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Original Article Common Mental Disorders and Associated Factors During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period in Indonesia: An Analysis of Data From the 2018 Basic Health Research
Arum Ariasih1orcid , Besral Besral2corresp_iconorcid , Meiwita Budiharsana2orcid , Sudarto Ronoatmodjo3orcid

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.24.082 [Accepted]
Published online: June 19, 2024
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1Doctoral Student of Public Health Study Program, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
2Departement of Biostatistics and Population Studies, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
3Departement of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia
Corresponding author:  Besral Besral,
Email: besral@ui.ac.id
Received: 16 February 2024   • Revised: 11 May 2024   • Accepted: 22 May 2024

Objectives
A substantial proportion of women experience mental health challenges during pregnancy or the postpartum period. Common mental disorders (CMDs), including depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder, are prevalent. Identifying causes and associated risk factors is imperative for early intervention and the prevention of mental health issues.
Methods
This study utilized data from the 2018 Basic Health Research, which was conducted nationwide in Indonesia, using a cross-sectional approach. We focused on women aged 13-49 years who were currently or previously married, and had experienced pregnancy, including 8,889 pregnant women and 77,012 women who had delivered between January 1, 2013, and August 31, 2018. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 was employed to assess CMDs. Multivariate logistic regression was performed.
Results
The prevalence of CMDs in pregnant women was 12.6%, while postpartum mothers exhibited a prevalence of 10.1%. Poor health status displayed the strongest impact on CMDs during both pregnancy (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 12.23, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 9.06-16.60) and the postpartum period (AOR: 16.72, 95% CI: 14.85-18.82). Additional significant factors for both group include young maternal age, lack of education, unemployment, hystory of hypertension, and smoking status. Among pregnant women, CMDs was also associated with first-trimester pregnancy, previous pregnancy complications, and small upper arm circumference. For postpartum mothers, significant factors include history of abortion, unwanted pregnancy, pregnancy complications, lack of antenatal care, spontaneous delivery, postpartum complications and contraceptive use.
Conclusions
CMDs can impact in pregnant and postpartum women. Early diagnosis and management must be seamlessly integrated into primary healthcare practices.

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health