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Original Article Modern Contraception and Anaemia Among Reproductive-age Women in India: Results From a Household Survey
Mihir Adhikary1, Poulami Barman1, Bharti Singh1, Abhishek Anand1corresp_iconorcid

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.504 [Accepted]
Published online: June 19, 2024
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International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India
Corresponding author:  Abhishek Anand,
Email: anandabhishek361@gmail.com
Received: 7 November 2023   • Revised: 1 May 2024   • Accepted: 3 May 2024

Objectives
Chronic anaemia is a significant health concern, particularly among women of childbearing age. Factors such as menstrual blood loss, childbirth, inadequate nutrition, closely spaced pregnancies, and recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding increase the risk of anaemia. This study investigated whether current contraceptive methods are associated with anaemia in Indian women of reproductive age.
Methods
Cross-sectional data from the fifth round of the National Family Health Survey, conducted in 2019–21, were used for this investigation (NFHS-5). We included only non-pregnant and non-amenorrhoeic women in our analysis, resulting in a final analytical sample of 673,094 women aged 15-49. Bivariate cross-tabulations and multivariable logistic regression were employed to analyse the data.
Results
The prevalence of anaemia was 57%, and the adjusted regression models found no significant association between the use of any contraceptive methods and women’s haemoglobin status. Women using traditional contraceptive methods had 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.048-1.113) times higher odds of having anaemia. Among the modern methods, other than injectables, all other methods—such as an intrauterine device (IUD), barrier use, and sterilisation—were associated with higher odds of anaemia compared to women who used contraceptive pills.
Conclusions
This study explored the relationship between modern contraceptives and haemoglobin levels in India, revealing that injectables were associated with a notable reduction in the odds of anaemia, whereas traditional contraceptives and other modern methods exhibited positive associations with anaemia. These findings prompt policymakers to focus on anaemia reduction and safe contraceptives. More research is needed to inform decisions, given the scant literature.

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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health