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Hyowon Choi 1 Article
Association Between Parental BMI and Offspring’s Blood Pressure by Mediation Analysis: A Study Using Data From the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hyowon Choi, Hunju Lee, Yeon-Soon Ahn
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(6):533-541.   Published online October 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.289
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study analyzed the relationship between parental body mass index (BMI; BMI_p) and hypertension in their adolescent offspring (HTN_a), focusing on the mediating effect of adolescents’ BMI (BMI_a).
Methods
Utilizing data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including participants aged 12-18, we conducted a mediation analysis while controlling for confounding factors such as age, sex, physical activity, dietary habits, household income quartile, and parents’ alcohol and smoking habits.
Results
The study included a total of 5731 participants, of whom 3381 and 5455 participants had data on fathers’ and mothers’ BMI, respectively. For adolescent systolic blood pressure (SBP_a), the father’s BMI (BMI_f) had a significant total effect (β, 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.12 to 0.34) and average controlled mediated effect (ACME) (β, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.32), but the average direct effect (ADE) was not significant. The mother’s BMI (BMI_m) had a significant total effect (β, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.25), ACME (β, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.28) and ADE (β, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.00). For adolescent diastolic blood pressure, both BMI_f and BMI_m had significant ACMEs (β, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.12 and β, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.12, respectively), BMI_m had a significant ADE (β, -0.09; 95% CI, -0.16 to -0.02) but BMI_f had an insignificant ADE and total effect.
Conclusions
The study found that parental BMI had a significant effect on SBP_a, mediated through BMI_a. Therefore, a high BMI in parents could be a risk factor, mediated through BMI_a, for systolic hypertension in adolescents, necessitating appropriate management.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구를 통해 부모의 BMI가 청소년기의 BMI를 매개하여 청소년의 수축기 혈압에 영향을 미침을 확인할 수 있었습니다. 그러나 본 연구는 단면적인 데이터를 활용하였으며, 후향적 연구로 이에 대한 한계를 가지고 있으며, 이후 이에 대한 추가 연구가 필요합니다.
Key Message
This study was able to confirm that parents' BMI mediated their BMI during adolescence and affected systolic blood pressure in adolescents. However, this study utilized cross-sectional data, and has limitations on this as a retrospective study, so further studies are needed.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health