self control subscale of shift workers were lower than those of day workers but there were no statistical significant difference. Based on these study result, it could be concluded that the shift work has significant effects on some psychophysiological conditions of the workers.
Summary
Lead Level in Blood, Scalp Hair and Toenail of Elementary Schoolchildren.
Jae Uk Kim, Jung Jeung Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(1):73-84.
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This study was conducted to measure the lead level in the blood, scalp hair and toenail of the elementary schoolchildren and assess the relationship among those samples. Lead concentration of the blood, scalp hair and toenail was measured for l00(male 50, female 50) fourth grade elementary schoolchildren in Taegu city. The mean lead level in the blood, scalp hair and toenail was 6.00+/-2.44 microgram/dl, 6.28+/-3.54 microgram/dl 6. 68 and 7.33+/-3.18 microgram/g. The mean lead level in the blood of schoolboys was 6.43+/-2.77 microgram/dl and that of schoolgirls was 5.59+/-2.01 microgram/dl. The mean lead level in the scalp hair of schoolboys was 7.66+/-2.97 microgram/dl and that of schoolgirls was 6.88+/-3.54 microgram/g. The mean lead level in the toenail of schoolboys was 8.19+/-3.5 microgram/g and that of schoolgirls was 6.47+/-2.52 microgram/g and their difference was statistically significant. In schoolboys, the correlation coefficient between the lead level in the blood and scalp hair was 0.4909, and the data were fitted best by the regression equation Y=0.5255X+4.2810, where Y and X are scalp hair and blood concentration. In schoolgirls the correlation coefficient between the lead level in the blood and scalp hair was 0.3778, and the data were fitted best by the regression equation Y=0.6655X+2.9632, where Y and X are scalp hair and blood concentration. In schoolboys. the correlation coefficient between the lead level in the blood and in the toenail was 0.5533, and the data were fitted best by the regression equation Y=0.7076X+3.6472, where Y and X are toenail and blood concentration. In schoolgirls the correlation coefficient between the lead level in the blood and in the toenail was 0.2738, and the data were fitted best by the regression equation Y=0.3431X+4.5570 where Y and X are toenail and blood concentration. In schoolboys, the correlation coefficient between the lead level in the scalp hair and in the toenail, in the schoolboys was 0.4148, and the data were fitted best by the regression equation Y=0.4956X+4.3986, where Y and X are toenail and scalp hair concentration. In schoolgirls the correlation coefficient between the lead level in the scalp hair and in the toenail 0.1159, and the data were fitted best by the regression equation Y=0.0825X+5.9214 here Y and X are toenail and scalp hair concentration. Correlation among lead concentration in the blood, scalp hair and toenail of schoolchildren were statistically significant except between scalp hair and toenail in schoolgirls. These finding suggest that blood, scalp hair and toenail can be used substitutive samples between each others.
Summary
Effect on Computerized Neurobehavioral Test Performance of the Car Painters Exposed to Organic Solvents.
Joon Sa Kong, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(3):487-504.
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A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate the effects of chronic low-dose sol-vent on neurobehavioral performance of 118 male car painters. A control group of 113 workers matched for age was selected from different sections of the factory. The mean age and the mean duration of employment were 33 years and 6.7 years in both groups. Mean years of education were 11.4 years in car painters and 11.8 years in controls. Each worker completed a medical and occupational questionnaire and four tests of Swedish performance evaluation system. These included simple reaction time, symbol digit, digit span and finger tapping speed. Although the mean duration of employment was 6.7 years, comparison of mean performance showed a significantly poorer performance on simple reaction time (P<0.05), symbol digit (p<0.01) and digit span(p<0.05) in car painters. In univariate analysis, age and educational level contributed to poorer performance on symbol digit and digit span smoking appeared to slow finger tapping speed in car painters. Performance of four tests of car painters exposed to high level of solvent was poorer than that of car painters exposed to low level. In multiple regression models, controlling for age, alcohol, smoking and shift work, solvent exposure was found to be associated with performance of simple reaction time, symbol digit and digit span and exposure to high level of solvent was related to poorer performance of symbol digit and digit span.
Summary
Blood Lead Concentration of Taxi Drivers in Taegu, Korea.
Kun Sakong, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):255-261.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Taxi drivers are exposed to vehicular exhaust aerosols which are a major source of atmospheric lead pollution in Korea where lead additives are incorporated in petrol. To investigate the blood lead concentration, their correlation factors and influences on taxi drivers, samples were collected from 90 taxi drivers who were living in the Taegu City, during August, 1989. Blood lead concentration was estimated by the atomic absoption spectrophotometer (IL.551) equipped with flameless furnace atomizer (IL.665). The results were analyzed statistically and compared with control group were 26.34 +/- 6.53 microgram/dl and 20.77 +/- 4.80 microgram/dl respectively (p<0.01). No significant correlation was observed between the blood lead concentration of taxi drivers and driver career (r=0.093). There were no difference of statistical significance in the blood lead concentration of smokers and nonsmokers.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health