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Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health 2005;38(3): 330-336.
Effects of Bisphenol A on the Placental Function and Reproduction in Rats.
Chae Kwan Lee, Seog Hyun Kim, Deog Hwan Moon, Jeong Ho Kim, Byung Chul Son, Dae Hwan Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Hwi Dong Kim, Jung Won Kim, Jong Eun Kim, Chae Un Lee
1Institute of Industrial Medicine, Inje University, Korea. lck3303@inje.ac.kr
2Department of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University, Korea.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogen-like environmental endocrine disrupter, on the placental function and reproduction in rats. The mRNA levels of the placental prolactin-growth hormone (PRL-GH) gene family, placental trophoblast cell frequency and reproductive data were analyzed. METHODS: The pregnancies of F344 Fisher rats (160 g +/- 20 g) were detected by the presence of the copulatory plug or sperm in the vaginal smear, which marked Day 0 of pregnancy. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups. The control group was intraperitoneally injected with a sesame oil vehicle. The two remaining groups were injected with 50 or 500 mg/kg B.W/day of BPA, resuspended in sesame oil, on either days 7 to 11 or 16 to 20 of pregnancy, with the rats sacrificed on either day 11 or 20, respectively. The mRNA levels of PRL-GH and Pit-1a and b isotype genes were analyzed by Northern blot hybridization and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The hormone concentrations were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, and the frequency of the placental trophoblast cells observed by a histochemical study. Reproductive data, such as the placental weight and litter size, were surveyed on day 20. The fetal weight was surveyed for 4 weeks after birth. A statistical analysis was carried out using the SAS program (version 8.1). RESULTS: The mRNA levels of the PRL-GH gene family, such as placental lactogen I, Iv and II, prolactin like protein A, C and Cv, and decidual prolactin-related protein were significantly reduced due to BPA exposure. The mRNA levels of the Pit-1a and b isotype genes, which induce the expression of the PRL-GH gene family in the rat placenta, were also reduced due to BPA exposure. The PL-Iv and PL-II concentrations were reduced in the BPA exposed group. During the middle to last stage of pregnancy (Days 11-20), a high dose of BPA exposure reduced the frequency of spongiotrophoblast cells, which are responsible for the secretion of the PRL-GH hormones. Reproductive data, such as the placental and fetal weights and the litter size, were reduced, but that of the pregnancy period was extended in the BPA exposed compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: BPA disrupts the placental functions in rats, which leads to reproductive disorders.
Key words: Bisphenol A; Placenta; PRL-GH family gene; Pit-1 gene; Reproduction
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