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English Abstract
Effect of Sociodemographic Factors, Cancer, Psychiatric Disorder on Suicide: Gender and Age-specific Patterns.
Jae Young Park, Ki Tae Moon, Yoo Mi Chae, Sang Hyuk Jung
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(1):51-60.
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  • 25 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
We examined the effect of sociodemographic factors, cancer, and psychiatric disorders on suicide by gender and age-specific patterns in South Korea. METHODS: The study is a case-control study. Claim data was obtained from the national health insurance database and national death registration database. The number of people who committed suicide was 11,523, which was matched with a control group consisting of ten times as many people at 115,230 selected from the national health insurance and medical aids beneficiaries. The medical utilization of the case group was one year before death and that of the control group was from July 1,2003 to June 30, 2004. Four variables-address, economic status, presence of a psychiatric disease, and cancer-were used in multiple logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Living in cities or in rural areas showed a greater risk for suicide than living in a metropolitan city. Low economic status, the presence of a psychiatric disorder, and cancer were also statistically meaningful risk factors for suicide. The three major psychiatric diseases, schizophrenia, alcohol abuse, and bipolar disorder, were meaningful in all age groups, but the scale of the odds ratio differed by the age group. Only the psychiatric disorder variable was meaningful in the adolescent group, whereas a psychiatric disorder and economic status were meaningful for the young adult group, and all variables were meaningful for the middle-aged group. A psychiatric disorder and cancer were meaningful in the elderly group, economic status was meaningful for male subjects, and address was meaningful for female subjects. CONCLSIONS: Factors such as living in city or rural areas, low economic status, the presence of a psychiatric disorder, and cancer were statistically meaningful risk factors in suicide. These factors also differed by age group. Therefore, policymakers should establish policies for suicide prevention that are relevant for each age group.


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Original Articles
A Neurobehavioral Performance Assessment in Lacunar Infarction Case-control Study.
Ham Gyum Kim, Soung Hoon Chang, Sue Kyung Park, Kun Sei Lee, Hyeong Su Kim, Wha Sun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):255-262.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We carried out tests for neurobehavior by using WHO-NCTB (neurobehavioral core test battery) and Perdue pegboard score test to identify differences between lacunar infarction cases and controls. METHODS: Among the subjects who underwent MRI between February 2001 and March 2002 in a university hospital located in Seoul and who were diagnosed only as lacunar infarction without any intracranial disease, 46 patients were selected as cases (male: 21, female: 25). Controls were selected who had no cerebrovascular disease on MRI by matching age (5 years), gender, and education (2 years) in a ratio of 1: 1. Among WHO-NCTB, the following 5 tests and Perdue pegboard score test were used to categorize the study subjects: digit and symbol matching, simple reaction time, Benton visual retention, digit span, and Pursuit aiming test. RESULTS: Among the above 6 tests of neurobehavior, lacunar infarction cases showed lower score than controls except for the simple reaction time test. As the controlling variables of multivariate analysis in the stepwise regression analysis, the followings were selected due to their significant association: age, education, BMI, gender, drinking, exercise, and systolic blood pressure. From multivariate regression analysis, there was significant difference (p< 0.05) between lacunar infarction cases and controls in digit and symbol matching, Benton visual retention, digit span, pursuit aiming, and Perdue pegboard score test, but not in the score of simple reaction time test. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the above 5 tests for neurobehavior, with the exception of the simple reaction time test, might be used as the basis for recommendation of further treatment and other neurological tests by the earlier detection for neurological abnormality in lacunar infarction.
Current Status of Genomic Epidemiology Research.
Daehee Kang, Kyoung Mu Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):213-222.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Genomic epidemiology is defined as "an evolving field of inquiring that uses the systematic application of epidemiologic methods and approaches in population-based studies of the impact of human genetic variation on health and disease (Khoury, 1998) ". Most human diseases are caused by the intricate interaction among environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility factors. Susceptibility genes involved in disease pathogenesis are categorized into two groups: high penetrance genes (i.e., BRAC1, RB, etc.) and low penetrance genes (i.e., GSTs, Cyps, XRCC1, ets.), and low penetrance susceptibility genes has the higher priority for epidemiological research due to high population attributable risk. In this paper, the summarized results of the association study between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and breast cancer in Korea were introduced and the international trends of genomic epidemiology research were reviewed with an emphasis on internet-based case-control and cohort consortium.
A Nested Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Korean.
Ki Soon Kim, So Yeon Ryu, Jong Park, Jong Ku Park, Chun Bae Kim, Byung Yeol Chun, Tae Yong Lee, Kang Sook Lee, Duk Hee Lee, Kwang Wook Koh, Sun Ha Jee, Il Suh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):149-156.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To elucidate risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males. METHODS: A nested case control study was conducted among a Korea Medical Insurance Cooperation(KMIC) cohort composed of 108,802 males. The cases included 246 male patients who were admitted to hospital due to coronary heart diseases from 1993 to 1997 (I20-25 by ICD) and whose diagnosis was confirmed by the protocol by WHO MONICA Project(1994). The control group was composed of 483 patients selected by frequency matching considering age and resident area from an inpatient care group without coronary heart disease during the same period. For study cases and the controls, the results of a health check-up in 1990 and a questionnaire on life style in 1992 were received through the KMIC. Some additional information was collected by telephone interviews during October 1999. RESULTS: Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the odds ratio(OR) of coronary heart diseases among past smokers and current smokers as compared to non-smokers were 1.94(95% CI : 1.14-3.31) and 2.20(95% CI : 1.35-3.59), respectively. The OR among persons who drank 4 cups or more of caffeinated beverages such as coffee or tea daily as compared to persons who drank one cup for 2-3 days was 2.56(95% CI : 1.07-6.12). The OR among persons with high normal BP and stage 3 hypertension against normotension were 2.51(95% CI : 1.44-4.37) and 5.08(95% CI : 2.38-10.84). The OR among persons whose blood cholesterol were 240 mg/dL or more against lower than 200mg/dL was 2.24(95% CI : 1.43-3.49). CONCLUSION: Smoking, drinking of excessive caffeinated beverages, hypertension and high blood cholesterol were proven to be significant risk factors for coronary heart diseases among Korean males.
What Factors Affect Mortality over the Age of 40?.
Jong Ku Park, Sang Baek Koh, Chun Bae Kim, Myung Guen Kang, Kee Ho Park, Seung Jun Wang, Sei Jin Chang, Soon Ae Sin
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):383-394.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to identify the factors influencing the mortality of Koreans over the age of 40 by a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of the beneficiaries of Korea Medical Insurance Corporation for Government Employees & Private School Teachers and Staff(KMIC) who received health examinations of KMIC in 1992 and 1993 retrospectively. At that time, they were more than 40 years old. The cases were 19,258 cohort members who had died until December 31, 1997. The controls were 19,258 cohort members who were alive until December 31, 1997. Controls were matched with age and sex distribution of the cases. The data used in this study were the funeral expenses requesting files, and the files of health examinations and health questionnaires gathered in 1992 and 1993. To assess the putative risk factors of death, student t-test, chi-square test, multiple logistic regression analysis were used. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors of death were as follows; systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, AST, urine glucose, urine protein, alcohol drinking(frequency), cigarette smoking and perceived health status, intake of restoratives and blood transfusion showed positive associations with death; coffee consumption showed negative associations with death; and body mass index and serum total cholesterol showed J-shaped association with death. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the direction of association, the result of analysis on the data restricted to '96-'97 was same as that of '93-'97. But in some variables such as obesity, serum cholesterol, the odds ratios of death in the data of '96-'97 were higer than those of '93-'94, which suggested that the data of '93-'94 was bearing effect-cause relationship. We concluded that it suggested further researches using long-term follow-up data to be needed in this area.
A Case-control Study for Assessment of Risk Factors of Breast Cancer by the p53 Mutation .
Heon Kim, Se Hyun Ahn, Moo Song Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(1):15-26.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in female breast cancer tissues and the prognosis of breast cancer could be changed by mutation of the gene. This study was performed to examine risk factors for breast cancer subtypes classified by p53 mutation and to investigate the roles of p53 gene mutation in carcinogenesis of breast cancer. The study subjects were 81 breast cancer patients and 121 controls who were matched to cases 1:1 or 1:2 by age, residence, education level and menopausal status. All the subjects were interviewed by a well-trained nurse with standardized questionnaire on reproductive factors, and were asked to fill the self-administrative food frequency and 24 hour recall questionnaires. p53 gene mutation in the cancer tissue was screened using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) method. Mutation type was identified by direct sequencing of the exon of which mobility shift was observed in SSCP analysis. Mutations were detected in p53 gene of 25 breast cancer tissues. By direct sequencing, base substitutions were found in 20 cancer tissues (10 transition and 10 transversion), and frame shift mutations in 5 (4 insertions and 1 deletion). For the whole cases and controls, risk of breast cancer incidence decreased when the parity increased, and increased when intake amount of total calory, fat, or protein increased. Fat and protein were statistically significant risk factors for breast cancer with p53 mutation. For breast cancer without p53 mutation, protein intake was the only significant dietary factor. These results suggests that causes of p53 positive breast cancer would be different from those of p53 negative cancer, and that dietary factors or related hormonal factors induce mutation of p53, which may be the first step of breast cancer development or a promoter following some unidentified genetic mutations.
A Case-Control Study on Risk Factors of Uterine Cervix Cancer in Korea.
Hye Won Koo, Keun Young Yoo, Dong Hyun Kim, Yong Sang Song, No Hyun Park, Soon Beom Kang, Hyo Pyo Lee, Yoon Ok Ahn, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):159-172.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A hospital-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of uterine cervical cancer in korea. Information on a wide-range of life-styles, which might be related with uterine cervix cancer, has been routinely collected through a dual application of the self-administered questionnaire and the direct interview by a well-trained nurse at the Department of Gynecology, Seoul National University Hospitals since 1992. The number of cervical cancer cases, histologically confirmed at the hospital, were 284. Included were 939 women as controls, who were free of past history of any malignancies. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence limits were based on the unconditional logistic regression model. The multivariate logistic model was constructed under the consideration of biologic characteristics on the natural history of the malignancy. In the multivariate results, the uterine cervical cancer risk was higher in women of shorter height(P(trend) <0.05), less educated spouse (P(trend) < 0.001), multiple marriages(adjusted OR=2,70,95% C.I. 1.64~4.47), ever had a family history (adjusted OR=2.14., 95 % C.I. l.18~3.89), multiparity (P(trend) < 0.001), and early age at first delivery (P(trend) < 0.001). These results strongly suggest that the uterine cervix cancer might be related to the reproductive factors, and probably with sexual behaviour of both women and men in Korea.
A Case-control Study on Risk Factors of Osteoporosis in Some Korean Outpatient Women of One General Hospital of Seoul.
Sun Ok Woo, Sangsoo Bae, Dong Hyun Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(3):609-622.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Until now there are few available epidemiologic data of osteoporosis in Korea, and the severity of osteoporosis-related health problem has not been widely recognized yet. But the numbers of the old people are increasing in Korea, and in 2000, the proportion of people over 65 will be up to about 6.8% of total population. Therefore, osteoporosis, one of the most common metabolic bone disease among the old people, will be one of the most important public health problem. on this background this study was performed to find out risk factors of the development of osteoporosis in Korean women through case-control approach. The subject of this study were selected among the women one general hospital in seoul and were checked bone density from sep. 1988 to sep. 1993. Those who were diagnosed to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease, breast disease, or liver disease, which are thought to influence bone density, were excluded. Also excluded those who are age-unknown. Finally the subjects were 2,139 women aged between 18 and 79. We operatively defined patient group as those whose bone density is below 1.03 g/cm2, 90% of average bone density of women of 4th decade who visited the same hospital. And we defined control group as whose bone density is above 1.15g/cm2. we randomly selected 201 women from the patient group and 202 from the control. As independent variables we chose age, menarche age, menopause age, menopause type, the number of siblings, the number of pregnancies, body mass index, taking oral pill or not, feeding type, and educational state. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done to see the influence of these variables on the risk of osteoporosis. Results are as follows; 1. menopausal status was statistically significant risk factor to all women irrespective of her age, while obesity and later menopause age were food to be statistically significant protective factors. 2. The more siblings and pregnancies, the greater the risk of osteoporosis, but these factors were not statistically significant. This result is not consistent with other studies. Further studies are strongly needed.
A Case-Control Study of Primary Liver Cancer and Liver Disease History.
Dong Hyun Kim, Byung Joo Park, Keun Young Yoo, Yoon Ok Ahn, Hyo Suk Lee, Chung Yong Kim, Sang Il Lee, Moo Song Lee, Hyung Sik Ahn, Heon Kim, Tae Soo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1994;27(2):217-225.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The relationship between past liver disease history and the risk of primary liver cancer was analyzed in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Seoul on 165 patients with histologically or serologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma and individually age-and sex-matched 165 controls in hospital for ophthalmologic, ontologic, or nasopharyngeal problems. Significant association were observed for liver diseases occurring 5 or more years before liver cancer diagnosis[OR, 4.9;97% confidence interval(CI), 1.6~14.0) and family history of liver disease(OR, 9.0;95% CI, 2.1~38.8). These associations were mot appreciably modified by allowance for major identified potential confounding factors, From these results, it is possible to speculate that liver cell injuries caused by Considering the significant effect of family history of liver diseases on PLCA risk after adjusting past liver disease history, there might be genetic susceptibility in the carcinogenic mechanism of liver cancer. Further investigations are needed to clarify the effect of family history of liver disease on PLCA risk.
A case-control study for risk factor related to hypertension.
Sin Kam, Min Hae Yeh, Sung Kook Lee, Byung Yeol Chun
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(2):221-231.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the risk factors (Part of job, Obesity, Alcohol, Smoking, Milk, Salt, and Family history) for hypertension. We selected 330 hypertension cases (male; 247, female; 83) and 1,336 controls (male; 887, female; 449) from employees in Taegu city from 1 May to 30 November, 1988. Data was analysed using a logistic regression model. Statistically Significant elevated odds ratio were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=3.23), obesity (odds ration=2.31), salt (odds ratio=1.75) in male (P<0.05) and those in female were noted for alcohol (odds ratio=16.49), family history (odds ratio=3.70), obesity (odds ratio=1.74) and salt (odds ratio=1.73) (P<0.05). Statistically significant reduced odds ratio was noted for milk in both sexes (odds ratio=0.69 for male and 0.65 for female) (P<0.05) and the dose-response relationship between milk intake and hypertension was confirmed (P<0.05). Therefore, milk seems to be preventive factor for hypertension. Smoking was not significantly associated with hypertension in both sexes. The part of job was significantly associated with hypertension in female by simple analysis (P<0.05) but the relationship was disappeared when multivariate analysis (logistic regression analysis) was done.
English Abstract
Fasting Serum Glucose Level and Gastric Cancer Risk in a Nested Case-control Study.
Jae Kwan Jun, Jin Gwack, Sue Kyung Park, Yun Hee Choi, Yeonju Kim, Aesun Shin, Soung Hoon Chang, Hai Rim Shin, Keun Young Yoo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(6):493-498.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetes has been reported as a risk factor for several cancers. However, the association between diabetes and gastric cancer has been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the fasting serum glucose level and gastric cancer risk in Korea. METHODS: Among the members of the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC) from 1993 to 2004, a total of 100 incident gastric cancer cases were ascertained until December 31, 2002 and 400 controls were matched according to age, sex, and year and area of enrollment. Of the eligible subjects, those without fasting serum glucose level information were excluded, with a total of 64 cases and 236 controls finally selected. On enrollment, all subjects completed a baseline demographic and lifestyle characteristics questionnaire, and had their fasting serum glucose level measured. The Helicobacter pylori infection status was determined by an immunoblot assay using longterm stored serum. The odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for the H. pylori infection status, smoking, drinking, education, follow-up period and matching variables. RESULTS: The ORs for risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level were 1.33 [95% CI=0.50-3.53] and 1.66 [95% CI=0.55-5.02] for the categories of 100-125 and 126 mg/dL or greater, respectively, compared to the category of less than 100 mg/dL. No increased risk of gastric cancer according to the serum glucose level was found (p-trend=0.337). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides no evidence for an association of the serum glucose level with gastric cancer.

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health