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Original Articles
Knowledge of Sarcopenia and Associated Factors Among the Malaysian General Public: A Cross-sectional Study
Soon Lean Keng, Noor Hazlisa Che Seman, K.Mangaikresh Krishnan, Chook Jack Bee, Joyce Leong Whye Sook, Siti Fairuz Ismail, Ooi Pei Boon, Peh Suat Cheng
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(2):164-171.   Published online March 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.399
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  • 208 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Sarcopenia has emerged as a significant aging-related disease that affects many facets of societal-level and patient-level public health. This study analysed knowledge of sarcopenia and associated socio-demographic factors among the general public of Malaysia in order to effectively improve its prevention and countermeasures.
Methods
A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in Selangor, Malaysia, using Google Forms among 202 Malaysian adults from January 1, 2021 to March 31, 2021. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge scores. The continuous variables were evaluated using the independent t-test, Mann–Whitney test, and one-way analysis of variance test. The Spearman correlation coefficient was employed to determine the correlation between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge score levels.
Results
The final analysis included 202 participants. The mean±standard deviation age was 49.03±12.65. Only 6.9% of participants had good knowledge of sarcopenia and were aware of sarcopenia’s characteristics, consequences, and treatments. Post-hoc comparisons using the Dunnett T3 test showed statistical significance in mean knowledge score and age group (p=0.011) and education level (p≤0.001). The Mann–Whitney test revealed that gender (p=0.026) and current smoking status (p=0.023) significantly influenced knowledge scores.
Conclusions
The general public’s knowledge of sarcopenia was found to be poor to moderate and associated with age and education status. Therefore, education and interventions by policymakers and healthcare professionals to improve public knowledge of sarcopenia in Malaysia are needed.
Summary
Increase in Potential Low-value Magnetic Resonance Imaging Utilization Due to Out-of-pocket Payment Reduction Across Income Groups in Korea: An Experimental Vignette Study
Yukyung Shin, Ji-su Lee, Young Kyung Do
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(4):389-397.   Published online July 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.208
  • 3,211 View
  • 114 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study examined the effect of out-of-pocket (OOP) payment reduction on the potential utilization of low-value magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) across income groups.
Methods
We conducted an experimental vignette survey using a proportional quota-based sample of individuals in Korea (n=1229). In two hypothetical vignettes, participants were asked whether they would be willing to use MRI if they had uncomplicated headache and non-specific low back pain, each before and after OOP payment reduction. To account for the possible role of physician inducement, half of the participants were initially presented with vignettes that included a physician recommendation for low-value care. The predicted probability, slope index of inequality (SII), and relative index of inequality (RII) were calculated using logistic regression.
Results
Before OOP payment reduction, the lowest income quintile was least likely to use low-value MRI regardless of physician inducement (36.7-49.6% for low back pain; 30.5-39.3% for headache). After OOP payment reduction, almost all individuals in each income quintile were willing to use low-value MRI (89.8-98.0% for low back pain; 78.1-90.3% for headache). Absolute and relative inequalities concerning potential low-value MRI utilization decreased after OOP payments were reduced, even without physician inducement (SII: from 8.15 to 5.37%, RII: from 1.20 to 1.06 for low back pain; SII: from 6.99 to 0.83%, RII: from 1.20 to 1.01 for headache).
Conclusions
OOP payment reduction for MRI has the potential to increase low-value care utilization among all income groups while decreasing inequality in low-value care utilization.
Summary
Korean summary
실험적 비네트 디자인을 활용하여 환자 본인부담금 감소가 잠재적 저가치 MRI 이용에 미치는 영향을 소득 수준별로 분석한 연구이다. 본인부담금 감소로 인해 잠재적 저가치 MRI 이용은 모든 소득 수준에서 증가하고 잠재적 저가치 MRI 이용의 소득 수준에 따른 차이는 감소하는 결과를 보였다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Socioeconomic inequality in organized and opportunistic screening for colorectal cancer: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, 2009-2021
    Xuan Quy Luu, Kyeongmin Lee, Jae Kwan Jun, Mina Suh, Kui Son Choi
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Brief Report
Determinants of Hospital Inpatient Costs in the Iranian Elderly: A Micro-costing Analysis
Ebrahim Hazrati, zahra Meshkani, Saeed Husseini Barghazan, Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame, Nader Markazi-Moghaddam
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(3):205-210.   Published online May 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.19.250
  • 3,838 View
  • 159 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Aging is assumed to be accompanied by greater health care expenditures. The objective of this retrospective, bottom-up micro-costing study was to identify and analyze the variables related to increased health care costs for the elderly from the provider’s perspective.
Methods
The analysis included all elderly inpatients who were admitted in 2017 to a hospital in Tehran, Iran. In total, 1288 patients were included. The Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used.
Results
Slightly more than half (51.1%) of patients were males, and 81.9% had a partial recovery. The 60-64 age group had the highest costs. Cancer and joint/orthopedic diseases accounted for the highest proportion of costs, while joint/orthopedic diseases had the highest total costs. The surgery ward had the highest overall cost among the hospital departments, while the intensive care unit had the highest mean cost. No statistically significant relationships were found between inpatient costs and sex or age group, while significant associations (p<0.05) were observed between inpatient costs and the type of ward, length of stay, type of disease, and final status. Regarding final status, costs for patients who died were 3.9 times higher than costs for patients who experienced a partial recovery.
Conclusions
Sex and age group did not affect hospital costs. Instead, the most important factors associated with costs were type of disease (especially chronic diseases, such as joint and orthopedic conditions), length of stay, final status, and type of ward. Surgical services and medicine were the most important cost items.
Summary
Special Articles
Burden of Disease in Japan: Using National and Subnational Data to Inform Local Health Policy
Stuart Gilmour, Yi Liao, Ver Bilano, Kenji Shibuya
J Prev Med Public Health. 2014;47(3):136-143.   Published online May 30, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2014.47.3.136
  • 16,164 View
  • 170 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study has been instrumental in guiding global health policy development since the early 1990s. The GBD 2010 project provided rich information about the key causes of mortality, disability-adjusted life years, and their associated risk factors in Japan and provided a unique opportunity to incorporate these data into health planning. As part of the latest update of this project, GBD 2013, the Japanese GBD collaborators plan to update and refine the available burden of disease data by incorporating sub-national estimates of the burden of disease at the prefectural level. These estimates will provide health planners and policy makers at both the national and prefectural level with new, more refined tools to adapt local public health initiatives to meet the health needs of local populations. Moreover, they will enable the Japanese health system to better respond to the unique challenges in their rapidly aging population and as a complex combination of non-communicable disease risk factors begin to dominate the policy agenda. Regional collaborations will enable nations to learn from the experiences of other nations that may be at different stages of the epidemiological transition and have different exposure profiles and associated health effects. Such analyses and improvements in the data collection systems will further improve the health of the Japanese, maintain Japan's excellent record of health equity, and provide a better understanding of the direction of health policy in the region.

Summary

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Promoting Mobility in Older People
Taina Rantanen
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(Suppl 1):S50-S54.   Published online January 30, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.S.S50
  • 17,280 View
  • 210 Download
  • 88 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

Out-of-home mobility is necessary for accessing commodities, making use of neighborhood facilities, and participation in meaningful social, cultural, and physical activities. Mobility also promotes healthy aging as it relates to the basic human need of physical movement. Mobility is typically assessed either with standardized performance-based tests or with self-reports of perceived difficulty in carrying out specific mobility tasks. Mobility declines with increasing age, and the most complex and demanding tasks are affected first. Sometimes people cope with declining functional capacity by making changes in their way or frequency of doing these tasks, thus avoiding facing manifest difficulties. From the physiological point of view, walking is an integrated result of the functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardio-respiratory, sensory and neural systems. Studies have shown that interventions aiming to increase muscle strength will also improve mobility. Physical activity counseling, an educational intervention aiming to increase physical activity, may also prevent mobility decline among older people. Sensory deficits, such as poor vision and hearing may increase the risk of mobility decline. Consequently, rehabilitation of sensory functions may prevent falls and decline in mobility. To promote mobility, it is not enough to target only individuals because environmental barriers to mobility may also accelerate mobility decline among older people. Communities need to promote the accessibility of physical environments while also trying to minimize negative or stereotypic attitudes toward the physical activity of older people.

Summary

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English Abstracts
Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Cognitive Function Change of the Elderly in a Rural Area, Korea.
Sang Kyu Kim, Tae Yoon Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang, Hee Soon Cho, Young Kyung Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):261-266.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.261
  • 4,119 View
  • 30 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to examine the cognitive function change related to aging, the incidence of cognitive impairment, and the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cognitive impairment through a follow-up of the elderly with normal cognitive ability at baseline. METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen subjects aged 65 and over were surveyed in February, 1998 (baseline survey), and their cognitive function was assessed again in 2003 (1st follow-up) and the once again in 2006 (2nd follow-up). Ninety one subjects completed all surveys up through the 2nd follow-up and their cognitive function scores using MMSE-K (Korean Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the distribution of apolipoprotein E allele were analyzed. RESULTS: The cognitive function scores decreased with aging and the difference between baseline and the 2nd follow-up scores of the study increased with the age group. The incidence rate of cognitive impairment through an 8-year follow-up was 38.5% and higher in older age groups. Age was the only significant factor for incidence of cognitive impairment, but there was no significant association between apolipoprotein E genotype and incidence of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The cognition of the elderly decreased with aging and the association of apolipoprotein E genotype with incidence of cognitive impairment was not significant in this study. To confirm the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and incidence of cognitive impairment further studies will be needed.
Summary

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  • ApoE Type 4 Allele Affects Cognitive Function of Aged Population in Tianjin City, China
    Shoudan Sun, Jingming Fu, Jun Chen, Wei Pang, Ruomei Hu, Haiqiang Li, Long Tan, Yugang Jiang
    American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease & Other Dementiasr.2015; 30(5): 503.     CrossRef
Association of Social Support and Social Activity with Physical Functioning in Older Persons.
Kyunghye Park, Yunhwan Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(2):137-144.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.2.137
  • 4,796 View
  • 76 Download
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
According to Rowe and Kahn (1998), successful aging is the combination of a low probability of disease, high functioning, and active engagement with life. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between active engagement with life and functioning among the community-dwelling elderly. METHODS: Data were collected from Wave 2 of the Suwon Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS), consisting of a sample of 645 persons aged 65 and older living in the community. A social activity checklist and social support inventory were used as measures of engagement with life, along with the Physical Functioning (PF) scale as a measure of functioning. The effects of social support and social activity on physical functioning, taking into account the covariates, were analyzed by hierarchical linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Maintenance of social activity and social support were significantly associated with higher physical function, after adjusting for sociodemographic and healthrelated covariates. Social support appeared to be more prominent than social activity in predicting physical functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Social support and social activity are potentially modifiable factors associated with physical function in older persons. Studies examining the role social engagement may play in preventing disability are warranted.
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    HANNEKE DONKERS, MYRRA VERNOOIJ-DASSEN, DINJA VAN DER VEEN, MARIA NIJHUIS VAN DER SANDEN, MAUD GRAFF
    Ageing and Society.2019; 39(7): 1485.     CrossRef
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    Chunkai Li, Shan Jiang, Na Li, Qiunv Zhang
    Journal of Community Psychology.2018; 46(3): 345.     CrossRef
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    Young-Su Song, Nam-Kyou Bae, Young-Chae Cho
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2015; 16(3): 2002.     CrossRef
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    Eun Sil Koh, Soong-Nang Jang, Nam-Jong Paik, Ki Woong Kim, Jae-Young Lim
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    Seok-Han Yoon, Kwang-Sung Lee, Young-Chae Cho
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    Yanling Li, Xiaojing Du, Chunfang Zhang, Sibao Wang
    British Journal of Community Nursing.2013; 18(7): 340.     CrossRef
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    Nam-Kyou Bae, Young-Soo Song, Eun-Sook Shin, Young-Chae Cho
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    Ju-Hyung Lee, Jung-Im Park, Ji-Hoon Kang, Jung-Ho Youm, Dai-Ha Koh, Keun-Sang Kwon
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    Minsoo Jung, Carles Muntaner, Mankyu Choi
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    Jae Kyung Shin, Ki Woong Kim, Joon Hyuk Park, Jung Jae Lee, Yoonseok Huh, Seok Bum Lee, Eun Ae Choi, Dong Young Lee, Jong Inn Woo
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Original Articles
A study on manganese health hazards among experienced welders.
Gyu Hoi Kim, Hyun Sul Lim, Sun Hee Yu
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):644-665.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to evaluate the health hazards and to develop early diagnostic methods of the manganism in experienced welders and to know the meaning of signal intensities on the brain Magnetic Resonance images. It was carried out from December 1996 to February 1997 with 277 male welders, the duration of welding was at least 5 years or more. The study was consisted of a questionnaire, physical examination and measurements of blood and urine manganese concentrations. Brain Magnetic Resonance imaging was done on 19 study subjects by random sampling. As the duration of welding increases, the positive rates of clinical symptoms, neurological examinations and blood manganese concentrations were also increased. However, physical examinations and urine manganese concentrations were not statistically significant with the duration of welding. Authors couldn't observe any Parkinsonism-like diseases. There were statistically significant correlations between duration of welding and blood manganese concentrations(r=0.16, p<0.01). There were not statistically significant correlations between duration of welding and urine manganese concentrations(r=0.06). There were statistically significant correlations between blood and urine manganese concentrations(r=0.34, p<0.01). By viewing brain Magnetic Resonance images, 13 welders(68.4 %) among 19 welders were found to have signal intensities. The positive rates of clinical symptoms, physical examinations, neurological examinations and blood and urine manganese concentrations were not statistically different between those with signal intensities and those without signal intensities. We would like to suggest that some non-specific clinical symptoms and neurological signs are correlated with the duration of welding but any Parkinsonism-like diseases had not been observed with these welders. Next we suggest that the high signal intensities on T1WI of brain Magnetic Resonance images are not the sign of manganese intoxication but the sign of manganese deposition.
Summary
A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship Between Health Behavior Risk Factors and Dependence in Activities of Daily Living.
Sang Hyuk Jung, Truls Oslash stbye, Kyoung Ok Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(3):221-228.
  • 2,334 View
  • 103 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to shed further light on the effect of modifiable health behavior risk factors on dependence in activities of daily living, defined in a multidimensional fashion. METHODS: The study participants were 10,278 middle aged Americans in a longitudinal health study, the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS). A multi-stage probability sampling design incorporating the effect of population sizes (Metropolitan and non-metropolitan), ethnicity (the non-Hispanic White, the Hispanic, and the Black), and age (age 51-61) was utilized. Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were measured using five activities necessary for survival (impairment in dressing, eating, bathing, sleeping, and moving across indoor spaces). Explanatory variables were four health behavior risk factors included smoking, exercise, Body Mass Index (BMI), and alcohol consumption. RESULTS: Most participants at baseline were ADL independent (1992). 97.8% of participants were independent in all ADL's at baseline and 78.2% were married. Approximately 27.5% were current smokers at baseline, and the subjects reported moderate or heavy exercise were 74.8%. All demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were significantly associated with the ADL status at Wave 4 except alcohol consumption. Risk behaviors such as current smoking, sedentary life style and high BMI at Wave 1 were associated with ADL status deterioration; however, moderate alcohol consumption tended to be more related to better ADL status than abstaining at Wave 4. ADL status at Wave 1 was the strongest factor and the next was exercise and smoking affecting ADL status at Wave 4. People who were in ADL dependent at Wave 1 were 15.17 times more likely to be ADL dependent at Wave 4 than people who were in ADL independent at Wave 1. Concerning smoking cigarettes, people who kept only light exercise or sedentary life style at Wave 1 were 1.70 times more likely to be died at Wave 4 than the people who did not smoke at Wave 1. CONCLUSIONS: All demographics and health behaviors at wave 1 had consistently similar OR trends for ADL status to each other except alcohol consumption. Smoking and exercise in health behaviors, and age and gender in demographics at Wave 1 were significant factors associated with ADL group separation at Wave 4.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health