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Byung Yeol Chun 32 Articles
Association Between Gamma-Glutamyltransferase and Hypertension Incidence in Rural Prehypertensive Adults.
Jun Hyun Hwang, Ji Yeon Shin, Byung yeol Chun, Duk Hee Lee, Keon Yeop Kim, Wee hyun Park, Shung chull Chae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(1):18-25.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.1.18
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Prehypertension is associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension compared with normotension. Yet, factors predicting the development of hypertension among prehypertensive people are ill-understood. This prospective cohort study was performed to examine if serum gamma-glutamyltrasferase (GGT) within a normal range can predict the future risk of hypertension among prehypertensive adults. METHODS: Study subjects were 293 prehypertensive persons >30-years-of-age who participated in a community-based health survey in 2003 and who were followed up in 2008. Sex-specific quartiles of baseline serum GGT were used to examine association with 5-year hypertension incidence. RESULTS: Baseline serum GGT within normal range predicted the risk of developing hypertension for 5 years only in prehypertensive women. Adjusted relative risks were 1.0, 3.7, 3.6, and 6.0 according to quartiles of baseline serum GGT (P for trend <0.01). This pattern was similarly observed in non-drinkers. However, serum GGT was not associated with incident hypertension in men. Different from serum GGT, baseline serum alanine aminotransferase, another well-known liver enzyme, did not predict the risk of incident hypertension in both genders. CONCLUSIONS: Even though baseline serum GGT within normal range strongly predicted the future risk of hypertension, it was observed only in women, Although underlying mechanisms of this association are currently unclear, serum GGT can be used to select a high risk group of hypertension in prehypertensive women.
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Gamma-glutamyltransferase and risk of hypertension
    Setor K. Kunutsor, Tanefa A. Apekey, Bernard M.Y. Cheung
    Journal of Hypertension.2015; 33(12): 2373.     CrossRef
  • Endobiogeny: A Global Approach to Systems Biology (Part 1 of 2)
    Jean-Claude, Lapraz, Kamyar M. Hedayat
    Global Advances in Health and Medicine.2013; 2(1): 64.     CrossRef
  • Gamma-Glutamyltransferase Level and Risk of Hypertension: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    Cun-Fei Liu, Yu-Ting Gu, Hai-Ya Wang, Ning-Yuan Fang, Antony Bayer
    PLoS ONE.2012; 7(11): e48878.     CrossRef
  • Association between γ-glutamyltransferase and prehypertension
    XUZHEN QIN, GUODONG TANG, LING QIU, TAO XU, XINQI CHENG, SHAOMEI HAN, GUANGJIN ZHU, YAJUN LIU
    Molecular Medicine Reports.2012; 5(4): 1092.     CrossRef
Associations of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver with the Metabolic Syndrome and Serum Carotenoids.
Sun kyun Park, Hyun Jung Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Sung Ae Kim, Hye Sung Lee, Hyo Kyung Son, Sung Hi Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(1):39-44.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.1.39
  • 5,545 View
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  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to investigate the associations of non alcoholic fatty liver with metabolic syndrome and the serum carotenoids. METHODS: This study was conducted in a general hospital in South Korea from November, 2004 to August, 2005. The study subjects were 350 sampled persons who were aged from 40 years and older (males: 180, females: 170). They were grouped into the normal, mild and severe groups according to fat accumulation in their livers, as determined by ultrasonography. We analyzed the association between non alcoholic fatty liver and metabolic syndrome by multiple logistic regression analysis and we analyzed the association between non alcoholic fatty liver and the serum carotenoids by a general linear model(ANCOVA). RESULTS: After adjustment for the effect of potential covariates, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was associated with fat accumulation in the liver (p trend <0.001). If the odds ratio of normal group is 1.00, then that of the mild group is 2.80 (95% C.I=1.17-6.71) and that of the severe group is 7.29 (95% C.I=2.76-19.30). The prevalence of metabolic alterations fitting the criteria of metabolic syndrome, according to the class of fat accumulation in the liver, was significantly increased, except for criteria of high blood pressure, a large waist circumference and low HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol level (p trend <0.001). The level of serum beta-carotene was decreased according to the class of fat accumulation in the liver (p trend=0.036), but the levels of serum alpha-carotene, lycopene, bata-cryptoxanthin and lutein were not decreased. CONCLSIONS: This study shows that non alcoholic fatty liver was associated with metabolic syndrome and with the serum beta-carotene level.
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Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Therapeutic potential of bioactive phytoconstituents found in fruits in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A comprehensive review
    Manash Pratim Pathak, Kalyani Pathak, Riya Saikia, Urvashee Gogoi, Pompy Patowary, Pronobesh Chattopadhyay, Aparoop Das
    Heliyon.2023; 9(4): e15347.     CrossRef
  • The Protection Conferred by HSD17B13 rs72613567 Polymorphism on Risk of Steatohepatitis and Fibrosis May Be Limited to Selected Subgroups of Patients With NAFLD
    Eduardo Vilar-Gomez, Carlos J. Pirola, Silvia Sookoian, Laura A. Wilson, Tiebing Liang, Naga Chalasani
    Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology.2021; 12(9): e00400.     CrossRef
  • Trends and Patterns of Burden of Disease and Injuries in Korea Using Disability-Adjusted Life Years
    Young-Eun Kim, Hyesook Park, Min-Woo Jo, In-Hwan Oh, Dun-Sol Go, Jaehun Jung, Seok-Jun Yoon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Dietary Carotenoids and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among US Adults, NHANES 2003–2014
    Krista Christensen, Thomas Lawler, Julie Mares
    Nutrients.2019; 11(5): 1101.     CrossRef
  • Central obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk after adjusting for body mass index
    Qing Pang
    World Journal of Gastroenterology.2015; 21(5): 1650.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Liver Vitamin A Reserves and Severity of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in the Class III Obese Following Bariatric Surgery
    Gabriela Villaça Chaves, Sílvia Elaine Pereira, Carlos José Saboya, Daiane Spitz, Camila Santos Rodrigues, Andréa Ramalho
    Obesity Surgery.2014; 24(2): 219.     CrossRef
  • Association of oral health behaviors and status with depression: results from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010
    Se Jin Park, Ki Dong Ko, Seung-Il Shin, Yu Jeong Ha, Gy Young Kim, Hyoung Ah Kim
    Journal of Public Health Dentistry.2014; 74(2): 127.     CrossRef
  • Measuring the burden of chronic diseases in Korea in 2007
    E.-J. Kim, S.-J. Yoon, M.-W. Jo, H.-J. Kim
    Public Health.2013; 127(9): 806.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Cardiovascular Risk Factors with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Health Checkup Examinees
    Jae-Hee Yu, Kang-Sook Lee, Seon-Young Lee, A-Rum Hong, Yong-Sang Park
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2008; 41(6): 407.     CrossRef
Circulatory Disease Surveillance System in Korea.
Byung Yeol Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(4):273-277.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.4.273
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The purpose of establishing the circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea is to ensure that the problems of circulatory disease importance are being monitored efficiently and effectively. The goals of circulatory disease surveillance system are to monitor the epidemiological trends of circulatory disease and to evaluate the outcome of health activity for controlling circulatory diseases. Surveillance system are being updated to achieve the needs for the integration of the surveillance and information system, the establishment of data standards, the electronic exchange of data, and changes in the goals of circulatory disease surveillance system to facilitate the response of this system to manage the national health problem effectively. This article provides the target diseases and determinant indicators to be monitored, structure of circulatory disease surveillance system, and many tasks and related activities that should be applied to this system.
Summary
Factors Affecting Re-smoking in Male Workers.
Jin Hoon Yang, Hee Sook Ha, Sin Kam, Ji Seun Lim, Yune Sik Kang, Duk Hee Lee, Byung Yeol Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(2):208-214.
  • 2,349 View
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. METHODS: A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1, 154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. RESULTS: The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (p< 0.05). Of the cues to action variables in the Heath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (p< 0.05). In the multiple logistic regression analysis for re-smoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (p< 0.05). CONCLUSION: From the result of this study, for an effective smoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking cessation.
Summary
The Association between Serum GGT Level within Normal Range and Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases.
Ji Seun Lim, Yu Jin Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Jin Hoon Yang, Duk Hee Lee, Sin Kam
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):101-106.
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OBJECTIVES
We conducted this study to examine the association between serum GGT levels within the normal range and the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases METHODS: We examined the cross-sectional association between serum GGT and the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), and uric acid among 975 subjects that participated in the health examination of a university hospital located in Daegu city. All the patients' GGT levels were within the normal range. RESULTS: After adjustment were made for age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, drinking frequency, exercise frequency and coffee intake, the serum GGT level was positively associated with fasting blood glucose (p< 0.01), total cholesterol (p< 0.01), and triglyceride (p< 0.01) in men, and it was positively associated with fasting blood glucose (p< 0.01), total cholesterol (p< 0.05), triglyceride (p< 0.01), and uric acid (p< 0.01) in women. The associations were not significantly different depending on the status of alcohol drinking or obesity, except for the associations of serum GGT with diastolic blood pressure (P for interaction=0.04) and uric acid (P for interaction=0.04) between the lean and obese subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Serum GGT levels within the normal range were positively associated with fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and uric acid in most subgroups irrespective of the drinking or obesity status. These results suggest that GGT has important clinical implications as being more than just a marker of alcohol consumption and hepatobiliary disease.
Summary
Development of Measurement Scale for the Quality of Life in Hypertensive Patients.
Keon Yeop Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Sang Won Lee, Ki Soo Park, Shung Chull Chae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):61-70.
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OBJECTIVES
To develop a tool for multidimensional measurement of the quality of life, which was psychometrically sound, short, and easy to administer for patients with hypertension. METHODS: A sample of 1, 115 hypertensive patients aged 20 or above in Cheong-Song County was studied from June 1997 to October 1998. In the development of the instrumental stage, the authors first conceptualized the quality of life. Item generation, item reduction, and questionnaire formatting were followed. Item-level (item descriptive, missing%, item internal consistency, item discriminant validity) analysis, scale-level (scale descriptive, floor and ceiling effect) analysis, and other tests (Cronbach's alpha, inter-dimension correlations, factor analysis, clinical validity) were performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the new measurement scale. After 1 year, responsiveness and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. RESULTS: The results of both item-level and scale-level analyses were acceptable. An acceptable degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the dimensions (Cronbach's alpha was 0.60 or higher). Inter-dimension correlations were below 0.50 and the factor analysis result was the same as the intended dimension structure. Correlation coefficients between perceived health status, stress and dimensions were proven to be acceptable. The result of comparing dimensional score means among ADL and MMSE-K groups above 60 years was statistically significant (p< 0.05). The result of confirmatory factor analysis concluded that the dimensional structure model was well fitted. However, the result of responsiveness test using sensitivity and specificity was unsatisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: The newly developed measurement scale is psychometrically reliable and valid instrument for measuring quality of life in hypertensive patients.
Summary
Professional Job Perception, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Westerm Doctors and Oriental Doctors Practicing at Local Clinic.
Jong Yeon Kim, Sin Kam, Yune Sik Kang, Yong Kee Cho, Sang Won Lee, Dae Gu Jin, Soon Gi Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):44-50.
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OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate the professionalism, job stress and job satisfaction in western and oriental doctors in Korea. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey using a selfadministered questionnaire, conducted between August and September, 2001. The study subjects were 457 western doctors and 161 oriental doctors practicing at local clinics in Daegu City. RESULTS: For the professionalism scale, the score for 'belief in service to the public' of western doctors was significantly higher than that of oriental doctors (p< 0.05) whereas the scores for 'sense of calling to the field' and 'feeling of autonomy' were higher in oriental doctors (p< 0.01). For the job stress scale, the scores for 'work factor', and 'clinical responsibility/decision factor' of western doctors were significantly higher than those of oriental doctors (p< 0.01). Of the western doctors, 59.7% expressed satisfaction with their job as a doctor, 69.5% responded that the role of a doctor was appropriate to their aptitude, and 61.8% answered that they wouldn't consider other kinds of job even if offered. In case of oriental doctors, these responses were83.1%, 82.5%, and 82.3%, espectively. CONCLUSION: The job stress scores of western doctors were higher than those of oriental doctors, but the job satisfaction was lower. The reasons for the above results are not clear. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job stress and job satisfaction in doctors.
Summary
Professional Job Perception, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Doctors Practicing in Local Clinic in Daegu City.
Dae Gu Jin, Sin Kam, Yune Sik Kang, Yong Kee Cho, Sang Won Lee, Jong Yeon Kim, Soon Gi Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):153-162.
  • 2,522 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate professional job perception, job stress and job satisfaction in doctors. METHOD: The authors conducted a survey using a self-administered questionnaire, conducted between August and September, 2001. The study subjects were 457 doctors practicing at local clinics in Daegu City. RESULTS: For the professionalism scale, the score for 'sense of calling to field' and 'feeling of autonomy' were relatively high. Age, working hours per day, and perception of socioeconomic status significantly influenced the professionalism scale scores (p< 0.01). For the job stress scale, the scores for 'clinical responsibility/ decision' factor were the highest of all the surveyed factors. Working hours per day significantly influenced the job stress scores (p< 0.01). To investigate the overall relationship between the variables, the authors conducted a linear structural equation model analysis. The equation was statistically appropriate and a good fit. The job stress, and the professionalism factors, respectively influenced job satisfaction negatively and positively (T> 2.0). The working hours per day and status perception also influenced their job satisfaction (T> 2.0). CONCLUSION: To promote the job satisfaction of doctors, the development of coping tools and other intervention methods are needed to increase doctor's professional job perception and reduce their job stress. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job satisfaction and for its promotion with doctors.
Summary
Annual Visit Days, Prescription Days and Medical Expenses of Hypertensive Patients.
Bu Dol Lim, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Jeong Soo Im, Soon Woo Park, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):340-350.
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OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the annual visit days, the annual prescription days and the medical costs of hypertensive patients. METHODS: The medical insurance records of 40,267 incident patients with the diagnostic code of hypertension from September 1998 through August 1999 in Daegu city were reviewed. RESUJLTS: The proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group (Group VIII) who visited for 6-15 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was only 6.2%. The proper care group (Group IX) who visited for more than 16 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was 9.3%. The overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was therefore 15.5%. The proportion of the insufficient care group (Group I,IV) in both the number of visiting days and prescription days was 57.4%. The mean prescription day of the most proper group (Group VIII) was 29 days; the mean annual medical expenses, 453,587won; the mean annual amount paid by patients, 218,013won; and mean medical expenses per prescription day, 1,483won. The proportion of the overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was significantly higher in adults aged 50-59, those who were enrolled in industrial workers health insurance as well as government employees and private school teachers health insurance, and those who made a higher contribution per month (p<0.01). According to the type of medical facilities, the proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group was highest in the general hospitals (9.3%) but the overall proper care group was higher in the public health centers (22.1%) and private clinics (17.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The management system of hypertension should be reinforced urgently. Therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines including the number of visiting days per year and prescription days per visit day, and make the system provide medical facilities to more properly care for hypertensive patients.
Summary
The Efficient Methods of Population-based Cancer Registration in Daegu City.
Dae Gu Jin, Sin Kam, Byung Yeol Chun, Soon Ki Ahn, Jong Yeon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):322-330.
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OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted to automatically improve the completeness and validity of the Daegu Cancer Registry, using cross record linkage of many data sources, and to develop a computerized patient enrollment system for efficient communication among cancer researchers via the internet. METHOD: We analyzed 10,229 cancer patients who were reported in the National Cancer Registry, and from pathological reports, health insurance cancer claims lists, cancer patient records at hospital information centers and death certificates from the Korea National Statistical Office. RESULT: We confirmed 4,624 cancer patients and found 897 of new cases from a review of medical chart. The new cases were detected efficiently using cross record linkage. We developed a computerized patient enrollment system, based on a client-server model, for the input of cancer patients, and then developed a web-based reporting homepage and patient enrollment system for the internet. CONCLUSION: This system could manage cancer databases systematically, and could be given to other researchers as a basic database.
Summary
Serum Total Cholesterol Levels and Related Factors in a Rural Adult Population.
Soon Ki Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Dae Gu Jin, Jong Yeon Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(3):255-262.
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OBJECTIVES
To investigate the total cholesterol levels and related factors in a rural adult population. METHODS: 3,207 adults( 1,272 men and 1,935 women) were examined in 1997. Their heights, weights, and fasting serum total cholesterol levels were measured, and their body mass indices were calculated. A questionnaire interviewing method was used to collect risk factor data. RESULTS: The mean value of total cholesterol were 190.5 mg/dl, and 198.8 mg/dl, and the age-adjusted prevalence rates for hypercholesterolemia (above 240 mg/dl) were 13.7% and 10.2%, in men and women, respectively. From simple analyses, age, educational level, coffee intake, amount of meat and food intake, waist circumference, waist-hip circumference ratio(WHR), and body mass index(BMI) were significant risk factors in men (p<0.05) relating to serum total cholesterol levels. In women, age, educational level, hypertension history, diabetes history, herbal drug history, amount of food intake, alcohol consumption, waist circumference, WHR, BMI, and menopausal status were significant risk factors (p<0.05). In multiple linear regression analyses, waist circumference (p<0.01), BMI (p<0.01), and coffee intake (p<0.05) proved to be significant risk factors in men. Whereas, menopausal status (p<0.01), BMI (p<0.01), herbal drug history (p<0.01), amount of food intake (p<0.05), waist circumference (p<0.05), and alcohol consumption (p<0.05) were significant risk factors in women. Conclusions : The significant risk factors, for both men and women, relating to the serum total cholesterol were waist circumference and BMI. Thus, for the reduction of serum total cholesterol level, it is recommended that health education for the control of obesity should be implemented.
Summary
Incidence of Hypertension in a Cohort of an Adult Population.
Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Hee Sook Oh, Sang Won Lee, Kook Hyeun Woo, Moon Young Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(2):141-146.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed in order to assess the incidence of hypertension based on two-years follow-up of a rural hypertension-free cohort in Korea. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 2,580 subjects aged above 20 (1,107 men and 1,473 women) of Chung-Song County in Kyungpook Province judged to be hypertensive-free at the baseline examination in 1996. For each of two examinations in the two-year follow-up, those subjects free of hypertension were followed for the development of hypertension to the next examination one year (1997) and two years later (1998). The drop-out rate was 24.7% in men and 19.6% in women. Hypertension was defined as follows 1) above mild hypertension as a SBP above 140 mmHg or a DBP above 90 mmHg, 2) above moderate hypertension as a SBP above 160 mmHg or a DBP above 100 mmHg or when the participant reported having used antihypertensive medication after beginning this survey. RESULTS: The age-standardized incidence of above mild hypertension was 6 per 100 person years (PYS) in men and that of above moderate hypertension was 1.2. In women, the age-standardized rate for above mild hypertension was 5.7 and 1.5 for above mild and moderate hypertension, respectively. However, the rates of incidence as calculated by the risk method were 4.8% and 1.0% in men and 4.6%, 1.2% in women, respectively. In both genders, incidence was significantly associated with advancing age(p<0.01), In men, the incidences of above moderate hypertension by age group were 0.5 per 100 PYS aged 20-39, 0.7 aged 40-49, 1.7 aged 50-59, 3.6 aged 60-69, and 5.8 aged above 70(p<0.01). In women, those the incidence measured 0.6 per 100 PYS aged 20-39, 1.8 aged 40-49, 1.3 aged 50-59, 3.3 aged 60-69, and 5.6 aged above 70(p<0.01). After age 60, the incidence of hypertension increased rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence data of hypertension reported in this study may serve as a reference data for evaluating the impact of future public efforts in the primary prevention of hypertension in Korea.
Summary
A Nested Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean.
Ki Soon Kim, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):149-156.
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OBJECTIVE
To elucidate risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among a Korea Medical Insurance Cooperation(KMIC) cohort composed of 108,802 males. The cases included 246 male patients who were admitted to hospital due to coronary heart diseases from 1993 to 1997 (I20-25 by ICD) and whose diagnosis was confirmed by the protocol by WHO MONICA Project(1994). The control group was composed of 483 patients selected by frequency matching considering age and resident area from an inpatient care group without coronary heart disease during the same period. For study cases and the controls, the results of a health check-up in 1990 and a questionnaire on life style in 1992 were received through the KMIC. Some additional information was collected by telephone interviews during October 1999. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of coronary heart diseases among past smokers and current smokers as compared to non-smokers were 1.94(95% CI : 1.14-3.31) and 2.20(95% CI : 1.35-3.59), respectively. The OR among persons who drank 4 cups or more of caffeinated beverages such as coffee or tea daily as compared to persons who drank one cup for 2-3 days was 2.56(95% CI : 1.07-6.12). The OR among persons with high normal BP and stage 3 hypertension against normotension were 2.51(95% CI : 1.44-4.37) and 5.08(95% CI : 2.38-10.84). The OR among persons whose blood cholesterol were 240 mg/dL or more against lower than 200mg/dL was 2.24(95% CI : 1.43-3.49). CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking of excessive caffeinated beverages, hypertension and high blood cholesterol were proven to be significant risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males.
Summary
Job Stress and Its Related Factors in South Korean Doctors.
Yune Sik Kang, Sin Kam, Sang Won Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):141-148.
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OBJECTIVE
To investigate the sources, extent and related factors in South Korean doctors. METHODS: The study subjects were 934 doctors in Taegu, Kyungpook Province, Korea(540 independent practitioners, 105 employed at hospitals and 289 residents in training). Information concerning job stress was obtained using a 9-item questionnaire. Information regarding related factors such as demographic characteristics(age, sex, marital status), perceptions on the socioeconomic status of doctors and working conditions(work time, on-call days per week) was also obtained by self-administered questionnaire during April and May, 2000. RESULTS: Major sources of job stress included clnical responsibility/judgement factor, patient factor and work loading factor. The job stress score of residents was the highest among three groups. The score was lower in older doctors. The score was low among those who thought doctors socioeconomic status was not good. The longer the work time, the higher the job stress score was. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to control for the mutual influence of independent variables. In regression analysis, the score of residents was higher than practitioners. Work time and socioeconomic status perception had negative effects on job stress score. CONCLUSION: The average job stress score of the doctors was high. Age, work type, working conditions and perceptions of socioeconomic status were found to besignificantly related to job stress score. Although the job stress of doctors is somewhat inevitable due to the nature of the doctor's job, control of work time, development of coping tools and other intervention methods are needed to reduce job stress of doctors. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job stress and reduce the job stress of doctors.
Summary
Therapeutic Compliance and Its Related Factors of Patients with Hypertension in Rural Area.
Sang Won Lee, Sin Kam, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Hee Sook Oh, Moon Young Ahn, Pu Dol Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):215-225.
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OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this study was to examine the therapeutic compliance and its related factors in the rural hypertensives. METHOD: A questionnaire survey and blood pressure measurement were performed to 3,876 residents of a rural area, and 660 hypertensives were selected as subjects of study. The study employed a hypothetical model which was composed of constructs from the health belief model and KAP model. The analysis techniques employed included contingency table analysis and structural equation modeling. RESULT: The proportion of those who were compliant to the treatment of hypertension was 44.2% of subjects. As the result of structural equation modeling, when patients had more favorable attitude toward treatment, higher perceived benefit, or lower perceived barriers to treatment, the therapeutic compliance was significantly higher(T>2.0). When patients had more knowledge about hypertension, or higher perceived severity of hypertension, the attitude toward the treatment of hypertension was more favorable significantly(T>2.0). And when patients had the support for treatment from family or neighbor, the attitude toward treatment was more favorable(T>2.0). When patients had experience of health education, they had more knowledge, higher perceived susceptibility of complication, perceived severity for hypertension, and perceived benefit of treatment, compare to patients without health education(T>2.0). CONCLUSION: In consideration of above findings, in order to improve the therapeutic compliance in the rural hypertensives, it would be necessary to change attitude, perception, knowledge about hypertension and its treatment, by various methods such as effective health education and programs for maintaining the supportive environment for hypertension treatment.
Summary
The Risk Factors for the Development of Hypertension in a Rural Area - An 1-Year Prospective Cohort Study.
Hee Sook Oh, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Sang Won Lee, Moon Young Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(2):199-207.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to identify the risk factors related to the development of hypertension in a rural area. METHOD: Total of 3,573 subjects in Chung-Song County were interviewed and examined in 1996. The study cohort comprised 2,580 hypertension-free subjects aged above 20. One-year follow up was completed for 1,781 subjects(69.0%) in 1997. General characteristics(age, gender, education level, economic status, marital status), the family history of hypertension, diet, alcohol, smoking, coffee, stress, past history of oral contraceptive and menopausal status in female, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, baseline blood pressure, and serum total cholesterol were considered as risk factors. RESULTS: Multivariate analysis using logistic regression model indicated that age(RR=1.50, 95% CI; 1.15-1.96), the family history of hypertension(RR=2.11, 95% CI; 1.04-4.26), waist-hip ratio(WHR) (RR=2.09, 95% CI; 1.15-3.79), and baseline systolic blood pressure(130-139/<120mmHg)(RR=3.34, 95% CI; 1.47-7.60) were significant risk factors associated with the development of hypertension above the borderline level in male. In female, age(RR=1.06, 95% CI; 1.03-1.09), change in menopausal status(no--> yes/no-->no) (RR=3.32, 95% CI; 1.01-10.87), baseline systolic blood pressure(120-129/<120mmHg: RR=2.00, 95% CI; 1.02-3.90)(130-139/<120mmHg: RR=2.64, 95% CI; 1.34-5.20) and baseline diastolic blood pressure(85-89/<80mmHg)(RR=4.09, 95% CI; 1.86-8.96) were identified as risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Age and high normal blood pressure were significant risk factors for the development of hypertension above the borderline level. In addition, the family history of hypertension and WHR in men, and the change of menopausal status in women might be significant risk factors in Korea.
Summary
Structural Relationships among Health Concern, Health Practice and Health Status of the Disabled.
Ki Soo Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Yun Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Jae Hee Son, Young Suk Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):276-288.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to determine the relationships among Health concern, health practice and health status of the disabled. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 1,662 disabled persons in Taegu city from April to July, 1997. RESULTS: Health concern had a significant and positive relationship with health practice(p<0.05) and health practice also had a significant and positive relationship with self-rated health status(p<0.05) in men and women. To determine the structural model of the Health concern, health practice, health status and sociodemographic variables, the covariance structural analysis was used. In men, age, economic status, medical security type, educational level and type of disability had significant direct effects on Health concern(T>2.0). Educational level and type of disability had significant direct effects on health practice(T>2.0). And Economic status, medical security type and job status had significant direct effects on health status(T>2.0). In women, economic status and educational level had significant direct effects on Health concern(T>2.0). However there was no variable which had a significant direct effect on health practice. Job status had a significant direct effect on health status(T>2.0). In men and women, health practice was significantly increased with increasing Health concern and the more health practice, the higher health status(T>2.0). CONCLUSIONS: It is recommended that the institutional approach which improve the economic status of the disabled with understanding their behavior and attitude should be established to increase health status, in addition, the health policy for encouraging the disabled, such as health education, consulting and health promotion program, should be done.
Summary
A Study on Urinary Cadmium Concentration and Renal Indices of Inhabitant in an Abandoned Mine Area.
Jung Duck Park, Chan Byung Park, Byung Sun Choi, Eun Yong Kang, Yeon Pye Hong, Im Won Chang, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):424-439.
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Urinary cadmium is used as a sensitive indicator for internal Cd dose, and increased excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase(NAG), beta(2)microglobulin(MG) and total protein are useful indices for renal dysfunction by chronic exposure to Cd. The target group was 184 inhabitant(82 men and 102 women) in an abandoned mine area known as exposure to low level Cd. The control group was took 160 individuals(64 men and 96 women) in Cd not-exposed area. Urinary Cd concentration was significantly higher in the target group than the control. The geometric mean of urinary Cd for male was 2.56ng/l, 2.80ng/g creatinine and 2.50ng/S.G. in the target group and 1.19ng/l, 1.36ng/g creatinine and 1.17ng/S.G. in the control. For female 2.69ng/l, 3.94ng/g creatinine and 2.63ng/S.G. in the target group and 1.27ng/l, 1.97ng/g creatinine and 1.25ng/S.G. in the control, respectively. In addition, urinary Cd of the target group had affected by the period of residence and dietary habit for the rice and the vegetables from the target area. These findings suggest the chronic exposure to Cd of the target population. Mean excretion of urinary NAG, beta(2)MG and total protein were not significant between two groups. In the target group, urinary NAG activity and total protein were significantly correlated with urinary Cd, but beta(2)MG was not related. Urinary excretion of NAG, beta(2)MG and total protein were significantly increased in 10 than in <2 of urinary Cd level. In 2~10 group of urinary Cd level, the excretion of NAG significantly increased while not showed for beta(2)MG. In present study, urinary excretion of NAG was relatively sensitive than beta(2)MG in chronic exposure population to low level Cd.
Summary
The Incidence Rate of Coronary Heart Disease in City Area.
Byung Yeol Chun, Kwon Bae Kim, Kee Sik Kim, Young Jo Kim, Yoon Nyun Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Wee Hyun Park, Dong Gu Shin, Bong Sub Shin, Jong Joo Lee, Choong Won Lee, Sung Gug Chang, Jae Eun Jun, Yong Keun Cho, Shung Chuil Chae, Gi Yong Choi, Young Ae Ha, Young Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):395-403.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To estimate the incidence rate of coronary heart disease in Korea, of all residents of the Taegu city aged 25 or above, those who had an acute MI or fatal coronary event between 1 July 1996 and 30 June 1997 were registered. Seven hundreds and eight patients were registered during the study period(685 were identified at hospital and 23 were autopsy cases). Age-standardized annual incidence rate of men in city area was 93 per 100,000(95% CI; 61-142) and 33(95% CI; 16-67) in women(100 in men and 20 in women aged 35-64). The incidence was rapidly increased after age 40 in men, however, in women after age 60. Twenty-eight-days case fatality rate was 45% in men and 47% in women. However, in the age group of 45-59 case fatality rate in women was two times higher than that in men. In conclusion, crude annual incidence rate of CHD in city area was 73 per 100,000 in men and 33 in women. The age-standardized annual incidence of CHD in men(93 per 100,000) was 3.2 times higher than that in women (33 per 100,000) in Korea.
Summary
Determinanats of Health Care Utilization of the Physically Disabled.
Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee, Ki Soo Park, Jae Hee Son, Sin Kam, Byung Yeol Chun, Jae Yong Park, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):323-334.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate determinants of health care utilization of the physically, disabled over 20 years old in age living in Taegu city, a self-administered questionnaire survey was carried out for 337 disabled persons with chronic illness from April to July, 1997. Health care utilization rate was 81.9%(69.l% for hospital or clinic and 12.8% for pharmacy). Marital status, job, health concern, and response to illness showed statistically, significant relationship with health care utilization(p<0.05). By, path analysis, job, economic status, medical security type and response to illness had a significant direct effect on health care utilization(p<0.05), however, health concern and regular source of care had an indirect effect. The reasons of no health utilization were due to economic problem(31.l%), no symptom(18.0%), inconvenience to seek care or no accompanying persons to be helped(14.8%), unseriousness of the severity of the illness(14.8%), too busy to be treated or no free time(8.2%), hopeless prognosis to be treated(6.6%) in order. In conclusion, it is recommended that the program for expanding medicaid, improving socioeconomic status by getting a job and health education to increase the health Concern toward physically disabled should be implemented to increase health care utilization rate.
Summary
Effect of cigareet smoking on air-conduction hearing threshold level in adult men.
Jin Seok Kim, Min Hae Yeh, Byung Yeol Chun, Kuck Hyeun Woo, Yune Sik Kang, Keon Yeop Kim, Young Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(2):285-292.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the effect of smoking on the hearing threshold, l,887 adult male workers who visited health care center during the period l January 1996 - 31 July 1997 were selected. Air-conduction hearing threshold level, diastolic blood pressure(DBP), total cholesterol, fasting blood sugar(FBS), hematocrit and obesity, were measured. The data on age, occupation, and smoking were collected. Air-conduction hearing threshold in smoker was significantly higher than non-smoker in categories of 250, 500, 1000 and 4000 Hz(p<0.05). Mean values of PTA-low, PTA-mid, and PTA-high in smoker were also significantly higher than non-smoker(p<0.05). In multiple regression analysis, smoking is likely to play a significant role after controlling age, occupation, DBP, FBS, total cholesterol, hematocrit, and obesity,(p<0.05). The hearing threshold was significantly increased with increasing age(p<0.05), the manufacturing worker may have higher hearing threshold(p<0.05). The higher hematocrit and the more obese, the higher hearing threshold(p<0.05). However, DBP, total cholesterol and FBS were not significantly related with hearing threshold level. In conclusion, smoking was significantly related with the hearing threshold level in adult men.
Summary
The Relationship between Change in Obesity Indices and Change in Serum Lipids in Adult Male Workers.
Young Ae Ha, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Sung Kook Lee, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):439-450.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between change in obesity indices and change in serum lipids in adult male workers. Two-hundred-eight adult male workers of an industry in Taegu city were followed-up from 1991 to 1995. Height, weight, circumferences of hip and waist, blood pressure were measured and serum lipids were analysed. Data on life style were obtained using self-administered questionnaires. Mean differences of anthropometric measurements between 1991 and 1995 were as follows; 1.63kg in weight, 3.61cm in waist circumferences, 4.23cm in hip circumferences, 0.52kg/m2 in BMI and -0.021 in WHR. Those of lipids were as follows; 15.09mg/dl in total cholesterol, 20.43mg/dl in triglyceride, 9.40mg/dl in HDL-cholesterol, 2.87 in MI-index(p<0.01) and 350mg/dl in LDL-cholesterol. The changed value of BMI and Katsura index were strongly correlated with that of total cholesterol(r=0.174, p<0.05), the changed value of BMI correlated with that of triglyceride(r=0.374, p<0.01) and the changed value of weight correlated with that of MI index(r=-0.173, p<0.05). The changed value of WHR was significantly correlated with that of total cholesterol(r=0.162, p<0.05), however, was not significantly correlated with HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and MI index. The changed value of weight, BMI and Katsura index were correlated with that of triglyceride(r=0.262, p<0.01; r=0.267, p<0.01; r=0.258, p<0.01) and the changed value of MI index(r=-0.143, p<0.05; r=-0.158; r=-0.144, p<0.01), adjusting the pattern of change in life style. The changed values of HDL-cholesterol and MI index between 1991 and 1995 in low WHR group were significantly higher than those in high WHR group(p<0.05, p<0.01), adjusting the baseline value of them. Similar pattern was observed when considering Katsura index. When stratifying by BMI value of 1991, in low BMI group, the changed value of HDL-cholesterol and MI index showed the same pattern as above, however the of triglyceride was statistically higher in obese group than in non obese group(p<0.05). In conclusion BMI might be a better indicator to predict serum lipids change than other obesity indices.
Summary
Leisure time physical activity and its relationship to coronary risk factors in male workers.
Yun Kyeong Rho, Mi Hae Yeh, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(3):332-346.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was attempted to observe leisure time physical activity pattern and its relationship to coronary risk factors(BMI, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood sugar). Subjects participated in this study were 277 adult male workers of an industry in Kyungpook province, Korea. Energy expenditure were measured using modified Physical Activity History questionnaire of CARDIA study by interviewing. Serum total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood sugar level were tested with 5 ml fasting blood and height, weight and blood pressure were measured. Data on smoking and drinking habits and others were obtained. Geometric mean of leisure time physical energy expenditure were estimated as 212.80 kcal per week for study subjects and only 22.4% of them expended 2,000 kcal or more per week in leisure time physical activity. Taking walks or hikes and jogging or running were more frequent leisure time physical activities in study subjects. Statistically significant mean differences in total weekly leisure time physical activity for all coronary risk factors were not found among three groups. Because energy expenditure of leisure time was generally low in this subjects and most of them were healthy men, we did not found that leisure time physical activity was significantly associated with coronary risk factors.
Summary
Illness Associated With Contamination Of Drinking Water Supplies With Phenol.
Doo Hie Kim, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Duk Hee Lee, Sung Chul Hong, Bong Ki Jang
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(2):202-209.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A accidental spills of phenol(100%) to the river Nakdong with subsequent contamination of the tap water for about two million consumers in Taegu city of Korea were occurred in March 1991. A historical cohort study of 6,913 individuals was undertaken to determine the associated with illness. Population subjects were divided into two groups of exposed and unexposed. Exposed subjects were reported to be phenol associated symptoms significantly higher than those in a nearby unexposed area(39.6% vs 9.4%, p<0.01). Especially, in the related symptoms, highly significant differences were noted in the number of subjects reporting gastrointestinal illness such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. During the accident, study subjects who experienced peculiar taste or odor in the tap water were significantly higher in the exposed areas(92% vs 34.3%). Chlorophenols formed from chlorination of water may have aggravated the problem.
Summary
Cytologic screening for cervical cancer and factors related to cervical cancer.
Yong Jae Jeon, Chi Young Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(3):428-440.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence rate of cervical cancer and to investigate its risk factors. 5,417 asymptomatic married women were screened from March, 1984 to December, 1990 in Taegu city. Of 5,417 examinees, 3,817 (70.46%) were normal, 1,542 (28.7%) showed inflammatory change, 51 (0.94%) were dysplasia and 7 (0.13%) were carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinomas. The prevalence of abnormal finding (dysplasia, carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma) was 1,070 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of dysplasia was 940 per 100,000 and that of carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma was 130 per 100,000. Age-adjusted prevalence rate for abnormal finding adjusted with standard population of Taegu city was estimated to be 850 per 100,000. The prevalence of cervical cancer was significantly increased with age (P<0.05). The prevalence of cervical cancer was significantly decreased with age at marriage and educaitonal level (P<0.05). The history of induced abortion and the number of pregnancies were significantly associated with the prevalence of cervical cancer (P<0.05), whereas, the number of parity was not. Age at marriage was significantly associated with the prevalence of cervical cancer after stratification by age (P<0.05). However, the level of education, parity, induced abortion, number of pregnancies were not significant. Inflammation and human papiloma virus infection were associated with cervical cancer with odds ratio of 13.48(95% confidence interval 7.80~23.40) and 474.29 (95% confidence interval 196.80~1143.10), respectively. In conclusion, for early detection of cervical cancer it should be recommended to perform mass cytological screening. In particular, regular and periodic cytologic screening, starting at age 25, for cervical cancer should be recommended for those women who have frequent cervical inflammation and for those women married before age of 20.
Summary
A case-control study for risk factor related to hypertension.
Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):221-231.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors (Part of job, Obesity, Alcohol, Smoking, Milk, Salt, and Family history) for hypertension. We selected 330 hypertension cases (male; 247, female; 83) and 1,336 controls (male; 887, female; 449) from employees in Taegu city from 1 May to 30 November, 1988. Data was analysed using a logistic regression model. Statistically Significant elevated odds ratio were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=3.23), obesity (odds ration=2.31), salt (odds ratio=1.75) in male (P<0.05) and those in female were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=16.49), family history (odds ratio=3.70), obesity (odds ratio=1.74) and salt (odds ratio=1.73) (P<0.05). Statistically significant reduced odds ratio was noted for milk in both sexes (odds ratio=0.69 for male and 0.65 for female) (P<0.05) and the dose-response relationship between milk intake and hypertension was confirmed (P<0.05). Therefore, milk seems to be preventive factor for hypertension. Smoking was not significantly associated with hypertension in both sexes. The part of job was significantly associated with hypertension in female by simple analysis (P<0.05) but the relationship was disappeared when multivariate analysis (logistic regression analysis) was done.
Summary
Cohort Infant Mortality Rate of Gunwee and Hapchun Counties and an MCH Center in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Min Hae Yeh, Byung Yeol Chun, Sung Euk Cho, Hyun Kim, Han Jin Chung, Jae Yeon Cho, Jung Hub Song, Gui Yeon Kim, Jang Rak Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(1):87-97.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
No abstract available.
Summary
A Follow-up Study of Fertility and Pregnancy Wastage of Women in Rural Area.
Jung Han Park, Sin Hyang Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Gui Yeon Kim, Min Hae Yeh, Seong Eok Cho, Jae Yeon Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):21-30.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To measure the fertility rate and pregnancy wastage of women in rural area, 3,780 married women under 50 years old who were not sterilized either woman or husband in Gunwee county were followed up for 2 years. Seventeen Myun health workers visited these women periodically to check the status of their family planning practice and menstruation. Pregnant women were interviewed for their past obstetric history and followed up to the time of delivery. Family planning was practiced in 51.6% of the 6,826 women-years observed during the period from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1987. Pregnancy, abortion and delivery covered 7.6% of the observed women years and family planning was not practiced in 36.5% of the women-years. When sterilized women at the beginning of the study were included, the family planning practice rate was 72.1% which was slightly higher than the national family planning practice rate. However, 28% of the women of 30-39 years old had not practiced family planning although they had 2-3 children and they used more such less effective methods as safe-period method and condom than the women of 20-29 years old. Overall pregnancy rate was 14.3 per 100 woman-years. Women of 25-29 years old had the highest pregnancy rate of 27.4 per 100 woman-years. Pregnancy wastage including spontaneous and induced abortions and still births was 22.0% of all pregnancies and it increased with the age of women; 15.8% in women less than 30 years old and 43.7% in women of 30 years and over. Women who terminated the pregnancy with induced abortion had more pregnancies, more previous induced and spontaneous abortions and shorter pregnancy interval than those women who terminated with live birth. Pregnant women terminated with a live birth had received 4.2 prenatal cares on the average. Eighty-five percent of deliveries occurred at a medical facility and 15% at home which was substantially lower home delivery rate than the other rural area of Korea. This may be due to the effects of the demonstration project for the primary health care in 1970s in Gunwee county. These findings suggest that family planning service in rural area should be strengthened by promoting the use of more effective contraceptive method among women over 30 years of age.
Summary
Hepatitis B Virus Infection Rate of Medical School Students in Taegu.
Jung Han Park, Tae Hyum Youn, Byung Yeol Chun, Jung Hup Song
Korean J Prev Med. 1987;20(1):129-136.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To determine the hepatitis B virus infection rate of medical school students and appropriate time for immunization with hepatitis B vaccine, 385 students in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd grades of Medical School of Kyungpook National University who had not been vaccinated and volunteered to participate in this study were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc with radioimmunoassay method (Abbortt Lab. kit). A questionnaire was administered to ask the history of transfusion, acupuncture and surgery. HBsAg positive students were retested 16 months after the initial test. Overall HBsAg positive rate was 6.8% and the age adjusted rate for male (7.2%) was higher than that for female (4.9%). Anti-HBs positive rate was 35.8% (36.1% for male, 37.9% for male) and anti-HBc positive rate was 45.5% (46.5% for male, 44.7% for femaleP. Overall hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection rats was 49.1% and the infection rate for male (50.3%) was slightly higher than that for female (46.5%). HBsAg positive rate and infection rate were increased as the grade increased but it was attributed to the age distribution of the students. HBsAg positive rate for 20 years old students was 1.7%; 21 years, 6.6%; 22 years, 6.1%; 23 years, 12.2%; and 24 years and older, 6.4%. HBV infection rate showed an increasing trend as age increased; 45.8% for 20 years, 41.5% for 21 years, 49.5% for 22 years, 55.5% for 23 years and 59.6% for 24 years and older. The age differences in HBsAg positive rates and HBV infection rates did not reach the statistical significance level of 0.05. However, these findings and similar age differences in HBsAg positive rates and HBV infection rates observed in other study suggest that there is a significant age differences. Study of the same age group in other schools and different social classes is warranted to confirm the age difference. Clarification of the reason for such differences would provide a clue to identify the major route of HBV transmission in this age group. Among 26 HBsAg positive students in the initial test, only one student was active hepatitis patient. Out of 24 students who had follow-up test after 16 months 22 students were positive for HBsAg and two students became HBsAg negative and anti-HBs positive. It is obvious that nearly one-half of the medical school students were infected with HBV before 20 years of age and the HBV infection occurs in medical school. Thus, it is recommended to test all the students for HBV infection soon after the admission to the medical school and immunize all the susceptible students with hepatitis B vaccine and give booster as they start to practice at a hospital.
Summary
A Sanitary Survey on the Medicinal Water Springs Located near Taegu City (1986).
Sang Duk Cha, Bong Ki Chang, Byung Yeol Chun, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(2):273-280.
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'Medicinal water' have been used for the treatment of disease and the promotion of health. To study the quality and health effect of 'medicinal water', the eleven springs located near Taegu City during the period of March 27-February 17, 1986 were tested for biological and physiochemical examination and were checked for sanitary environment around the spring. Among them three springs (27.3%) had a good sanitary equipments and only one was negative for biological examination. Three 'medicinal water' were accepted as potable by physicochemical examination. According to above findings, all of the 'medicinal water' sampled from the springs located near Taegu City were not potable by this sanitary survey adopted Drinking Water Standard in Korea. Kachang and Youngchum 'medicinal water' were more contaminated by heavy metals and bacteria than those of other springs. To solve the problem of contamination by heavy metals that originated from uncertain sources, we should search for the sources of water contamination, remove it completely and also support the environmental equipments and management system in protection of safe 'medicinal water' supply.
Summary
Assessment of the Activities of General Physicians in Health Subcenters and a Scheme to Improve the Training Program.
Jung Han Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Kuck Hyeun Woo
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(2):193-202.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The activities of general physicians (GPs) in health subcenters and their competency for clinical skills were assessed to develop a scheme to improve the training program. One hundred-twenty GPs in southern four provinces (Kyungpook Kyungnam, Chunpook, Chunnam) were randomly selected and 97 were interviewed between January 9 and February 10, 1984. Of the 97 GPs, 86 provided all the information we requested. Average number of patient visits per health subcenter in a day was 30-40 in the demonstration project area for the class II medical insurance whereas it was 3-4 visits in other area. The interviewees asked to rate their competency in 63 clinical skills. The skills in which over 50% of the interviewees rated themselves competent were only 12 items including IM injection, IV injection, wound dressing, etc. Less than 10% of the interviewees rated themselves competent in such skills as maternal health care, emergency medical care, preventive and promotive health services. Most part of the training program of the NIH for the GPs were not applicable to their field work as the training contents were unrealistic. Clinical training at a local general hospital was of great help in 38.8% and the rest of training was not much helpful as the training was inadequate due to lack of trainer or indifference of the trainer. For more effective training of the GPs, the training program of the NIH should be modified to be more realistic and utilize competent field workers as the instructors. It may be more effective if the training is carried out at several local centers. Ideal length of the clinical training for the GPs is 4 months. A pocketbook should be developed that includes specific skills to master during the clinical training and require the trainer to confirm the achievement. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs should provide the training hospitals with a training guideline and evaluate the training activities and make sure that the training hospital has specialist for each of the 4 major clinical departments. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs shuld provide the GPs with a continuing education to assist the problem solving in the field and motivate them to activitely carry out the health program. A province may be divided into several regions and a supervisory committee may be organized with specialists in each region. The committee may hold a meeting for the GPs periodically and respond to the specific questions of the GPs by mail.
Summary
Gastroscopic Findings of Rural Residents with Symptoms of Chronic Gastrointestinal Disorder.
Jung Han Park, Byung Yeol Chun, Dong Koo Lee, Yong Whan Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1986;19(1):85-90.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted in July-August, 1984, to define the causes of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms in rural population and to provide data for the management of such patients. A household survey was conducted to identify all the residents of Youngchun and Sungju counties in Kyungpook province who were over 20 years of age, had chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms for over the last 6 months, never had medical examination for the symptoms, and volunteered to participate in the gastroscopic examination. Gastroscopy was done for 106 males and 108 females. Gastric ulcer was found in 16.8% of all the examinees, duodenal ulcer in 15.4%, gastritis in 14.0%, and gastric cancer in 3.7%. No lesion was found by gastroscopy in 52.3%. Gastric ulcer more common in male(26.4%) than in female(7.4%) (p<0.01) and the same was true for duodenal ulcer(20.8% of male, 10.2% of female). Gastric cancer was found in 7.5% of the male while none of the female had gastric cancer. A higher proportion of the female(68.5%) showed normal finding in the gastroscopy than the male(35.9%) (p<0.01). No significant association was found between the upper gastrointestinal symptoms and the gastroscopic findings. The higher prevalence rate of gastric ulcer than that of duodenal ulcer in this study which is the reverse of the study findings of urban area in Korea and western countries may be related in part with the dietary habit and social environment of the rural population. Although early diagnosis is the most important for the treatment of gastric cancer, many of the people with chronic upper gastrointestinal complaints defer the diagnosis and treatment. It is may be due to lack of the knowledge of disease and the health care attitude of the rural people. A national program for the health education and mass screening for the gastric cancer should be developed.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health