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COVID-19: Original Article
The Effectiveness of Community-based Social Distancing for Mitigating the Spread of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Turkey
Hasan Durmuş, Mehmet Enes Gökler, Selma Metintaş
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(6):397-404.   Published online November 2, 2020
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  • 198 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effects of community-based social distancing interventions after the first coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case in Turkey on the course of the pandemic and to determine the number of prevented cases.
In this ecological study, the interventions implemented in response to the first COVID-19 cases in Turkey were evaluated and the effect of the interventions was demonstrated by calculating the effective reproduction number (Rt) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coro navirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) when people complied with community-based social distancing rules.
Google mobility scores decreased by an average of 36.33±22.41 points (range, 2.60 to 84.80) and a median of 43.80 points (interquartile range [IQR], 24.90 to 50.25). The interventions caused the calculated Rt to decrease to 1.88 (95% confidence interval, 1.87 to 1.89). The median growth rate was 19.90% (IQR, 10.90 to 53.90). A positive correlation was found between Google mobility data and Rt (r=0.783; p<0.001). The expected number of cases if the growth rate had not changed was predicted according to Google mobility categories, and it was estimated to be 1 381 922 in total. Thus, community-based interventions were estimated to have prevented 1 299 593 people from being infected.
Community-based social distancing interventions significantly decreased the Rt of COVID-19 by reducing human mobility, and thereby prevented many people from becoming infected. Another important result of this study is that it shows health policy-makers that data on human mobility in the community obtained via mobile phones can be a guide for measures to be taken.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Effectiveness of behavioural interventions to influence COVID-19 outcomes: A scoping review
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  • Effectiveness of social distancing measures and lockdowns for reducing transmission of COVID-19 in non-healthcare, community-based settings
    Caitriona Murphy, Wey Wen Lim, Cathal Mills, Jessica Y. Wong, Dongxuan Chen, Yanmy Xie, Mingwei Li, Susan Gould, Hualei Xin, Justin K. Cheung, Samir Bhatt, Benjamin J. Cowling, Christl A. Donnelly
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    Putri Winda Lestari, Lina Agestika, Gusti Kumala Dewi
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 21.     CrossRef
  • The effect of social movements on COVID-19 case increases and death in Turkey
    Mehmet Akif Gun, Onder Hanci
    Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health.2023; 20: 101260.     CrossRef
  • Improvement in knowledge and perception about the controlling of COVID-19: best practice of apothecary student
    Chynthia Pradiftha Sari, Suci Hanifah, Yulianto Yulianto, Dian Medisa, Zahrotun Nafiah, Muhammad Alfian Lutfi
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    Applied Psychology Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hasan Durmuş, Yavuzalp Solak
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  • In-depth Correlation Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Effective Reproduction Number and Mobility Patterns: Three Groups of Countries
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    Yijin Wu, Quan Zhang, Meiyu Li, Qingduo Mao, Linzi Li
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  • The effect of different COVID-19 public health restrictions on mobility: A systematic review
    Mark A. Tully, Laura McMaw, Deepti Adlakha, Neale Blair, Jonny McAneney, Helen McAneney, Christina Carmichael, Conor Cunningham, Nicola C. Armstrong, Lee Smith, Sanjay Kumar Singh Patel
    PLOS ONE.2021; 16(12): e0260919.     CrossRef
Original Article
Factors Affecting Public Prejudice and Social Distance on Mental Illness: Analysis of Contextual Effect by Multi-level Analysis
Hyeongap Jang, Jun-Tae Lim, Juhwan Oh, Seon-Young Lee, Yong-Ik Kim, Jin-Seok Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(2):90-97.   Published online March 31, 2012
  • 10,041 View
  • 136 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

While there have been many quantitative studies on the public's attitude towards mental illnesses, it is hard to find quantitative study which focused on the contextual effect on the public's attitude. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the public's beliefs and attitudes including contextual effects.


We analyzed survey on the public's beliefs and attitudes towards mental illness in Korea with multi-level analysis. We analyzed the public's beliefs and attitudes in terms of prejudice as an intermediate outcome and social distance as a final outcome. Then, we focused on the associations of factors, which were individual and regional socio-economic factors, familiarity, and knowledge based on the comparison of the intermediate and final outcomes.


Prejudice was not explained by regional variables but was only correlated with individual factors. Prejudice increased with age and decreased by high education level. However, social distance controlling for prejudice increased in females, in people with a high education level, and in regions with a high education level and a high proportion of the old. Therefore, social distance without controlling for prejudice increased in females, in the elderly, in highly educated people, and in regions with a high education and aged community.


The result of the multi-level analysis for the regional variables suggests that social distance for mental illness are not only determined by individual factors but also influenced by the surroundings so that it could be tackled sufficiently with appropriate considering of the relevant regional context with individual characteristics.



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    Peter Adu, Tomas Jurcik, Emmanuel Demah, Patrick T Korang, Dmitry Grigoryev
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  • Awareness and attitude about mental illness in the rural population of India: A mixed method study
    Kaustubh S. Kulkarni, Mudita N. Joshi, Harshal S. Sathe, Chetna Maliye
    Indian Journal of Psychiatry.2023; 65(10): 1069.     CrossRef
  • Patient Factors Influencing Outpatient Retention in Patients with Affective and Anxiety Disorders: A Retrospective Study
    Seyeon Chang, Young Sup Woo, Sheng-Min Wang, Hyun Kook Lim, Won-Myong Bahk
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  • Sikap terhadap Gangguan Mental pada Mahasiswa Psikologi Universitas Airlangga Berdasarkan Jenis Kelamin
    Grace Ririn, Atika Dian Ariana
    Buletin Riset Psikologi dan Kesehatan Mental (BRPKM).2021; 1(1): 1030.     CrossRef
  • The effect of knowledge on healthcare professionals' perceptions of obesity
    Thazin Wynn, Nazrul Islam, Charlotte Thompson, Khin Swe Myint
    Obesity Medicine.2018; 11: 20.     CrossRef
  • Korean adults’ beliefs about and social distance toward attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Tourette syndrome, and autism spectrum disorder
    Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Chul Eung Kim
    Psychiatry Research.2018; 269: 633.     CrossRef
  • State of the art of population-based attitude research on mental health: a systematic review
    M. C. Angermeyer, G. Schomerus
    Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences.2017; 26(3): 252.     CrossRef
  • Beliefs and Prejudices Versus Knowledge and Awareness: How to Cope Stigma Against Mental Illness. A College Staff E-survey
    Chiara Buizza, Alberto Ghilardi, Clarissa Ferrari
    Community Mental Health Journal.2017; 53(5): 589.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, attitude and social distance practices of young undergraduates towards mental illness in India: A comparative analysis
    Aggarwal Shruti, Shalini Singh, Dinesh Kataria
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry.2016; 23: 64.     CrossRef
  • The effects of low-level laser irradiation on breast tumor in mice and the expression of Let-7a, miR-155, miR-21, miR125, and miR376b
    Vahid Khori, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh, Zohre Gheisary, Sadaf Farsinejad, Farrokh Najafi, Solmaz Khalighfard, Fatemeh Ghafari, Maryam Hadji, Hamid Khodayari
    Lasers in Medical Science.2016; 31(9): 1775.     CrossRef
  • Socially restrictive attitudes towards people with mental illness among the non-psychiatry medical professionals in a university teaching hospital in South India
    Shashwath Sathyanath, Rohan Dilip Mendonsa, Anitha Maria Thattil, Varikkara Mohan Chandran, Ravichandra S Karkal
    International Journal of Social Psychiatry.2016; 62(3): 221.     CrossRef
  • Community attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in South Sudan: a survey from a post-conflict setting with no mental health services
    Touraj Ayazi, Lars Lien, Arne Eide, Elizabeth Joseph Shadar Shadar, Edvard Hauff
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.2014; 49(5): 771.     CrossRef
  • Impact of gender and age on attitudes towards mental illness in Sweden
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    Nordic Journal of Psychiatry.2013; 67(5): 360.     CrossRef
English Abstract
Factors Affecting Social Distance toward Mental Illness: A Nationwide Telephone Survey in Korea.
Sangjun Moon, Jin Seok Lee, Sue Kyung Park, Sun Young Lee, Yoon Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):419-426.
  • 4,928 View
  • 66 Download
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to investigate impact of knowledge, familiarity, and prejudice about mental illness as well as demographic factors on the social distance from mentally ill people, which is a proxy measure of discrimination. METHOD: To assess the impact of knowledge and familiarity, prejudice about mental illness and demographic factors on the social distance from mental illness, we conducted a telephone survey in South Korea with the responders being nationally representative people who were 18 years old or over (n=1040). Independent samples T-tests, one way ANOVA and linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the results of the survey. RESULT: The social distance from mental illness decreased as the knowledge and familiarity increased, but the social distance was increased as prejudice was increased. Prejudice had a greater impact on social distance than familiarity and knowledge. Females showed greater social distance than did males. A higher education level had a negative effect on social distance. CONCLUSION: To reduce the social distance from mentally ill people, efforts to increase the familiarity about mental illness as well as efforts to educate people about mental illness are important.


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    Psychiatry Research.2013; 209(3): 675.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting Public Prejudice and Social Distance on Mental Illness: Analysis of Contextual Effect by Multi-level Analysis
    Hyeongap Jang, Jun-Tae Lim, Juhwan Oh, Seon-Young Lee, Yong-Ik Kim, Jin-Seok Lee
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2012; 45(2): 90.     CrossRef
  • Effectiveness of an Education Program to Reduce Negative Attitudes Toward Persons With Mental Illness Using Online Media
    Mia Seo, Hyun Lye Kim
    Asian Nursing Research.2010; 4(2): 90.     CrossRef

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health