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Original Article
Relationship Between Pesticide Exposure Factors and Health Symptoms Among Chili Farmers in Northeast Thailand
Ratchadaporn Pengpan, Kulthida Y. Kopolrat, Sribud Srichaijaroonpong, Nutta Taneepanichskul, Patiwat Yasaka, Ratanee Kammoolkon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(1):73-82.   Published online December 20, 2023
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  • 95 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
The unsafe use of pesticides in agriculture represents a major hazard to human health. This study was conducted to investigate the association between pesticide exposure and health symptoms among chili farmers in northeast Thailand.
This cross-sectional analytic study included 141 chili farmers in Sakon Nakhon Province, in northeast Thailand. Data regarding health symptoms were gathered using a self-report questionnaire. A medical technician tested blood cholinesterase activity using an erythrocyte method, and an occupational medicine specialist at Ramathibodi Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand reviewed the results. Associations between personal characteristics, pesticide exposure factors, and health symptoms were analyzed using multiple logistic regression.
Of the 141 chili farmers studied, 66.7% experienced pesticide poisoning, as indicated by below-normal cholinesterase levels. Fatigue was the most frequently reported symptom associated with pesticide exposure, affecting 37.6% of participants. This was followed by nausea and vomiting (31.9%), dizziness (14.9%), and dry throat (14.9%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that several factors were significantly associated with adverse symptoms: amount of work experience, volume of pesticides used, use of chemical pesticides, use of leaking containers during spraying, direct pesticide exposure while working, contact with pesticide-soaked clothing, consumption of food and drinks in the fields, and blood cholinesterase level indicating risk.
This study suggests potential health risks for chili farmers stemming from exposure to and contamination by pesticides used in agricultural practices. To mitigate these risks, it is essential to supply personal protective equipment and to implement educational programs aimed at improving protective behaviors among farmers.
Key Message
This study aimed to demonstrate the impact of pesticide exposure on health symptoms. In a cross-sectional study, the effects of pesticide exposure on acetylcholinesterase erythrocyte activity in blood during agricultural practices were examined as potential health risks for chili farmers. It is crucial to provide personal protective equipment and to implement educational initiatives targeted at encouraging farmers to adopt more protective behaviors to reduce these risks.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Emerging diseases: trend research and omics-based analysis reveals mechanisms of endophytes modulate Chilli plant resilience
    Wiwiek Harsonowati, Evy Latifah, Arinal Haq Izzawati Nurrahma, Jati Purwani, Rashid Iqbal, Javid Ahmad Parray, Ashish D. Patel
    Symbiosis.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • An Analysis of Occupational Hazards Based on the Physical Ergonomics Dimension to Improve the Occupational Health of Agricultural Workers: The Case in Mayo Valley, Mexico
    Víctor Manuel Ramos-García, Josué Aarón López-Leyva, Ana Paola Balderrama-Carmona, Iván Ochoa-Vázquez, Juan José García-Ochoa, Manuel de Jesús Espinoza-Espino
    Safety.2024; 10(3): 61.     CrossRef
Climate Change: Original Article
Association Between Air Conditioning Use and Self-reported Symptoms During the 2018 Heat Wave in Korea
Yong-Han Lee, Sanghyuk Bae, Seung-sik Hwang, Jong-Hun Kim, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Miji Kim, Sohwa Jung, Ho-Jang Kwon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(1):15-25.   Published online November 26, 2019
  • 6,548 View
  • 224 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
The purpose of this study was to investigate the health effects of air conditioning use during the 2018 heat wave in Korea, included the highest temperature ever recorded in the nation.
The participants in this study were 1000 adults aged 19 years and older recruited from across Korea. The participants were asked about their experience of symptoms of various diseases, disruptions of their daily lives, and use of air conditioning during the heat wave. The associations between air conditioning use during the heat wave and health outcomes were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models.
Among participants who lacked air conditioning in the main space where they spent time outside the home, 33.9%, 8.1%, 43.5%, and 19.4% experienced symptoms of heat-related, cardiovascular, nervous system diseases, and air-conditioningitis, respectively. In comparison, participants who did have air conditioning outside the home experienced the same symptoms at proportions of 21.0%, 1.9%, 26.8%, and 34.2%, respectively (p=0.027, 0.007, 0.007, and 0.023, respectively). Among participants who had no air conditioner at home, 10.0% were absent from school or work due to the heat wave. In contrast, among participants who had an air conditioner at home, only 3.7% were absent as a result of the heat wave (p=0.007).
When air conditioning was not used at home or in the main space where participants spent time outside the home during the 2018 heat wave, adverse health effects were more prevalent, but the risk of air-conditioningitis was reduced.
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국 기상관측사상 가장 더웠던 2018년 한국의 폭염 기간 동안, 에어컨 사용이 건강에 미치는 영향에 대해 조사하였다. 가정 외 주 생활공간에 에어컨이 가동되지 않거나 가정에 에어컨이 없으면 폭염 기간 동안의 건강 및 일상생활에 좋지 않은 영향을 줄 수 있으나, 냉방병 위험은 낮아질 수 있다.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Integration and Optimal Control of MicroCSP with Building HVAC Systems: Review and Future Directions
    Mohamed Toub, Chethan R. Reddy, Rush D. Robinett, Mahdi Shahbakhti
    Energies.2021; 14(3): 730.     CrossRef
  • Climate Change and Health: More Research Is Still Needed
    Ho-Jang Kwon
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(1): 1.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Microbusinesses and Occupational Stress: Emotional Demands, Job Resources, and Depression Among Korean Immigrant Microbusiness Owners in Toronto, Canada
Il-Ho Kim, Samuel Noh, Cyu-Chul Choi, Kwame McKenzie
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(5):299-307.   Published online August 16, 2019
  • 4,864 View
  • 89 Download
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
While occupational stress has long been a central focus of psychological research, few studies have investigated how immigrant microbusiness owners (MBOs) respond to their unusually demanding occupation, or how their unresolved occupational stress manifests in psychological distress. Based on the job demands-resources model, this study compared MBOs to employees with regard to the relationships among emotional demands, job resources, and depressive symptoms.
Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 1288 Korean immigrant workers (MBOs, professionals, office workers, and manual workers) aged 30 to 70, living in Toronto and surrounding areas. Face-to-face interviews were conducted between March 2013 and November 2013.
Among the four occupational groups, MBOs appeared to endure the greatest level of emotional demands, while reporting relatively lower levels of job satisfaction and job security; but MBOs reported the greatest job autonomy. The effect of emotional demands on depressive symptoms was greater for MBOs than for professionals. However, an inspection of stress-resource interactions indicated that though MBOs enjoyed the greatest autonomy, the protective effects of job satisfaction and security on the psychological risk of emotional demands appeared to be more pronounced for MBOs than for any of the employee groups.
One in two Korean immigrants choose self-employment, most typically in family-owned microbusinesses that involve emotionally taxing dealings with clients and suppliers. However, the benefits of job satisfaction and security may protect MBOs from the adverse mental health effects of job stress.
Korean summary
이 연구는 고용직(전문직, 사무직, 육체직)에 비교하여 영세사업자의 감정노동이 우울 수준에 미치는 영향과 직무자원(직업자율성, 직업만족도, 직업안정성)의 조절효과를 분석하였다. 연구결과 영세사업자가 전문직에 비하여 감정노동이 우울감에 미치는 영향이 유의하게 높았다. 또한 전문직에 비하여 영세사업자에서 직업만족도와 직업안정성이 감정노동의 우울 영향을 유의하게 감소시켰으나, 직업자율성은 큰 영향을 미치지 않았다.


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  • Upgrading of IOT Big Data Governance Scheme in Microenterprise Governance
    Dewen Liu, Jian Wang, Kalidoss Rajakani
    Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing.2022; 2022: 1.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and factors associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms among patients hospitalized with hematological malignancies after chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy: A cross-sectional study
    Hongyuan Dai, Shuya Xu, Jing Han, Zhenyu Li, Jiang Cao, Tingyu Hu, Hongxia Li, Jing Wei, Xue Dou, Fang Zhou, Junnian Zheng
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2021; 286: 33.     CrossRef
  • Objective Job Demands of Oneself and One’s Partner, and Depressive Symptoms. Evidence from a Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study
    Benedikt Kretzler, Hans-Helmut König, André Hajek
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(23): 12688.     CrossRef
Non-linear Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Korean Males
Chang Kyun Choi, Sun A Kim, Ji-An Jeong, Sun-Seog Kweon, Min-Ho Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(3):147-153.   Published online March 29, 2019
  • 10,240 View
  • 187 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between body mass index (BMI) and severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in Korean males.
This study was conducted on males aged ≥50 years who participated in the 2011 Korean Community Health Survey. LUTS severity was assessed using the Korean version of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire, and was dichotomized as severe (IPSS >19) and non-severe (IPSS ≤19). BMI was divided into 6 categories: <18.5, 18.5-22.9, 23.0-24.9, 25.0-27.4, 27.5-29.9, and ≥30.0 kg/m2. To evaluate the relationship between BMI and LUTS, a survey-weighted multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs). Age, smoking status, alcohol intake, physical activity, educational level, household income, and comorbidities were adjusted for in the multivariate model.
A U-shaped relationship was detected between BMI and severe LUTS. Compared with a BMI of 23.0-24.9 kg/m2, the PRR for a BMI <18.5 kg/m2 was 1.65 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 2.02), that for a BMI of 18.5-22.9 kg/m2 was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.09 to 1.44), that for a BMI of 25.0-27.4 kg/m2 was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.45), that for a BMI of 27.5-29.9 kg/m2 was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.83 to 1.47), and that for a BMI ≥30.0 kg/m2 was 1.85 (95% CI, 1.18 to 2.88).
This study showed that both high and low BMI were associated with severe LUTS.
Korean summary
이 연구는 2011 지역사회건강조사를 기반으로 하였다. 한국인 남성에서 체질량지수와 하부요로증상 간에는 U자형 관련성이 있었으며, 저체중과 비만 모두 높은 하부요로증상 유병률을 보였다. 따라서 전립선 질환의 건강서비스 제공에 있어서 비만 뿐만 아니라 저체중 또한 위험인자로 함께 고려할 필요가 있다.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Metabolic syndrome and male lower urinary tract symptoms
    Gallus B. INEICHEN, Fiona C. BURKHARD
    Panminerva Medica.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Report
Is Caffeine Intake Associated With Urinary Incontinence in Japanese Adults?
Fumi Hirayama, Andy H. Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(3):204-208.   Published online May 31, 2012
  • 9,344 View
  • 78 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

To investigate whether caffeine intake is associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among Japanese adults.


A total of 683 men and 298 women aged 40 to 75 years were recruited from the community in middle and southern Japan. A validated food frequency questionnaire was administered face-to-face to obtain information on dietary intake and habitual beverage consumption. Urinary incontinence status was ascertained using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form.


Mean daily caffeine intake was found to be similar between incontinent subjects (men 120 mg, women 94 mg) and others without the condition (men 106 mg, women 103 mg), p=0.33 for men and p=0.44 for women. The slight increases in risk of UI at the highest level of caffeine intake were not significant after adjusting for confounding factors. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) were 1.36 (0.65 to 2.88) and 1.12 (0.57 to 2.22) for men and women, respectively.


No association was evident between caffeine intake and UI in middle-aged and older Japanese adults. Further studies are required to confirm the effect of caffeine in the prevention of UI.



Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Clinical Guidelines for Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (second edition)
    Satoru Takahashi, Mineo Takei, Hirotaka Asakura, Momokazu Gotoh, Osamu Ishizuka, Kumiko Kato, Masayasu Koyama, Masami Takeyama, Hikaru Tomoe, Tomonori Yamanishi, Osamu Yokoyama, Masaki Yoshida, Yasukuni Yoshimura, Tsuyoshi Yoshizawa
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    Kamil Rodak, Izabela Kokot, Ewa Maria Kratz
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    Aktuelle Urologie.2019; 50(S 01): s11.     CrossRef
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    Andrea Staack, Brian Distelberg, Amy Schlaifer, Joan Sabaté
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    Masafumi Saito, Satomi Kobayashi, Hiroyuki Uchida, Hitomi Suga, Jun Kobayashi, Satoshi Sasaki, the Three-Generation Study of Women
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    Current Bladder Dysfunction Reports.2016; 11(1): 1.     CrossRef
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    Shenyou Sun, Dongbin Liu, Ziyao Jiao
    BMC Urology.2016;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jong Min Baek, Jae Yen Song, Sung Jong Lee, Eun Kyung Park, In Cheul Jeung, Chan Joo Kim, Yong Seok Lee, Jayoung Kim
    PLOS ONE.2016; 11(2): e0149311.     CrossRef
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    Nicole J. Davis, Camille P. Vaughan, Theodore M. Johnson, Patricia S. Goode, Kathryn L. Burgio, David T. Redden, Alayne D. Markland
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  • Selected Literature Watch

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Comparative Study
Body Weight at Birth and at Age Three and Respiratory Illness in Preschool Children.
Yoolwon Jeong, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Jin Hwa Lee, Hwa Young Lee, Eun Ae Park, Young Ju Kim, Eunhee Ha, Se Young Oh, Hyesook Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(5):369-376.
  • 5,376 View
  • 56 Download
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of current body weight and body mass index (BMI) at age three and birth weight in developing chronic respiratory illness in childhood and identify possible interaction underlying its mechanism. METHODS: The study was carried out with 422 children who were enrolled in a hospital-based birth cohort. Birth related anthropometric data were collected at birth. At age 3 years, the presence of respiratory symptoms was evaluated by using the Korean version of core questionnaire for wheezing and asthma from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Physical examination was carried out to measure the child's weight and height. RESULTS: Children in the lowest birth weight tertile (aOR = 3.97, 95% CI = 0.94-16.68) or highest BMI tertile (aOR = 3.68, 95% CI = 1.24-10.95) at three years of age were at an increased risk of chronic respiratory illness. Children who were initially in the lowest birth weight tertile but now belong in the highest weight tertile had higher risk of chronic respiratory illness compared to those who had remained in the middle tertile (OR=16.35, 95% CI=1.66-160.57). CONCLUSIONS: Children with lower birth weight or higher BMI were at an increased risk of chronic respiratory illness. In addition, children who were initially in the lowest birth weight tertile but are now in the highest weight tertile had higher risk of chronic respiratory illness compared to those who remained in the middle tertile.


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  • Association of Growth Trajectory Profiles with Asthma Development in Infants Hospitalized with Bronchiolitis
    Makiko Nanishi, Michimasa Fujiogi, Michelle Stevenson, Liming Liang, Ying Shelly Qi, Yoshihiko Raita, Kohei Hasegawa, Carlos A. Camargo
    The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice.2022; 10(3): 723.     CrossRef
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    Luana Lopes Padilha, Cecilia Claudia Costa Ribeiro, Joelma Ximenes Prado Teixeira Nascimento, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Fernanda Pino Vitti, Viviane Cunha Cardoso, Elcio Oliveira Vianna, Marco Antônio Barbieri, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva, Heloísa B
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    Yue Zhang, Zhanghua Chen, Kiros Berhane, Robert Urman, Vaia Lida Chatzi, Carrie Breton, Frank D Gilliland
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    Julie Chastang, Nour Baiz, Laure Parnet, Jean Sébastien Cadwallader, Frédéric De Blay, Denis Caillaud, Denis André Charpin, John Dwyer, François Lavaud, Chantal Raherison, Gladys Ibanez, Isabella Annesi‐Maesano
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    Finn Rasmussen, Robert J. Hancox
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Original Articles
Work-Related Musculoskeletal Symptoms Among Dairy Farmers in Gyeonggi Province, Korea.
Ji Hyuk Park, Hyun Sul Lim, Kwan Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(3):205-212.
  • 5,298 View
  • 97 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms (WMS) among Korean dairy farmers has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of WMS and to evaluate the relationship between WMS and risk factors. METHODS: Self-developed questionnaires including the questionnaire developed by the Korean Occupational Safety and Health agency (KOSHA) were used to investigate WMS among dairy farmers in Gyeonggi Province, Korea. We informed selected dairy farmers about the study and sent the questionnaires by registered mail. They visited a public health center nearby or a branch of public health center on the appointed date and skillful researchers identified or conducted the questionnaires by interview. We analyzed 598 (32.8%) of the 1824 dairy farmers. Multiple logistic regression was implemented to estimate the odds ratios of risk factors. RESULTS: The mean age of the respondents was 50.4 +/- 8.7 years and the proportion of males was 63.0%. The prevalence of WMS at any site was 33.3%. The prevalence of neck WMS was 2.2%, shoulders 10.0%, arms/elbows 5.0%, hands/wrists/fingers 4.2%, low back 11.5%, and legs/feet 11.7%. The adjusted odds ratio of low back WMS for milking 4 or more hours per day was 4.231 (95% CI = 1.124 - 15.932) and statistically significant. Low back WMS (2.827, 95% CI = 1.545 - 5.174) was significantly decreased by education. CONCLUSIONS: Low back WMS increased with milking hours and milking 4 or more hours per day was significantly associated with low back WMS. Low back WMS was significantly reduced with education. We hope that there will be increased attention about WMS in dairy farmers and the subject of future investigations.


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    I M Rachmi, R A Werdhani, I N Murdana
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    Md Monoarul Haque
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Relationship of Level of Stress, Life Style, Subjective Symptoms and Clinical Diagnosis in Clients taken Multiphasic Screening Program.
Jun Han Park, Jin Ho Chun, Jang Mi Kang, Byung Chul Son, Dae Hwan Kim, Chang Hee Lee, Kui Won Jeong, Sang Hwa Urm
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):728-739.
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To improve wellness and quality of life by recognizing the health effects of stress, the author estimated the relationships between stress, subjective symptoms and clinical diagnosis through a questionnaire and a battery of specified laboratory tests - electrocardiography, blood pressure, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase(AST), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase(gamma-GTP), fasting blood sugar, gastro-endoscopy or UGI, abdominal sonography, etc. The data was gathered from 337 clients who were undergoing multiphasic screening program at a University Hospital from January to March 1998. The mean age of subjects was 46.5+/-11.2 years and the mean of body mass index was 24.0+/-3.7kg/m2. The mean level of stress was 18.5+/-6.0 expressed as the score out of 40. By general characteristics and life style among male, mean level of stress was significantly higher in case of lower socioeconomic status, habitual drug use, longer daily working time(>10 hours), no regular exercise, drinkers, irregular meal, skipping breakfast(p<0.05). In case of female, that was significantly higher in case of lower education, lower socioeconomic status, longer daily working time(>10 hours), no regular exercise, drinkers, smokers, irregular meal, skipping breakfast(p<0.05). Significant correlations were observed between stress and subjective symptoms in all kinds of organ system(p<0.01). Correlation coefficients of stress among male were relatively high with neuro-psychiatric symptom(gamma=0.476) and cardio-vascular symptom(gamma=0.361) in order, and correlation coefficients of stress among female was highest with neuro-psychiatric symptom(gamma=0.371). The prevalence of the diagnosis through the battery of laboratory tests was high in upper gastrointestinal disorders and hypercholesterolemia in order in both sex group. Among male the mean score of stress was significantly high in ulcerative peptic disorder of upper gastrointestine and hepatopathy in order (p<0.05) . Among female that was significantly high in diabetes mellitus. In summary, it is likely that there are associations between stress, subjective symptoms and clinical diagnosis. To promote wellness and quality of life through, therefore, it would be of value that periodic stress evaluation program and stress management including appropriate control of smoking and drinking, regular exercise and meal.
The effect of smoking and drinking habit on the health status of lead workers.
Choong Koo Lee, Yong Bae Kim, Gap Soo Lee, Kyu Yoon Hwang, Hwa Sung Kim, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):708-718.
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To investigate the effect of smoking and drinking habit on the health status in lead using industries, 2,785 male workers in lead using industries (7 storage battery industries, 7 secondary smelting and related industries, and 4 primary metal and other manufacturing industries) were selected for this study. This study was carried out as a part of periodic health examination. Selected study variables were zinc protoporphyrin in whole blood (ZPP), SGOT and SGPT for laboratory test. Questionnaire for lead related symptoms and smoking and drinking habit was provided to all the workers and filled up by themselves and reconfirmed by physician. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The overall smoking and drinking rate of study population were 69.8% and 73.6%, respectively. While the smoking and drinking rate of storage battery workers were 68.8% and 72.3%, those of secondary smelting industries and other industries were 66.0% and 66.4% and 74.6 and 80.3% respectively. 2. While the mean values of blood ZPP of lead exposed workers were significantly higher than other group, those of SGOT of storage battery workers were significant higher than other worker. But there were no differences of mean values of other variables. 3. Smoking habit did not affect on the mean value of blood ZPP of workers in special health examination group, but there were significant differences of blood ZPP and SGOT between drinker and non-drinker. 4. Symptom prevalence of lead exposure were higher in drinking and smoking group than non-drinking and non-smoking group. 5. In multiple regression analysis of the total lead related symptoms, blood ZPP, SGOT, and SGPT as dependent variable, respectively, and age, work duration, blood ZPP, pack year and amount of alcohol drinking as independent variables, work duration, pack year, amount of alcohol drinking, age contributed to total symptoms; and age, work duration, pack year contributed to blood ZPP; and age, amount of alcohol drinking, work duration contributed to SGOT; and pack year contributed to SGPT.
Respiratory symptoms of workers exposed to the fume containing manganese.
Sun Hee Yu, Doo Hie Kim, Hyun Sul Lim, Ji Yong Kim, Byung Soon Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(4):752-763.
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To evaluate the effect of manganese on the respiratory system, we investigated the respiratory symptoms of 63 male workers exposed to fume containing manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and silica (Si), and compared them with those of 66 male workers not exposed to the fume in a manganese alloy smelting factory. The prevalence ratios of the seven respiratory symptoms were not different between two groups. The presence of any respiratory symptom was not related with the age, duration of employment, smoking status of workers, and exposure to fume. In furnace workers, it was not related with the airborne Mn, Fe, and Si concentration in the total or respirable fume. Airborne Mn concentrations of all 4 furnaces in the respirable fume were below 1 mg/m(3). There were two suspicious cases of pneumoconiosis among furnace workers and one definite case(1/2) among casting workers who were not exposed to fume. The above results suggest that the exposure to the low airborne Mn concentration is not related with respiratory symptoms and pneumoconiosis. However, it is necessary to study the respiratory effects of Mn using the symptom questionnaire with consideration of the severity and persistence of symptoms and the time interval from exposure.
Changes of Visual Acuity and Ophthalmic Symptoms in Female Workers examining Silver Plating Products.
Seung Ho Ryu, Jeong Il Son, Soo Jin Lee, Jae Cheol Song
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(3):567-576.
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To evaluate the effects of reflected glare on eyes, authors assessed the periodic health examination(1991-1996) and self-administered questionnaire data of a semiconductor producing company. The 13 lead frame(LF) department workers have been exposed to high reflected glare in the process for examining the silver plating products. We compared the data of connector(14) and clerical(12) workers as the non-exposed ones. Among LF department workers, 100% felt their visual acuity worsened(connector:81.8%, clerical:85.7%), and 70% had worn the glasses or contact lenses(connector :14.3 %, clerical :40%) since working at the company. Major ophthalmic symptoms of the LF workers are asthenopia, tearing, decreased visual acuity, congestion and glare. Decrease of visual acuity by Hahn's line change of the LF workers is significantly high during a 5-year follow-up(p<0.05 by simple regression) compared with connector, clerical workers.
The Relationship between Noise Exposure Level in Worksite and Workers' Stress symptoms.
Kyung Ok Park, Myung Sun Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):239-254.
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Health services on industrial noisy environment have been provided only for noise-induced hearing loss management until now. But gradually, modern diseases and death have come to be related to stress and mental health deeply, therefore noise-induced mental disorder, like a stress became very important. In this point, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between noise exposure level in worksite and workers' stress symptoms. This study included a survey of 786 manual workers selected from 89 worksites in 21 factories in Puchon. The results were as follows: 1. For demographic characteristics, most of the workers were males(80.8%), the 20~29 years old were 34.5% and those who graduated from high school were 65.3%. The workers whose monthly income ranged from 500,000 to 800,000 won were 37.5% and who have a religion were 47.9%. 2. For occupational characteristics, workers who had worked 1~5 years in the factories were 33.0%. Those who felt much for them workload were 43.9% and who worked more than 8 hours a day were 73.9 %. Those who were dissatisfied with their job and pay were 31.9% and 50.6%. The workers who responded ventilation condition of their worksites were bad were 51.9% and the dissatisfied with working environment of their wofksites were 45.9%. 3. Workers who were suffering from tinnitus were 53.3% and those who perceived hearing loss were 50.l%. Persons who reported they always wore earplugs at work were 35.4%. Those who felt earplugs bigger than their ears were 30.6% and those who experienced eardiseases caused by earplugs were 25.6%. 4. For the noise exposure level in worksite, workers who were exposed to 80-90dB were 30.3%, 90-100dB were 26.4% and 50~70dB were 19.2%. 5. workers' stress symptoms were significantly related to marital status and their monthly income p< 0.05). Workers who were single and had lower monthly income showed higher PSl (Psychiatric symptom Index) scores than those who were married and had higher monthly income. Higher PSl scores were also significantly related to l~2 days night-work per week, much for them workload, dissatisfaction with their job, and bad relationship with their bosses and coworkers. 6. Higher PSl scores were significantly related to severe tinnitus and perceived hearing loss p<0.001). Workers who felt the earplugs they use did not fit their ears showed significantly higher PSl scores(p<0.01). Workers who reported that they did not feel they need earplugs showed significantly higher PSl scores(p<0.05). Increased experience of eardisease caused by earplugs that did not fit were also significantly related to higher PSl scores(p<0.001). 7. The higher noise exposure level in worksite from 80dB was, the more severe stress symptoms including PSl subparts were reported; Anxiety, Anger, Depression, and cognitive disorder(p<0.001). 8. According to the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis, factors affecting workers' PSl scores were perceived hearing loss(R2=0.160), noise exposure level jn worksite(R2=0.110), relationship with coworkers, amount of workload, monthly income and relationship with bosses orderly and the total R2 of this 6 factors was 0.371. 9. The most significant factors that have impact on manual workers' stress symptoms were perceived hearing loss and noise exposure level in worksite, especially noise exposure level in the worksite was the most affective factor on the depression symptom.
Study on the lead exposure of workers in a litharge making industry.
Sang Bok Lim, Jung Kyu Lim, Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byung Kook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):875-884.
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In order to investigate the level of lead exposure of workers in litharge making industry and to evaluate how lead exposure, personal habit such as smoking and drinking affect the prevalence of lead related symptoms and other study variables, we investigate 114 workers(24 office workers and 90 lead exposed workers) in a litharge making industry. Study variables chosen were blood lead(PbB), zinc protoporphyrin in whole blood(ZPP), Hemoglobin(Hb), hematocrit (Hct), SGOT and SGPT. symptom questionnaires which had 15 lead exposure related symptoms were provided to all workers and filled up by themselves and reconfirmed by physician. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The mean value of PbB, ZPP and SGOT in lead exposed group were higher than those of non-exposed group, and there were no differences of means in other study variables. 2. The smoking and drinking rate of study subjects were 65.8% and 71.0% as a whole. Smoking rates were lower in non-exposed group than exposed group, but drinking rate were not. 3. There were no differences of mean values of study variables between smoker and non-smoker in non-exposed and exposed group, but there was a difference of mean value of SGOT between drinker and non-drinker in lead exposed group. 4. while the symptom prevalence of lead exposed group were higher in neuromuscular category than non-exposed group, those of non-exposed group were higher or same with exposed group in gastrointestinal and general symptom category. 5. The symptom prevalence of smoker were higher than non-smoker regardless of exposure. 6. The symptom prevalence of drinker were only higher in gastrointestinal symptom category than non-drinker. 7. In multiple stepwise regression analysis of lead related symptoms as dependent variable and blood lead, smoking habit, drinking habit and work duration as independent variables, drinking habit contributed to the gastrointestinal symptom category, whereas blood lead and smoking contributed to the neuromuscular symptom category. For the total symptoms work duration and smoking habit contributed significantly.
Normal Predicted Values of Pulmonary Function of the Primary School Children in Rural Area and Sensitive Index of Respiratory Symptoms.
Byung Sun Choi, Jung Duck Park, Yeon Pyo Hong, Im Won Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):690-705.
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Pulmonary function tests were conducted on 815 healthy primary school children (390 males and 425 female) in rural area using Collins Survey Spirometer (warren E. collins, Inc, U. S. A.) with X-Y Recorder. Respiratory symptoms(cough, sputum, sore throat, chest pain, chest tightness, dyspnea, coryza) were surveyed by the interviews. Multiple regression analysis and regression diagnostics were done for prediction equations of FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% . FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% values in 3 groups of children classified by the number of symptom were compared each other through standard variable value. FVC, FEV1, PEFR and FEF25-75% showed highly significant correlation with age, height and weight. Prediction equations for FVC, FEV1, PEER, FEF25-75% are functions of height only in both male and female children aged between 6 and 12 years old. PEFR showed a significant difference related with the number of symptom in female. These results suggest that the PEFR is sensitive PFT parameter in this study.
A Study on the Relationship between Subjective symptoms and Psychological Symptoms on some VDT workers.
Jeong Il Son, Soo Jin Lee, Jaecheol Song, Hung Bae Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(2):433-449.
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The study subjects in this study are 295 workers who work on one electronics industry, and they were composed of 93 VDT and 202 non-VDT workers. This study was carried out to obtain the prevalence of subjective symptoms and to compare psychological symptom scores from SCL-90-R between VDT and non-VDT work groups. And to verify the relationship between VDT work related symptoms and psychological symptoms, the author compared scL-90-R T scores between symptom complaining and non-complaining groups. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Throughout the prevalence study of VDT work related symptoms according to VDT work state, the author could select the final 10 symptoms by sex; 'eye fatigue', 'foggy vision', 'neck discomfort or pain'. 'shoulder discomfort and pain', 'light headedness', 'dizziness', 'aene`, 'itching sensation on face', 'difficulty in concentration', 'memory disturbance' in males, and 'blurred vision`, 'foggy vision', 'neck discomfort or pain', 'shoulder discomfort and pain`, 'abdominal distention','indigestion', 'acne', 'pricking sensation on face', 'difficulty in concentration', 'memory disturbance` in females. 2. Throughout comparison of psychological symptom scores from SCL-90-R between VDT and non-VDT workers' except `interpersonal sensitivity` in female, Mean T score were higher in VDT workers, but not significantly different between the two groups. These results indicate that the relation between VDT work status and psychological symptoms are not strongly correlated. 3. Because of the nonspecific characteristics of VDT work related symptoms, from the 40 subjective symptoms, the author selected the final 10 symptoms by sex, especially correlated to VDT, and divided the study subjects into symptom complaining and non-complaining groups. The mean SCL-90-R T score between the two groups were compared. Except for the opthalmologic symptoms in females, the scores were significantly different between the two groups in all symptoms. And this indicates that the VDT work related symptoms strongly correlated with the present individual psychological conditions. 4. Due to understand that which of the 9 psychological symptom dimensions are strongly correlated with the subjective symptoms, the author excuted multiple logistic regression analysis, and the result were as follows; 'depression' and 'somatization', in male, and 'obsessive-compulsive' and 'somatization' in female.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health