Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health


Author index

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Author index
Jaehee Lee 1 Article
A Longitudinal Study on the Causal Association Between Smoking and Depression.
Eunjeong Kang, Jaehee Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(3):193-204.
  • 6,108 View
  • 167 Download
  • 34 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The objective of this study was to analyze the causal relationship between smoking and depression using longitudinal data. METHODS: Two waves of the Korea Welfare Panel collected in 2006 and 2007 were used. The sample consisted of 14 426 in 2006 and 13 052 in 2007 who were aged 20 and older. Smoking was measured by smoking amount (none/ or = two packs). Depression was defined when the summated CESD (center for epidemiological studies depression)-11 score was greater than or equal to 16. The causal relationship between smoking and depression was tested using logistic regression. In order to test the causal effect of smoking on depression, depression at year 2 was regressed on smoking status at year 1 only using the sample without depression at year 1. Likewise, smoking status at year 2 was regressed on depression at year 1 only using those who were not smoking at year 1 in order to test the causal effect of depression on smoking. The statistical package used was Stata 10.0. Sampling weights were applied to obtain the population estimation. RESULTS: The logistic regression testing for the causal relationship between smoking and depression showed that smoking at year 1 was significantly related to depression at year 2. Smoking amounts associated with depression were different among age groups. On the other hand, the results from the logistic regression testing for the opposite direction of the relationship between smoking and depression found no significant association regardless of age group. CONCLUSIONS: The study results showed some evidence that smoking caused depression but not the other way around.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Risk and protective factors for severe mental disorders in Asia
    Fatima Zahra Rami, Ling Li, Thi Hung Le, Chaeyeong Kang, Mi Ah Han, Young-Chul Chung
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews.2024; 161: 105652.     CrossRef
  • Prenatal predictors of postpartum depression trajectories from birth to 24 months amongst smoking women
    Seth Frndak, Samie Syed, Julian Saleh, Megan Kocher, Xiaozhong Wen
    Journal of Clinical Nursing.2022; 31(11-12): 1643.     CrossRef
  • The long‐term health effects of initiating smoking in adolescence: Evidence from a national longitudinal survey
    Aliaksandr Amialchuk, Onur Sapci
    Health Economics.2022; 31(4): 597.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco smoking and depressive symptoms in Chinese middle-aged and older adults: Handling missing values in panel data with multiple imputation
    Xiahua Du, Rina Wu, Lili Kang, Longlong Zhao, Changle Li
    Frontiers in Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Physical activity mitigates the link between adverse childhood experiences and depression among U.S. adults
    Michael F. Royer, Christopher Wharton, Catalina Castaño
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(10): e0275185.     CrossRef
  • Smoking and Neuropsychiatric Disease—Associations and Underlying Mechanisms
    Omar Hahad, Andreas Daiber, Matthias Michal, Marin Kuntic, Klaus Lieb, Manfred Beutel, Thomas Münzel
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2021; 22(14): 7272.     CrossRef
  • Association of Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption with Depression Severity in the Oldest Old. Results from the Age Different Old Age Cohort Platform
    Janine Quittschalle, Alexander Pabst, Margrit Löbner, Melanie Luppa, Kathrin Heser, Michael Wagner, Hendrik van den Bussche, André Hajek, Hans-Helmut König, Birgitt Wiese, Matthias C. Angermeyer, Wolfgang Maier, Martin Scherer, Steffi G. Riedel-Heller
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(15): 7959.     CrossRef
  • Waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smoking and depressive symptoms among public school students in central Jordan
    Sukaina Alzyoud, Farah Massoud
    Journal of Health Research.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Happiness among second year MBBS students and its correlates using Oxford Happiness Questionnaire
    Shivam Kamthan, Saurabh Sharma, Rahul Bansal, Bhawna Pant, Parul Saxena, Shivakshi Chansoria, Arvind Shukla
    Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research.2019; 9(2): 190.     CrossRef
  • Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Depressive Effects of Regular Tea Consumption
    Dylan O’Neill Rothenberg, Lingyun Zhang
    Nutrients.2019; 11(6): 1361.     CrossRef
  • Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Affect and Smoking Craving in the Weeks Before and After a Cessation Attempt
    Ana M Abrantes, Samantha G Farris, Haruka Minami, David R Strong, Deborah Riebe, Richard A Brown
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2018; 20(5): 575.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Cigarette Smoking With Depression and Anxiety: A Systematic Review
    Meg Fluharty, Amy E. Taylor, Meryem Grabski, Marcus R. Munafò
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2017; 19(1): 3.     CrossRef
  • Depressive Symptoms Delayed Quit Attempts and Shortened Abstinence in Young Smokers of the Hong Kong Youth Quitline
    David C. N. Wong, Sophia S. C. Chan, Tai-hing Lam
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2016; 18(3): 251.     CrossRef
  • Happiness Among College Students: A Cross-Sectional Web-Based Study Among Iranian Medical Students
    Azadeh Lesani, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl, Maryam Javadi, Hossein Ansari, Ali Fakhari
    Biotechnology and Health Sciences.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Increased Risk of Major Depression With Early Age of Exposure to Cigarettes
    Bishnu Devkota, Joanne Salas, Lauren Garfield
    American Journal of Preventive Medicine.2016; 51(6): 933.     CrossRef
  • Effects of corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 SNPs on major depressive disorder are influenced by sex and smoking status
    Bruna S. da Silva, Diego L. Rovaris, Jaqueline B. Schuch, Nina R. Mota, Renata B. Cupertino, Angelita P. Aroche, Guilherme P. Bertuzzi, Rafael G. Karam, Eduardo S. Vitola, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Eugenio H. Grevet, Claiton H.D. Bau
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2016; 205: 282.     CrossRef
  • Emotional and Affective Temperaments in Smoking Candidates for Bariatric Surgery
    Karin Daniele Mombach, Cesar Luis de Souza Brito, Alexandre Vontobel Padoin, Daniela Schaan Casagrande, Claudio Cora Mottin, Franco Folli
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(3): e0150722.     CrossRef
  • Mood, Mood Regulation, and Frontal Systems Functioning in Current Smokers, Long-Term Abstinent Ex-Smokers, and Never-Smokers
    Michael Lyvers, Cassandra Carlopio, Vicole Bothma, Mark S. Edwards
    Journal of Psychoactive Drugs.2014; 46(2): 133.     CrossRef
  • How robust is the association between smoking and depression in adults? A meta-analysis using linear mixed-effects models
    Tana M. Luger, Jerry Suls, Mark W. Vander Weg
    Addictive Behaviors.2014; 39(10): 1418.     CrossRef
  • Changes in prevalence of depression and anxiety following smoking cessation: results from an international cohort study (ATTEMPT)
    L. Shahab, S. Andrew, R. West
    Psychological Medicine.2014; 44(1): 127.     CrossRef
  • The impact of lifestyle factors on the 2-year course of depressive and/or anxiety disorders
    Lynn Boschloo, Kerstin G. Reeuwijk, Robert A. Schoevers, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2014; 159: 73.     CrossRef
  • Prenatal maternal depression is associated with low birth weight through shorter gestational age in term infants in Korea
    Hyoung Yoon Chang, Katherine M. Keyes, Kyung-Sook Lee, In Ae Choi, Se Joo Kim, Kyung Won Kim, Youn Ho Shin, Kang Mo Ahn, Soo-Jong Hong, Yee-Jin Shin
    Early Human Development.2014; 90(1): 15.     CrossRef
  • Heavy overtime work and depressive disorder among male workers
    R. Kato, Y. Haruyama, M. Endo, A. Tsutsumi, T. Muto
    Occupational Medicine.2014; 64(8): 622.     CrossRef
  • Smoking uptake is associated with increased psychological distress: results of a national longitudinal study
    Kristie N Carter, Frederieke S van der Deen, Nick Wilson, Tony Blakely
    Tobacco Control.2014; 23(1): 33.     CrossRef
  • Inverted U shaped effect of nicotine on the severity of depressive symptoms: A population-based survey
    Ammar W. Ashor
    Journal of Young Pharmacists.2013; 5(2): 60.     CrossRef
  • Mood, mood regulation expectancies and frontal systems functioning in current smokers versus never-smokers in China and Australia
    Michael Lyvers, Cassandra Carlopio, Vicole Bothma, Mark S. Edwards
    Addictive Behaviors.2013; 38(11): 2741.     CrossRef
  • Smoking is a predictor of depression onset among National Guard soldiers
    Renee D. Goodwin, Marta Prescott, Marijo Tamburrino, Joseph R. Calabrese, Israel Liberzon, Sandro Galea
    Psychiatry Research.2013; 206(2-3): 321.     CrossRef
  • Compositional and Contextual Factors Related to Area Differentials in Suicide
    Eunjeong Kang
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2013; 30(1): 41.     CrossRef
  • Trends in the Prevalence of Tobacco Use in the United States, 1991–1992 to 2004–2005
    Roberto Secades-Villa, Mark Olfson, Mayumi Okuda, Natalie Velasquez, Gabriela Pérez-Fuentes, Shan-Min Liu, Carlos Blanco
    Psychiatric Services.2013; 64(5): 458.     CrossRef
  • Association of smoking and nicotine dependence with severity and course of symptoms in patients with depressive or anxiety disorder
    Mumtaz Jamal, A.J. Willem Van der Does, Pim Cuijpers, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2012; 126(1-2): 138.     CrossRef
  • Differences in happiness between smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers: cross-sectional findings from a national household survey
    Lion Shahab, Robert West
    Drug and Alcohol Dependence.2012; 121(1-2): 38.     CrossRef
  • A twin study of depression and nicotine dependence: Shared liability or causal relationship?
    Alexis C. Edwards, Kenneth S. Kendler
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2012; 142(1-3): 90.     CrossRef
  • Age at Smoking Onset and the Onset of Depression and Anxiety Disorders
    M. Jamal, A. J. W. V. d. Does, B. W. J. H. Penninx, P. Cuijpers
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research.2011; 13(9): 809.     CrossRef
  • Tobacco smoking and depression: results of a cross-sectional study
    Vanessa Argondizo dos Santos, Ana Maria Migott, Claiton Henrique Dotto Bau, José Miguel Chatkin
    British Journal of Psychiatry.2010; 197(5): 413.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health