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Validation Studies
Validity of Expired Carbon Monoxide and Urine Cotinine Using Dipstick Method to Assess Smoking Status.
Su San Park, Ju Yul Lee, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(4):297-304.
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  • 53 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
We investigated the validity of the dipstick method (Mossman Associates Inc. USA) and the expired CO method to distinguish between smokers and nonsmokers. We also elucidated the related factors of the two methods. METHODS: This study included 244 smokers and 50 exsmokers, recruited from smoking cessation clinics at 4 local public health centers, who had quit for over 4 weeks. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity and Kappa coefficient of each method for validity. We obtained ROC curve, predictive value and agreement to determine the cutoff of expired air CO method. Finally, we elucidated the related factors and compared their effect powers using the standardized regression coefficient. RESULTS: The dipstick method showed a sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 96.0% and Kappa coefficient of 0.79. The best cutoff value to distinguish smokers was 5-6ppm. At 5 ppm, the expired CO method showed a sensitivity of 94.3%, specificity of 82.0% and Kappa coefficient of 0.73. And at 6 ppm, sensitivity, specificity and Kappa coefficient were 88.5%, 86.0% and 0.64, respectively. Therefore, the dipstick method had higher sensitivity and specificity than the expired CO method. The dipstick and expired CO methods were significantly increased with increasing smoking amount. With longer time since the last smoking, expired CO showed a rapid decrease after 4 hours, whereas the dipstick method showed relatively stable levels for more than 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The dipstick and expired CO methods were both good indicators for assessing smoking status. However, the former showed higher sensitivity and specificity and stable levels over longer hours after smoking, compared to the expired CO method.


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Original Articles
Effects of Hyperoxia on 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine Formation in Carbon Monoxide Exposed Rats.
Heon Kim, Soo Hun Cho, Myung Hee Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(1):84-106.
  • 1,791 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Hyperbaric oxygen(HBO) therapy for carbon monoxide(CO) poisoning eventually inducing the hypoxia-reoxygenation condition, may produce oxygen free radicals, which forms 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine(8-OH-dG) by attacking C-8 position of deoxy-guanosine (dG) in DNA. Effects of oxygen partial pressure or duration of HBO therapy with or without CO poisoning on the tissue 8-OH-dG formation were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped and exposed to air(control group), 4000ppm of CO for 10 to 30 minutes(CO only group), air for 30 minutes after 30 minute exposure to 4000ppm of CO(CO-air exposure group), HBO after 30 minute exposure to 4000ppm of CO(CO-HBO group), or HBO therapy for 10-120 minutes (HBO only group). The 8-OH-dG concentrations in the brain and the lung tissues were measured with high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detector (ECD). Average concentrations of the 8-OH-dG of each group were statistically compared. In the brain tissues, 8-OH-dG concentrations of the CO only group, the CO-air exposure group, and the CO-HBO group did not significantly differ from those of the control group. Similar insignificance was also found between the CO-HBO group and the HBO only groups. No appreciable dose-response relationship was observed between the 8-OH-dG concentration and the oxygen partial pressure or the duration of HBO. However, the 8-OH-dG concentrations of the 30 minute CO only group were higher than those of the CO-air exposure group (p-value<0.05). In the lung tissues, there were no significant differences between the 8-OH-dG concentrations of the control group and those of the CO only group, the CO-air exposure group, and the CO-HBO group. However, mean 8-OH-dG concentration of the CO-air exposure group was significantly higher than that of the CO only group under the same CO exposure condition(p-value<0.05). With the duration of CO exposure, the 8-OH-dG concentrations of the lung tissues decreased significantly (p-value<0.05). The concentrations of 8-OH-dG in the lung tissues proportionally increased with the duration of HBO, but no such relation was observed with the oxygen partial pressure. These results suggest that the brain may be more resistant to oxygen free radicals as compared with the lungs, and that oxygen toxicity following HBO may be affected by factors other than oxygen free radicals.
Carboxyhemoglobin Dissociation Pattern by Age in the Rat.
Sun Min Kim, Heon Kim, Soo Hum Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(4):507-515.
  • 1,902 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
One, two, six and ten week old Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to carbon monoxide at 3,700 ppm for 30 minutes, and carboxyhemoglobin was measured immediateley, 5, 30, 60, 90, 120 minutes after the exposure. In each time after the exposure, the means of the carboxyhemoglobin levels were "compared among the week age groups. The regression analysis was done using the natural logarithm. of the carboxyhemoglobin concentration as a dependent variable and the time after the exposure. as an independent vaiable. From the regression equation, the half lives of the carboxyhemoglobin were calculated. The one week old rats showed significantly higher carboxyhemoglobin level than other week age rats in the entire time after the exposure. The corrected carboxyhemoglobin concentration calculated by subtracting the normal carboxyhemoglobin level from the me cured carboxyhemoglobin at each age group, showed no uniform differences.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health