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Special Article
Examining the Role of Psychosocial Stressors in Hypertension
Komal Marwaha
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(6):499-505.   Published online November 30, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.266
  • 4,388 View
  • 229 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Despite advances in medicine and preventive strategies, fewer than 1 in 5 people with hypertension have the problem under control. This could partly be due to gaps in fully elucidating the etiology of hypertension. Genetics and conventional lifestyle risk factors, such as the lack of exercise, unhealthy diet, excess salt intake, and alcohol consumption, do not fully explain the pathogenesis of hypertension. Thus, it is necessary to revisit other suggested risk factors that have not been paid due attention. One such factor is psychosocial stress. This paper explores the evidence for the association of psychosocial stressors with hypertension and shows that robust evidence supports the role of a chronic stressful environment at work or in marriage, low socioeconomic status, lack of social support, depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, childhood psychological trauma, and racial discrimination in the development or progression of hypertension. Furthermore, the potential pathophysiological mechanisms that link psychosocial stress to hypertension are explained to address the ambiguity in this area and set the stage for further research.
Summary

Citations

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  • Health-related factors and dysregulation of epigenetic related genes in metabolic syndrome trigger finger patients and smoker trigger finger patients: preliminary analysis of patient-derived sample
    Abdulaziz M. F. Shayea, Amna A. Alshatti, Danah H. Alfadhli, Almutairi Fatimah Ibrahim, Mariam Kh. Almutairi, Mohammed Sh. Nadar
    Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Adjustment disorders, hypertension and type 2 diabetes: a cardiologist’s view (literature review)
    D.K. Miloslavsky, S.M. Koval
    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY (Ukraine).2023; 19(5): 383.     CrossRef
  • Letter to the Editor: Insights on Health, Religion/Spirituality, and Vulnerable Populations
    Fides A. del Castillo
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(1): 97.     CrossRef
  • Moderating effect of mindfulness on the relationship between anxiety and somatization symptoms in middle‐aged and elderly female patients with hypertension
    Haifei Shen, Ri Zhang, XiuJie Zhang, Ying Zhang, Yan Liu, Wei Song, Yunpeng Cheng, Minghui Yang, Yinong Jiang, Yan Lu
    The Journal of Clinical Hypertension.2023; 25(7): 647.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the health of child protection workers: A call to action
    Javier F. Boyas, Debra Moore, Maritza Y. Duran, Jacqueline Fuentes, Jana Woodiwiss, Leah McCoy, Antonella Cirino
    Health Promotion Perspectives.2022; 12(4): 381.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Prevalence and Factors Affecting Discrimination Towards People Living With HIV/AIDS in Indonesia
Rimawati Aulia Insani Sadarang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):205-212.   Published online March 24, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.502
  • 3,101 View
  • 132 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study aimed to identify the behaviors associated with discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) in Indonesia and to determine the factors affecting discrimination.
Methods
Secondary data from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey were analyzed using a cross-sectional design. Discrimination was assessed based on the questions (1) “Should children infected with HIV/AIDS be allowed to attend school with non-infected children?” and (2) “Would you buy fresh vegetables from a farmer or shopkeeper known to be infected with HIV/AIDS?” Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the factors affecting discrimination, with adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (CIs) used to show the strength, direction, and significance of the associations among factors.
Results
In total, 68.9% of 21 838 individuals showed discrimination towards PLHA. The odds of discrimination were lower among women (aOR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.71), rural dwellers (aOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.89), those who understood how HIV is transmitted from mother to child (aOR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.73 to 0.89), and those who felt ashamed of their own family’s HIV status (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.61). The odds were higher among individuals who knew how to reduce the risk of getting HIV/AIDS (aOR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.39), how HIV/AIDS is transmitted (aOR, 3.49; 95% CI, 3.09 to 3.95), and were willing to care for an infected relative (aOR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.47 to 3.13). A model consisting of those variables explained 69% of the variance in discrimination.
Conclusions
Gender, residence, knowledge, and attitudes related to HIV/AIDS were explanatory factors for discrimination against PLHA. Improvements in HIV/AIDS education programs are needed to prevent discrimination.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Employment Discrimination for People Living with HIV in China: The Challenges of Law vs. Practice
    Ziyi Xie, Zhizhuang Duan
    Labor History.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • A Peer-support Mini-counseling Model to Improve Treatment in HIV-positive Pregnant Women in Kupang City, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia
    Artha Camellia, Plamularsih Swandari, Gusni Rahma, Tuti Parwati Merati, I Made Bakta, Dyah Pradnyaparamita Duarsa
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(3): 238.     CrossRef
Perceived Discrimination, Depression, and the Role of Perceived Social Support as an Effect Modifier in Korean Young Adults
Kwanghyun Kim, Sun Jae Jung, So Mi Jemma Cho, Ji Hye Park, Hyeon Chang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(6):366-376.   Published online October 24, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.114
  • 6,721 View
  • 178 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The relationships among discrimination, social support, and mental health have mostly been studied in minorities, and relevant studies in the general population are lacking. We aimed to investigate associations between discrimination and depressive symptoms in Korean non-minority young adults, considering the role of social support.
Methods
In total, 372 participants who completed the psychological examinations conducted in the third wave of the Jangseong High School Cohort study were included. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate perceived discrimination and the Beck Depression Inventory-II to measure depressive symptoms. Social support was measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Multivariate linear regression was conducted to investigate associations between discrimination and depression, along with the effect modification of social support. We stratified the population by gender to investigate gender differences.
Results
Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (β=0.736, p<0.001), and social support was negatively associated with depression (β=-0.245, p<0.001). In men, support from friends was the most influential factor (β=-0.631, p=0.011), but no significant effect modification was found. In women, support from family was the most influential factor (β=-0.440, p=0.010), and women with higher familial support showed a significantly diminished association between discrimination and depression, unlike those with lower family support.
Conclusions
Discrimination perceived by individuals can lead to depressive symptoms in Korean young adults, and this relationship can may differ by gender and social support status.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 한국인에서 차별이 우울 증상에 미치는 영향을 평가하고 사회적 지지가 차별의 건강영향을 조절하는지 확인하고자 하였다. 인지된 차별은 우울 증상과 양의 상관관계를 보였으며, 높은 사회적 지지는 차별의 부정적 건강 영향을 경감시키는 효과를 보였다. 남성에서는 친구로부터의 사회적 지지가 가장 강한 영향력을 나타냈으며, 여성에서는 가족으로부터의 사회적 지지가 가장 강한 효과를 보였다.

Citations

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  • The relationship between stressful childhood environments and depression for Chinese adolescents: a serial mediation model through perceived discrimination and belief in a just world
    Ningning Feng, Zhaoyang Xie, Yuqi Li, Can Yang, Lijuan Cui
    Current Psychology.2024; 43(7): 6271.     CrossRef
  • Social support and cigarette smoking among homosexual college students in China: a moderated mediation model examining the roles of depression and disclosure
    Xiaoling Liu, Huijun Li, Siyuan Zeng, Xiaofeng Luo
    Current Psychology.2024; 43(10): 8788.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Perceived Social Support and Depression in Married Turkish Women on the Sexual Quality of Life: An Online Survey
    Ç. Gök, U Yücel, YÇ Okuyan, ZB Akmeşe
    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice.2023; 26(11): 1667.     CrossRef
  • Gender Differences in the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following Pregnancy Loss: Social Support and Causal Attributes
    Sigal Levy, Ronit Avitsur
    Psychological Studies.2022; 67(4): 524.     CrossRef
  • Effects of Wise Intervention on Perceived Discrimination Among College Students Returning Home From Wuhan During the COVID-19 Outbreak
    Ting Lu, Zihan Guo, Hao Li, Xinyu Zhang, Zhihong Ren, Weiping Yang, Liuqing Wei, Ling Huang
    Frontiers in Psychology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Testing whether implicit emotion regulation mediates the association between discrimination and symptoms of psychopathology in late childhood: An RDoC perspective
    T.G. Vargas, V.A. Mittal
    Development and Psychopathology.2021; 33(5): 1634.     CrossRef
  • Physical Fitness and Somatic Characteristics of the Only Child
    Luis P. Rodrigues, Ricardo Franco Lima, Ana Filipa Silva, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Miguel Camões, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
    Frontiers in Pediatrics.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Depressive Symptoms Among Biethnic Adolescents in South Korea
Gum Ryeong Park, Inseo Son, Seung-Sup Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):301-307.   Published online August 24, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.041
  • 9,213 View
  • 172 Download
  • 19 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
This study investigated the association between perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms among biethnic adolescents in South Korea.
Methods
We performed a cross-sectional study of 4141 biethnic adolescents using data from the 2012 National Survey of Multicultural Families. Perceived ethnic discrimination was measured using the question “Have you ever been discriminated against or ignored because either of your parents is not a Korean?” with an assessment of depressive symptoms over the past 12 months. Logistic regression was applied to examine potential associations between perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms.
Results
Among 4141 biethnic adolescents, 558 (13.5%) reported having experienced ethnic discrimination. The most common discriminatory perpetrators were friends (n=241, 5.8%), followed by strangers (n=67, 1.6%). Depressive symptoms were related to experience of ethnic discrimination (odds ratio [OR], 3.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.89 to 4.98) after adjusting for potential confounders. In an analysis focusing on the perpetrators of discrimination, depressive symptoms were found to be associated with perceived ethnic discrimination from friends (OR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.75 to 5.68), teachers (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 2.16 to 9.51), family members and relatives (OR, 3.89; 95% CI, 1.59 to 9.48), neighbors (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.14 to 5.38), and strangers (OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.30 to 4.79). Furthermore, the OR for depressive symptoms among those exposed to 1, 2, or 3 or more discriminatory perpetrators were 3.61 (95% CI, 2.49 to 5.24), 3.61 (95% CI, 1.68 to 7.74), and 6.69 (95% CI, 2.94 to 15.22), respectively.
Conclusions
According to our findings, friends were the most common perpetrators of discrimination and the experience of ethnic discrimination was associated with depressive symptoms among biethnic adolescents in South Korea.
Summary

Citations

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  • Association of perceived discrimination with the risk of depression among US older adults: A prospective population-based cohort study
    Yaping Wang, Jiaojiao Liao, Hongguang Chen, Liyuan Tao, Jue Liu
    Heliyon.2024; 10(1): e23843.     CrossRef
  • Ethnic discrimination, asking for fair treatment, and poor self-rated health: a gender stratified analysis of 13,443 Korean Chinese waged workers in South Korea
    Hayoung Lee, Ji-Hwan Kim, Garin Lee, Hyelin Lee, Mita Huq, Delanjathan Devakumar, Seung-Sup Kim
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Sung Hee Hong, Jiyeon Lee, Grace H. Chung
    Journal of Adolescence.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Raymond Agyenim-Boateng, Francis Adams
    Community Mental Health Journal.2023; 59(7): 1422.     CrossRef
  • Perceived Discrimination as a Critical Factor Affecting Self-Esteem, Satisfaction with Physical Appearance and Depression of Racial/Ethnic Minority Adolescents in Korea
    Hyemee Kim, Kwanghyun Han, Seojin Won
    Behavioral Sciences.2023; 13(4): 343.     CrossRef
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    Jaeyong Choi, Nathan Kruis, Julak Lee
    Crime & Delinquency.2022; 68(13-14): 2395.     CrossRef
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    Kyoung Hwa Joung, Sung Suk Chung
    The Journal of School Nursing.2022; 38(2): 138.     CrossRef
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    Joohee Lee, Kee-Hong Choi
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    P. I. Bilal, C. K. Y. Chan, S. M. Somerset
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2021; 23(2): 199.     CrossRef
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    Eun Jee Lee, Sookyung Jeong
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(7): 3683.     CrossRef
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    Jaehong Yoon, Ji-Hwan Kim, Yeonseung Chung, Jinsu Park, Glorian Sorensen, Seung-Sup Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021099.     CrossRef
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    Bookyoung Kim, Kyung-Bok Son
    BMC Women's Health.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jihyung Hong
    Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health.2019; 21(3): 522.     CrossRef
  • The Mental Health of Ethnic Minority Youths in South Korea and Its Related Environmental Factors: A Literature Review
    Yeeun Lee, Minji Lee, Subin Park
    Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2019; 30(3): 88.     CrossRef
  • Comparative Study of Mental Health States Among Adolescents in Multicultural Versus Monocultural Families, Using the 13th Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, 2017
    Hae Jeong Lee, Cheol Hong Kim, Intae Han, Sung Hoon Kim
    Iranian Journal of Pediatrics.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Hyemee Kim, Seojin Won
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health