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3 "Lead poisoning"
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Correlations Among Maternal and Infant Factors, Lead Exposure, and Serum Prolactin Levels During Lactation: A Cross-sectional Study in Indonesia
Linda Ratna Wati, Djanggan Sargowo, Tatit Nurseta, Lilik Zuhriyah, Bambang Rahardjo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):422-430.   Published online August 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.238
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Prolactin is vital for breastfeeding and milk production, and its secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment. To date, no study has concurrently investigated the correlation of these factors with serum prolactin levels during lactation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation.
Methods
A cross-sectional approach was employed in Surabaya, Indonesia, among 110 exclusively lactating mothers. The mothers’ daily diets were determined using multiple 24-hour recalls, while blood lead levels were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum prolactin levels were assessed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For bivariate analysis, we employed the Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, while for multivariate analysis, we utilized multiple linear regression.
Results
The average serum prolactin level of the lactating mothers was 129.19±88.96 ng/mL. Positive correlations were found between serum prolactin levels and breastfeeding frequency (p < 0.001), protein intake (p < 0.001), and calcium intake (p = 0.011) but had negative correlation with blood lead levels (p < 0.001) and vitamin B6 intake (p = 0.003). Additionally, prolactin levels were not significantly associated with maternal age; parity; intake of calories, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, folic acid, magnesium, or iron; infant age; or infant sex.
Conclusions
Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.
Summary
Key Message
Prolactin secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment, and this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation. In total 110 exclusively lactating mothers were included, with information on their socio-demographic, daily diet, blood lead level, prolactin level, and infant characteristics. Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.
Nephropathy in Chronic Lead Poisoning.
Byoung Gwon Kim, Sung Ryul Kim, Young Seoub Hong, Seo Hee Rha, Jung Man Kim, Kap Yull Jung, Joon Youn Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(1):43-50.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We experienced a case of nephropathy in chronic lead poisoning. The patient was 43-year-old male who has been working in secondary lead smelting plant for ]4 years. On admission, blood pressure was 160/90 mmHg and the others were non-specific. In past history, he received chelating agent administration for lead poisoning irregularly and medicated for gout, and the blood lead concentration was 180.0 microgram/dl on 2 months before admission. Smoking habit has been 1 pack per day for 15 years and drinking habit has been 1 bottle of Soju per day but less now. In liver function test, AT/ALT were 27/28 IU/l and gamma-GT was 456 IU/l. In blood test, Hb:11. 5 g/dl , Hct: 34.0% and basophilic stipplings were found in peripheral blood smear. Chest PA was normal and abdominal ultrasonographic finding was non-specific except fatty liver. In the test of lead exposure indices, pbB: 83.0 microgram/dl, pbU: 28.3 microgram/l, and blood ZPP was 300.0 microgram/dl. And in renal function test, BUN: 31.4 mg/dl, blood creatinine: 2.7mg/dl, blood uric acid: 9.1 mg/dl, urinary albumin: 100.0 mg/g creatinine, urinary a alpha 1-microglobulin: 120.5 mg/g creatinine, urinary beta2-mioroglobulin: 183.8 microgram/g creatinine, and 24 hours urinary creatinine clearance was 31.9 ml/min. The ultasonoguided renal biopsy showed the global sclerosis of glomerulus, moderate atrophy and loss of tubule, and interstitial fibrosis in light microscopy. There were diffuse losses of brush border of proximal tubule in electronmicroscopy.
Summary
Multiple Brain Calcification in Chronic Lead Poisoning.
Sung Ryul Kim, Byoung Gwon Kim, Young Seoub Hong, Do Won Dam, Soon Seob Choi, Kap Yull Jung, Joon Youn Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(2):398-405.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We experienced a case of occupational lead poisoning employed in a secondary lead smelting plant for 12 years. The patient was 39-year-old male and had been felt dizziness, recent memory impairment and intermittent severe abdominal pain for 2 years. On admission, blood lead level was 92.9 microgram/dl, urinary lead level was 19,9 microgram/l and zinc protoporphyrin level was 226.0 microgram/dl. On the blood test, hemoglobin was 10.6 g/dl and showed normocytic normochromic anemia. There were no abnormal findings in the biochemical and hormonal tests. Decrease of I.Q. and use of words in speaking were found in the psychiatric and psychologic examinations. We observed the finding of motor polyneuropathy in the nerve conduction velocity test. Computed tomographic finding showed calcification lesions in the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei, caudate nuclei, and especially characteristic multiple calcifications were located in the subcortical white matter.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health