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Drug Prescription Indicators in Outpatient Services in Social Security Organization Facilities in Iran
Afsoon Aeenparast, Ali Asghar Haeri Mehrizi, Farzaneh Maftoon, Faranak Farzadi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2024;57(3):298-303.   Published online April 4, 2024
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
The aim of this study was to estimate drug prescription indicators in outpatient services provided at Iran Social Security Organization (SSO) healthcare facilities.
Data on all prescribed drugs for outpatient visits from 2017 to 2018 were extracted from the SSO database. The data were categorized into 4 main subgroups: patient characteristics, provider characteristics, service characteristics, and type of healthcare facility. Logistic regression models were used to detect risk factors for inappropriate drug prescriptions. SPSS and IBM Modeler software were utilized for data analysis.
In 2017, approximately 150 981 752 drug items were issued to outpatients referred to SSO healthcare facilities in Iran. The average number of drug items per outpatient prescription was estimated at 3.33. The proportion of prescriptions that included an injection was 17.5%, and the rate of prescriptions that included an antibiotic was 37.5%. Factors such as patient sex and age, provider specialty, type of facility, and time of outpatient visit were associated with the risk of inappropriate prescriptions.
In this study, all drug prescription criteria exceeded the recommended limits set by the World Health Organization. To improve the current prescription patterns throughout the country, it would be beneficial to provide providers with monthly and annual reports and to consider implementing some prescription policies for physicians.
Key Message
In present research all drug prescriptions in Iran Social Security outpatient facilities were assessed. In all 45,312,540 studied prescriptions, the average number of drug items per prescriptions was 3.33 items. 17.5% of prescriptions contained injection and 37.5% contained antibiotic. Patient sex and age, provider specialty, type of facility were associated with the risk of inappropriate prescriptions. It seems that correct policy making and proper supervision alongside health education will be core basis for improving drug prescription and use.
English Abstract
The Concept and Measurement of Food Security.
Kirang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Young Jeon Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):387-396.
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  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
During the past two decades, food deprivation and hunger have been recognized to be not just the concerns of only underdeveloped or developing countries, but as problems for many affluent Western nations as well. Many countries have made numerous efforts to define and measure the extent of these problems. Based on these efforts, the theory and practice of food security studies has significantly evolved during the last decades. Thus, this study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the concept and measurement of food security. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this review, we introduce the definition and background of food security, we describe the impact of food insecurity on nutrition and health, we provide its measurements and operational instruments and we discuss its applications and implications. Some practical information for the use of the food security index in South Korea is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: Food security is an essential element in achieving a good nutritional and health status and it has an influence to reduce poverty. The information about the current understanding of food security can help scientists, policy makers and program practitioners conduct research and maintain outreach programs that address the issues of poverty and the promotion of food security.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparison of Health Status and Life Satisfaction According to Food Security in Single-Person Households of Elderly Population
    Dong Hoon Jung, Jae Won Han, Wonha Kim, Hee-Sook Lim
    Clinical Nutrition Research.2024; 13(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Perceived Food Store Environment on Malnutrition and Frailty among the Food-Insecure Elderly in a Metropolitan City
    Yu-Mi Kim, Narae Yang, Kirang Kim
    Nutrients.2021; 13(7): 2392.     CrossRef
  • Basic Concepts and Detailed Dimensions of Food Security and Related Indicators for Policy Development and Evaluation
    Sohyun Park, Ji-Yun Hwang, Jae Eun Shim, Kirang Kim
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2021; 26(6): 429.     CrossRef
  • The effects of a personalized nutrition intervention program on food security, health and nutritional status of low-income older adults in Seoul city
    Yeyeon Lee, Narae Yang, Minjeong Shin, Kyung-Eun Lee, Chang Hee Yoo, Kirang Kim
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2020; 53(4): 416.     CrossRef
  • Health and nutritional status of Korean adults according to age and household food security: Using the data from 2010~2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Geun Ah Park, Sung Hee Kim, Seok Joong Kim, Yoon Jung Yang
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2017; 50(6): 603.     CrossRef
  • Association of food insecurity and depression in Korean adults
    Kowoon Lee, Hye-Sook Yoo
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2016; 17(1): 62.     CrossRef
  • Food deserts in Korea? A GIS analysis of food consumption patterns at sub-district level in Seoul using the KNHANES 2008-2012 data
    Dohyeong Kim, Chang Kil Lee, Dong Yeon Seo
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2016; 10(5): 530.     CrossRef
  • Socio-demographic Characteristics, Nutrient Intakes and Mental Health Status of Older Korean Adults depending on Household Food Security: Based on the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Yoon Jung Yang
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2015; 20(1): 30.     CrossRef
  • Nutritional status of toddlers and preschoolers according to household income level: overweight tendency and micronutrient deficiencies
    Kirang Kim, Sam Cheol Shin, Jae Eun Shim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2015; 9(5): 547.     CrossRef
  • Food Insecurity and Related Risk Factors in the Elderly: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013 Data
    Hye-Sang Lee
    Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association.2015; 21(4): 308.     CrossRef
  • Factors contributing to participation in food assistance programs in the elderly population
    Seo Ah Hong, Kirang Kim
    Nutrition Research and Practice.2014; 8(4): 425.     CrossRef
  • A Qualitative Study on Attitude, Acceptability, and Adaptation for Home-delivered Meal Services in the Korean Elderly from the Perspective of Life Context
    Ji-Yun Hwang, Bokyoung Kim, Kirang Kim
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2014; 19(5): 459.     CrossRef
  • Development of Evaluation Indicators for a Children's Dietary Life Safety Index in Korea
    Hae Rang Chung, Tong-Kyung Kwak, Young-Sun Choi, Hye-Young P. Kim, Jung-Sug Lee, Jung-Hwa Choi, Na-Young Yi, Sehyug Kwon, Youn-Ju Choi, Soon-Kyu Lee, Myung-Hee Kang
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition.2011; 44(1): 49.     CrossRef
  • Development of Food Security Measures for Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Kirang Kim, Seo Ah Hong, Sung Ok Kwon, Se-Young Oh
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition.2011; 44(6): 551.     CrossRef
  • Development and Validation of Food Security Measure
    Kirang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
    The Korean Journal of Nutrition.2009; 42(4): 374.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health