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Choong Won Lee 10 Articles
Relationship between Blood Pressure and Impairment of Cognitive Function In Some Rural Residents Aged 60-64.
Choong Won Lee, Moo Sik Lee, Jong Chan Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):208-214.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Face-to-face interviews were conducted to investigate the relationship between blood pressure and the impairment of cognitive function in rural elderly (N=932) aged 60-64 in Dalsung County, April to September in 1996 METHODS: Impairment of cognitive function was defined as a score of less than 23 by the Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSEK). Blood pressure was measured once in each subject using a portable automatic sphygmomanometer. RESULTS: By univariate logistic regression on males, no category of systolic blood pressure bore statistical significance. Groups with diastolic blood pressures of, less than 80 mmHg, 90-94 mmHg, and more than 95mmHg had odds ratios of more than one compared with the reference group (80-89 mmHg). This was most significant in the group with blood pressures lower than 80 mmHg, which had a statistically significant odds ratio of 1.68 (95 % confidence interval Cl; 1.02-2.75). No category of blood pressure was statistically significant in females. Multivariate logistic regression for males, with adjustment for age, educational attainment, smoking, alcoholic drinking, body mass index, atherosclerotic disease, and antihypertensive medication use, did not alter the odds ratios significantly in terms of systolic blood pressure. However, the group with diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 mmHg had an increased odds ratio of 2.01 (95 % Cl; 1.15-3.52) compared with the reference group. In females, systolic blood pressure did not alter the odds ratio, but the group with a diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 mmHg had a statistically significant odds ratio of 0.57 (95% Cl; 0.37-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function status is stronger diastolic than systolic blood pressure and that there is a complex relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function by sex.
Summary
Senior Medical Students' Attitudes toward and Knowledge about Breastfeeding.
Mi Young Lee, Mi Jung Kang, Choong Won Lee, Kyu Bok Jin, Eun Jung Suh, Jae Suk Ahn, Suk Kwon Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(1):95-100.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study surveyed medical students attending clerkship to assess their attitude toward and knowledge about breastfeeding, and self-confidence to manage common breast-feeding problems. METHODS: A self-report questionnaire was administered to the 323 medical students at four medical colleges in Taegu in May 1997. The response rate was 92.9%, but the respondents used in the final data analysis were 245 (75.8%) due to missing variables. RESULTS: Overall, respondents showed equivocal attitudes toward breastfeeding (mean score 2.9 on a 6-point scale). Knowledge about breastfeeding was substantially low with the median % correct 39.2%. Of nine knowledge areas, weak areas were especially "contraindications and barriers to breastfeeding", "use of breastfeeding aids", "expression and storage of breast milk". Those reported to be confident to manage common breastfeeding problems were only 25.7%. Correlations between knowledge and self-confidence were not statistically significant except in college A (r=0.35, p<0.05). Correlations between knowledge and attitude were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that medical students attending clerkship in Taegu show equivocal attitudes toward breastfeeding, low self-confidence to manage common breastfeeding problems and have substantially limited level of knowledge. There should be more concerted efforts to improve this situation on the part of those involved in breastfeeding education.
Summary
The Incidence Rate of Coronary Heart Disease in City Area.
Byung Yeol Chun, Kwon Bae Kim, Kee Sik Kim, Young Jo Kim, Yoon Nyun Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Wee Hyun Park, Dong Gu Shin, Bong Sub Shin, Jong Joo Lee, Choong Won Lee, Sung Gug Chang, Jae Eun Jun, Yong Keun Cho, Shung Chuil Chae, Gi Yong Choi, Young Ae Ha, Young Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):395-403.
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To estimate the incidence rate of coronary heart disease in Korea, of all residents of the Taegu city aged 25 or above, those who had an acute MI or fatal coronary event between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 1997 were registered. Seven hundreds and eight patients were registered during the study period(685 were identified at hospital and 23 were autopsy cases). Age-standardized annual incidence rate of men in city area was 93 per 100,000(95% CI; 61-142) and 33(95% CI; 16-67) in women(100 in men and 20 in women aged 35-64). The incidence was rapidly increased after age 40 in men, however, in women after age 60. Twenty-eight-days case fatality rate was 45% in men and 47% in women. However, in the age group of 45-59 case fatality rate in women was two times higher than that in men. In conclusion, crude annual incidence rate of CHD in city area was 73 per 100,000 in men and 33 in women. The age-standardized annual incidence of CHD in men(93 per 100,000) was 3.2 times higher than that in women (33 per 100,000) in Korea.
Summary
Application of HHIE-S(Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly-Screening version) to screening test of noise-induced hearing loss.
Mi Young Lee, Suk Kwon Suh, Choong Won Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):539-554.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The study conducted from May to September in 1994 to investigate applicability of the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly-Screening version(HHIE-S) in parallel with the puretone audiometer to the initial screening test of noise-induced hearing loss(NIHL) in some noise-exposed workers. Subjects were selected by systemic sampling that took every fifth person from 6,700 workers taking the annual occupational health examination by the department of Health Maintenance of Dongsan Hospital Keimyung University in Taegu. The authors administered the pure-tone audiometric test and self-reported questionnaire of HHIE-S including items of sociodemographic and job-related variables concurrently. The final subjects analysed were 1,019(488 males and 531 females) excluding fourteen persons who had many missing values in their questionnaires. The reliability coefficients of HHIE-S scale by Cronbach's alpha were 0.84. In the univariate analysis of hearing handicap measured by the HHIE-S, work duration, military service and the hearing threshold loss at 1kHz and 4kHz was the only selected variable explaining the hearing handicap in males and hearing threshold loss at 1kHz and 4kHz, age, and work duration were selected in females. In ROC curves for HHIE-S scores against NIHL as gold standard which was defined by the follow-up audiogram as more than 30dB of the average of 0.5/1/2kHz and 50dB at 4kHz, the optimal cutoff for the parallel HHIE-S appeared to be 8. The results suggest that HHIE-S appeared to have some reliability and validity in this data and might be used in screening NIHL in parallel with pure-tone audiometer in noise-exposed workers.
Summary
Predictors of breast-feeding discontinuation in some followed-up hospital-delivered mothers.
Choong Won Lee, Moo Sik Lee, Jong Won Park, Mi Young Lee, Mi Joung Kang, Dong Hoon Shin, Se Youp Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):845-862.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We followed prospectively some hospital-delivered mothers to identify characteristics of those not initiated breast-feeding and predictors of breast-feeding discontinuation in monthly telephone interviews. Recruits were composed of 482 mothers who delivered their babies at one university hospital and one OB/GYN clinic in september to November 1991. Breast-feeding discontinuation was defined as switch to 100% formula lasting more than one week regardless of solid foods. Average age of the study subjects was 27.3 years of age(standard deviation 3.2). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated native place, occupation, method of delivery and method of feeding considered to be better for maternal health were statistically significant(p<0.1) between initiators and non-initiators of breast feeding. In starting cohort(N=242) of those initiated breast-feeding, that median of breast-feeding discontinuation were 5 months and 25th and 75th percentiles were 3 and 9 months respectively. I Cox's proportional hazard model, mothers with 10~13 years of education were 2.63 times (95% confidence interval, CI 1.50~4.60 ) more likely to discontinue than those with less than 9 years of education and those with more than 13 years of education were 3.55 time (95% CI 1.99~6.33). Compared with house wife, mothers with part-time jobs were 1.99 times (95% CI 0.86~4.57) more likely to discontinue and those with employed full-time were 1.55 times (95% CI 0.96~2.51). These results suggest that the predictors of initiation and discontinuation of breast-feeding may be different and different target populations should be selected to promote initiation and to prevent discontinuation of breast-feeding according to the period after birth.
Summary
Anger-coping types and hypertension in some employed men.
Choong Won Lee, Jong Won Park, Se Youp Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(2):462-472.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study examined the relation between anger-coping types and hypertension in employed men aged 40-60 who consented to participate during the biannual physical checkup in the department of health management in 1988. The subjects analyzed were five hundred thirteen excluding those having hypertension history and/or current antihypertensive medications. Anger-coping types were constructed from the Harburg's model with two hypothetical anger-provoking situations involving wife and boss. Hypertensives were defined more than 140mmHg systolic blood pressure and/or 90mmHg diastolic blood pressure. Hypertensives were one hundred fifty two(29.6%) and those who suppressed their anger were 61.6%0 and 62.8% in wife and boss situations respectively. Items of anger, guilt, protest, and suppressed anger in wife situation showed odds ratios of 0.78-0.94 without statistical significance. But four items in boss situation showed odds ratios more than 1, especially anger-in types of anger item had 1.58 times the prevalence of hypertension of anger-out types(95% confidence intervals(CI) 1.06~2.35) and subjects who indicated that suppressed their anger had 1.55 times the prevalence of hypertension of those who expressed their anger(95% CI l.03~2.32). For anger suppressed vs. expressed types of total suppressed anger index, prevalence of hypertension was 1.31(95% CI 0.83~2.08). After adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking and drinking, the odds ratios were slightly increased in both situations except guilt items compared with univariate analysis. These results suggest that the relation between Harburg's anger-coping model and hypertension is replicated partially in this subjects.
Summary
Leukocyte count and hypertension in the health screening data in some rural and urban residents.
Choong Won Lee, Nung Ki Yoon, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(3):363-372.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We used the health screening data of some rural and urban residents to examine the cross-sectional association between leukocyte count and hypertension. The 206 male and 203 female rural residents were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling method in Kyungsan-Kun area of Kyungbuk province in 1985 and 600 urban residents were selected by the same sampling method as the rural residents in Daegu city of the same province in 1986 compatible with age-sex distribution of Daegu city of 1985 census, but of whom 384 actually responded. The rest of 600 were replaced by age and sex with those who were members of the medical insurance plan visiting the health management department of the university hospital to get the biannual preventive medical checkups. Excluded in the analysis were those having hypertensive history, diseases and extreme outlying values of the screening tests, leaving 373 rural and 571 urban residents. Leukocyte count was measured with ELT-8 Laser shadow method and the unit cells/mm3. Blood pressures were determined with an aneroid sphygmomanometer with pre-standardized method and hypertensives were defined as those showing systolic blood pressure more than 140 mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure more than 90 mmHg. Total residents pooled (N=944) showed a significant difference between hypertensives and normotensives (6965.93+/-1997.01 vs 6490.61+/-1941.32, P=0.00) and in rural residents was noted the similar significant difference (P=0.03). None of significant differences were noted in any stratum stratified by residency and sex. Compared to the lowest quintile of WBC, 2/5 quintile showed odds ratio 0.99 (95% CI 0.90-2.21), 4/5 quintile 1.76 (95% CI 1.14-2.72), and highest quintile 1.80 (1.15-2.82) in the total residents. Likelihood ratio test for linear trend for in indicated a significant trend (x2 trend=5.53, df=1, P<0.05). There were no other significant odds ratios compared to the lowest quintile of WBC in strata stratified by residency and sex. The odds ratios in total residents which had showed significant odds ratios became nonsignificant and of reduced magnitude after controlling age, frequency of smoking and drinking with multiple logistic regression. In each stratum, it changed magnitudes of odds ratios slightly and unstably. None of the trend tests showed any significant trend. These results suggest that the Friedman et al's finding of association between leukocyte count and hypertension may be due to an statistical type I error result in from the data dredging in an exploratory study, in which more than 800 variables were screened as possible predictors of hypertension.
Summary
Body fat distribution and hypertension.
Choong Won Lee, Nung Ki Yoon
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(1):57-69.
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This study examined the cross-sectional association of body fat distribution with hypertension as well as the superiority of medical calf skinfold measured as peripheral fat distribution over the conventional triceps skinfold using 450 Korean Navy divers selected by authors' convenience in 1990. Their mean age was 27.9 and range of it was 19-51. The centrally located body fat was approximated by subscapular from these skinfold measures to reflect central versus peripheral fat distribution pattern: 2 ratios and 2 differences. After controlling age and overall obesity (body mass index), prevalence odds ratios of the 2/4, 3/4, 4/4 quartiles of subscapular skinfold comparing with lowest 1/4 quartile were 2.05 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.18-3.59), 2.02 (95% CI 1.06-3.86), 4.00 (95% CI 1.99-8.06) respectively. The difference of subscapular and medical calf skinfolds was associated with hypertension (odds ration 2.45, 95% CI 1.28-4.68 comparing highest with lowest quartiles). Triceps and medical calf skinfolds alone did not show any odds ratio not including unity. The adjusted odds ratios were generally reduced in small magnitude compared with crude odds ratios not adjusted for age and overall obesity. The medical calf skinfold appeared to be more representative of peripheral body fat distribution than triceps skinfold. These findings suggest that central fat distribution rather than peripheral distribution is associated with hypertension independent of age and overall level of obesity and medical calf skinfold may replace conventional triceps skinfold in predicting peripheral distribution of body fat.
Summary
Type A behavior pattern and social control of parents.
Choong Won Lee, Nung Ki Yoon, Suk Kwon Suh, Dong Hoon Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):22-32.
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Associations between type A behavior pattern (TABP) and parental social control were examined by a questionnaire survey in a sample of 803 undergraduates of the three universities in Daegu city in 1988. TABP was assessed by the Student Jenkins Activity Survey (SJAS, short from) and social control of parents by Bernstein and Brandis' Index of control and communication which were both dichotomized by median. The mean age of the sample was 20.7 (standard deviation, 2.2) and mean of total score of SJAS was 5.6 with it standard deviation and median, 2.7 and 5, respectively. In stratified analysis for TABP-social control association by the native place, sex and socioeconomic status (SES), males of rural origin with low SES showed odds ratio (OR), 2.49 but those with high 0.40. For females of rural origin, those with low SES showed OR, 1.02, whereas those with high SES did 0.35. For those who was of urban origin, males with low SES had OR 1.27, and those with high SES did 1.29. Females with high SES showed 0.85 and those with low SES 0.67. None of the TABP-social control associations among the strata showed confidence intervals not including unity. In multiple logistic regression by native place, for those with rural origin the only term showed a statistically significance was the social control-SES of parents interaction, OR 3.99 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-15.46). For those of urban origin, none of the terms are statistically significant. These results suggest a social upward mobility by education of the rural disadvantaged group and a Confucian idea that regards academic achievement as one of social virtues, both of which may reflect the different sociocultural structures from the West.
Summary
The Relationship of Psychosocial Factors to Blood Pressure.
Choong Won Lee, Sung Kwan Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):99-112.
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Questionnaires and blood pressure measurements were administered to 279 medical school undergraduates in 1987 to investigate the relationship between psychosocial factors and blood pressure as well as reliability and validity of the Framingham Type A Behavior Scale(FTA). The reliability coefficients of SCL-90-R and FTA measured by Spearman-Brown haves split test were 0.57-0.91, The factors of FTA extracted by principal component analysis were hard-driving competitiveness factor and impatience factor(2-factor solution). The total score of FTA was positively correlated with relative weight and place raised but the correlations were insignificant, and had significantly positive but weak correlations with depression, anxiety hostility, paranoid, and psychoticism subscales of SCL-90-R. In the univariate analysis of blood pressures, relative weight and family history were significant in systolic pressure in males and economic status was significant in blood pressures in both sexes. For diastolic pressure, relative weight and frequency of alcohol intake were significant in males and relative weight was in females. After controlling relative weight, the frequency of alcohol intake for diastolic pressure and economic status for systolic pressure were significant in males. The important variables selected by stepwise regression analysis were relative weight and economic status for systolic pressure of males and relative weight and the frequency of alcohol to the model, changing coefficient of determination 0.206 to 0.217. In females, economic status and relative weight were selected for systolic pressure and for diastolic pressure body mass index alone, but the model of blood pressure for females was considered to be unstable due to small sample size(56). FTA was unrelated to the blood pressures in both sexes.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health