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6 "Hippuric acid"
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Original Article
A Study on Polymorphism Affecting Excretion of Urinary Methylhippuric Acid due to Xylene Exposure.
Cheong Sik Kim, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeongsu Kim, Sue Kyung Park, Soung Hoon Chang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(4):321-328.   Published online November 30, 2004
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) on the xylene metabolism. METHODS: Among 247 workers, 116 were occupationally exposed to xylene and 131 were not. Workers exposed to xylene had different work such as spray, touch-up, mix & assist, and pre-treat. Questionnaire variables were age, sex, use of personal protective equipment, smoking, previous night's drinking and work duration. The urinary methylhippuric acid was measured in the urine collected in the afternoon and corrected by urinary creatinine concentration. The genotypes of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 were investigated by using PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism) methods with DNA extracted from venous blood. RESULTS: 1. The urinary concentrations of o-, m-, and pmethylhippuric acid and total methylhippuric acid in the exposed group were significantly higher than those in the non-exposed group (p< 0.001). 2. In multiple regression analysis, the urinary methylhippuric acid concentration was significantly influenced by exposure grade (Job-exposure matrixes), smoking, drug use and kind of protective equipment (p< 0.1). 3. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 did not affect urinary methylhippuric acid level in the exposed group (p> 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Exposure grade, smoking, drug use and kind of protective equipment affected urinary methylhippuric acid level, whereas genetic polymorphism of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 did not. However, further investigation for the effect of genetic polymorphism on the metabolism of xylene with a larger sample size is needed.
English Abstract
Effects of the Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or Toluene on Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substance Level in Elementary School Children and the Elderly in a Rural Area.
Dae Seon Kim, Chul Ho Lee, Sang Yong Eom, Tackshin Kang, Yong Dae Kim, Heon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(1):61-67.
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  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and toluene have been reported to induce reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. This study was performed to investigate the effects of low level exposure to PAHs or toluene on the lipid peroxidation level in elementary school children and the elderly in a rural area. METHODS: Forty seven elementary school children and 40 elderly people who were living in a rural area and not occupationally exposed to PAH or toluene were the subjects of this study. Information about active or passive smoking and diet was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire. The urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), 2-naphthol, hippuric acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) concentrations were measured, and these values were corrected with the urinary creatinine concentration. RESULTS: In school children, the geometric means of the urinary 1-OHP, 2-naphthol, hippuric acid and TBARS levels were 0.02 ymol/mol creatinine, 0.47 micron mol/mol creatinine, 0.14 g/g creatinine and 0.95 micron mol/g creatinine, respectively. Those values for the elderly were 0.07 micron mol/mol creatinine, 1.87 micron mol/mol creatinine, 0.11 g/g creatinine and 1.18 micron mol/g creatinine, respectively. The mean levels of urinary 1-OHP, 2-naphthol and TBARS were significantly higher in the elderly subjects than in the children. The urinary TBARS level was not correlated with the urinary 1-OHP, 2-naphthol and hippuric acid, but they were correlated with the age of the subjects. CONCLSIONS: These results suggest that low level inhalation exposure to PAH or toluene does not markedly increase lipid peroxidation, and age is a significant determinant of lipid peroxidation.


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Original Articles
The Relationship Between Hippuric Acid in Blood Plasma and Toluene Concentration in the Air of Workplace.
Cheon Hyun Hwang, Won Jin Lee, Soung Hoon Chang, Hyoung Ah Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):45-50.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was undertaken to evaluate correlation between the levels of hippuric acid in blood plasma (HAP) and those of toluene concentration in the workplace air. METHODS: Study subjects were composed of two groups; 21 workers who were occupationally exposed to toluene and 25 rural-area residents who were not exposed to any known occupational toluene source, as an exposed group and a reference group, respectively. Mean age and work duration of the exposed was 42 years and five years, respectively. Mean age of the reference was 42 years. To determine toluene concentrations in the workplace air, air sampling has been conducted for more than six hours using a personal sampler, and analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Concentrations of hippuric acid in biological samples were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector. RESULTS: Geometric mean(geometric standard deviation) of HAP and hippuric acid in urine(HAU) for the exposed was 1.39(2.21) mg/L and 2.77(1.46) g/L, respectively, which were significantly different from those of the reference [HAP, 0.45(2.94); HAU, 0.37(0.45)]. Toluene concentration in the workplace air was 86.92(range: 45.18~151.23) ppm. The level of HAP or HAU was significantly correlated (r=0.70 and r=0.63, respectively) with that of toluene in the workplace air. The estimated regression equation was logHAP(mg/L)=-3.60+1.93 log(toluene, ppm) or logHAU(g/L)=-0.85+0.67 log(toluene, ppm). The magnitude of correlation was further enhanced when analyzing relationship between toluene concentrations lower than 100 ppm and its corresponding HAP levels. CONCLUSION: Overall, plasma hippuric acid levels were well correlated with toluene concentrations in the workplace air, and a statistically significant correlation was observed for the samples with toluene concentration lower than 100 ppm.
Psychiatric symptoms of workers exposed to organic solvents.
Seoung Hoon Lee, Nung Ki Yoon, Jong Young Lee, Suk Kwon Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(1):1-12.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To assess the pattern of psychiatric symptoms and to evaluate the relationship between exposure related variables(duration of work and urinary hippuric acid concenturation) and psychiatric symptoms in organic solvent exposed workers, case control study of forty-two solvent exposed workers and ninety-six non-exposed workers was conducted. The general health questionnaire 28(GHQ28) was administered to evaluate psychiatric symptoms and urinary hippuric acid concenturations was measured to estimate the present status of solvent exposure in exposed group and to estimate normal level in non-exposed group. The meand concenturation of urinary hippuric acid was significantly higher in exposed group (2.953g/creatinine g) than non-exposed group (0.395g/creatinine g) (P<0.01). The total positive rates of symptoms were significantly higher in exposed group(28.2%) than non-exposed group(17.5%) (P<0.05). The positive rates of symptoms for four sub-scales of GHQ 28 in exposed group were in the order of somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction, depression and in the order of social dysfunction, anxiety, depression, somatic symptoms in non-exposed group.The positive rates of symptoms for somatic symptoms and anxiety were significantly higher in exposed group than non-exposed group (P<0.05) and the proportion of workers with six or more positive symptoms(dysthymic states) in exposed group were significantly higher than non-exposed group (P<0.01). After the effect of age, sex, level of income, level of education, and duration of work were controlled, the total score of GHQ28 was still significantly different between exposed and non-exposed group(P<0.01). In multiple logistic regression analysis on the dysthymic state, the odds ratio of level of income was statistically significant in both group. The odds ratios of exposure related variables such as duration of work and hippuric acid concenturations were not statistically significant but there was a tendency that exposure related variables had an effect on dysthymic state in exposed group.In future, comtinuous evaluation of psychiatric symptoms on organic solvent exposed workers and studies to detect the factors that affect on psychiatric symptoms are required.
A Study on Relationship between Exposure to Toluene and Excretion of Hippuric Acid in Urine with Male Sovent Workers.
Sung Soo Lee, Kyu Dong Ahn, Byong Kook Lee, Taik Sung Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):480-485.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between personal exposure of toluene at workplace and the concentration of hippuric acid in urine of male solvent workers. The study groups are 60 toluene exposed workers who worked at video tape factory and printing factory. The results are as follows: 1. The coefficient of correlation between toluene concentration of personal exposure and concentration of urinary hippuric acid was 0.649 (regression equation Y=0.015X+0.936, Y=urinary hippuric acid concentration, X=Toluene concentration of personal exposure). 2. Urinary hippuric acid concentration of workers with TLV 100 ppm of toluene was calculated 2.44 g/L by the regression equation (Y=0.015X+0.936).
Urinary Hippuric Acid Excretion in Toluene Exposed Workers.
Chae Un Lee, Hai Rim Shin, Byung Mann Cho, Deog Hwan Moon, Hae Sook Shon, Kyu Il Cho, Sung Chun Kim, Yong Wan Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):374-379.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
In order to prepare the fundamental data for preventing the hazardous effects at toluene exposure in many kinds of industry, the authors determined the level of urinary hippuric acid on 592 toluene exposed women(exposed group) and 102 unexposed women(control group) in Pusan area, from April 1 to October 31, 1986. Hippuric acid was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The mean value of urinary hippuric acid concentration of the control group was 0.44+/-0.21g/l(0.11-0.89g/l). The distribution of urinary hippuric acid concentration of the control group was not fit to the normal distribution. 2. The mean value of urinary hippuric acid concentration of the exposed group was 1.56+/-0.95g/l(0.44-4.57g/l). The distribution of urinary hippuric acid concentration of control group was not fit to the normal distribution. 3. The urinary hippuric acid concentration by age group was not statistically significant in the control group, but in the exposed the urinary hippuric acid concentration was highest in women between 20-29 years old(1.71+/-0.95g/l) and was statistically significant(p<0.01). 4. The urinary hippuric acid concentration by duration of working hours was not statistically significant(p>0.1).

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health