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Qualitative Research in Healthcare: Necessity and Characteristics
Jeehee Pyo, Won Lee, Eun Young Choi, Seung Gyeong Jang, Minsu Ock
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(1):12-20.   Published online January 10, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.451
  • 7,797 View
  • 455 Download
  • 11 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Quantitative and qualitative research explore various social phenomena using different methods. However, there has been a tendency to treat quantitative studies using complicated statistical techniques as more scientific and superior, whereas relatively few qualitative studies have been conducted in the medical and healthcare fields. This review aimed to provide a proper understanding of qualitative research. This review examined the characteristics of quantitative and qualitative research to help researchers select the appropriate qualitative research methodology. Qualitative research is applicable in following cases: (1) when an exploratory approach is required on a topic that is not well known, (2) when something cannot be explained fully with quantitative research, (3) when it is necessary to newly present a specific view on a research topic that is difficult to explain with existing views, (4) when it is inappropriate to present the rationale or theoretical proposition for designing hypotheses, as in quantitative research, and (5) when conducting research that requires detailed descriptive writing with literary expressions. Qualitative research is conducted in the following order: (1) selection of a research topic and question, (2) selection of a theoretical framework and methods, (3) literature analysis, (4) selection of the research participants and data collection methods, (5) data analysis and description of findings, and (6) research validation. This review can contribute to the more active use of qualitative research in healthcare, and the findings are expected to instill a proper understanding of qualitative research in researchers who review qualitative research reports and papers.
Summary
Korean summary
이 원고는 질적연구 방법론의 필요성 및 특징과 함께 보건의료 분야에서 질적연구 방법론이 활용된 선행 연구들을 정리하였다. 이는 보건의료 분야의 사회과학적 특성을 더 잘 드러내는 질적연구 방법론의 적용 및 확대에 도움이 될 것이다.

Citations

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  • A qualitative pilot study exploring clients’ and health-care professionals’ experiences with aquatic therapy post-stroke in Ontario, Canada
    Andresa R. Marinho-Buzelli, Abirami Vijayakumar, Elizabeth Linkewich, Catherine Gareau, Hasnain Mawji, Zoe Li, Sander L. Hitzig
    Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation.2024; 31(1): 86.     CrossRef
  • The Mindfulness-Based Social Work and Self-Care Programme: A Focus Group Study
    Alan Maddock, Karen McGuigan, Pearse McCusker, Jane Kellock
    Clinical Social Work Journal.2024; 52(1): 48.     CrossRef
  • Kazakhstani elite athletes’ perspectives on the Tokyo 2020 olympic and paralympic games postponement and their preparation during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative study
    Venera Abdulla, Natalya Glushkova, Kulman Nyssanbayeva, Maira Bakasheva, Dominic Sagoe
    Performance Enhancement & Health.2024; 12(1): 100270.     CrossRef
  • Surgical De-escalation in Breast Cancer: Qualitative Research Introduces Hope for Patients and Illuminates a Blind Spot Within Blinded Studies
    Jose G. Bazan, Benjamin W. Corn
    International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics.2024; 118(2): 455.     CrossRef
  • Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed Methods, and Triangulation Research Simplified
    Lina Najib Kawar, Ghada B. Dunbar, Emma M. Aquino-Maneja, Sarah L. Flores, Victoria Rondez Squier, Kim Reina Failla
    The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Conducting and Writing Quantitative and Qualitative Research
    Edward Barroga, Glafera Janet Matanguihan, Atsuko Furuta, Makiko Arima, Shizuma Tsuchiya, Chikako Kawahara, Yusuke Takamiya, Miki Izumi
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • “The chameleon among diseases” - an explorative view of sarcoidosis and identification of the consequences for affected patients and relatives using qualitative interviews
    Charlotte Hilker, Johanna Weis, Stefanie Ziehfreund, Elizabeth V. Arkema, Tilo Biedermann, Alexander Zink
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Qualitative Research in Healthcare: Data Analysis
    Dasom Im, Jeehye Pyo, Haneul Lee, Hyeran Jung, Minsu Ock
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(2): 100.     CrossRef
  • ‘How is our job affecting us?’ Neonatal Intensive Care Unit healthcare providers and their pregnancy: A descriptive qualitative study
    Gaia Dussi, Stefano Bembich, Roberta Crevatin, Sara Buchini, Silvana Schreiber, Livia Bicego, Andrea Cassone, Raffaella Dobrina
    Journal of Advanced Nursing.2023; 79(10): 3776.     CrossRef
  • Investigating Functional Impairment in Chronic Low Back Pain: A Qualitative Study from the Patients and Specialists’ Perspectives
    Arturo Cuomo, Franco Marinangeli, Alberto Magni, Emiliano Petrucci, Alessandro Vittori, Marco Cascella
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(6): 1012.     CrossRef
  • Author Response: Students’ Positive Coping Strategies From Disaster: A Narrative Analysis
    Minsu Ock
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(4): 390.     CrossRef
  • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Qualitative Research Among Health Sciences Faculty
    Mohamud Mohamud, Alwaleed A Albarkani, Emad Masuadi, Abdullaziz A Alsahly, Abdulaziz I Alkudairy, Yazeed F Shalabi, Abdulrahman Faqih, Khaled A Alaukili, Saad J Alsahli
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A qualitative study on hope in iranian end stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis
    Masoume Rambod, Nilofar Pasyar, Ali Mohammad Parviniannasab
    BMC Nephrology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Special Articles
Cohort Profile: Korean Tuberculosis and Post-Tuberculosis Cohort Constructed by Linking the Korean National Tuberculosis Surveillance System and National Health Information Database
Dawoon Jeong, Hee-Yeon Kang, Jinsun Kim, Hyewon Lee, Bit-Na Yoo, Hee-Sun Kim, Hongjo Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(3):253-262.   Published online April 22, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.635
  • 3,366 View
  • 128 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 8 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
We aimed to review the current data composition of the Korean Tuberculosis and Post-Tuberculosis Cohort, which was constructed by linking the Korean Tuberculosis Surveillance System (KNTSS; established and operated by the Korean Disease Control and Prevention Agency since 2000) and the National Health Information Database (NHID; established by the National Health Insurance Service in 2012). The following data were linked: KNTSS data pertaining to patients diagnosed with tuberculosis between 2011 and 2018, NHID data of patients with a history of tuberculosis and related diseases between 2006 and 2018, and data (obtained from the Statistics Korea database) on causes of death. Data from 300 117 tuberculosis patients (177 206 men and 122 911 women) were linked. The rate of treatment success for new cases was highest in 2015 (86.7%), with a gradual decrease thereafter. The treatment success rate for previously treated cases showed an increasing trend until 2014 (79.0%) and decreased thereafter. In total, 53 906 deaths were confirmed among tuberculosis patients included in the cohort. The Korean Tuberculosis and Post-Tuberculosis Cohort can be used to analyze different measurement variables in an integrated manner depending on the data source. Therefore, these cohort data can be used in future epidemiological studies and research on policy-effect analysis, treatment outcome analysis, and health-related behaviors such as treatment discontinuation.
Summary
Korean summary
TB Post 코호트(Korean Tuberculosis and Post-Tuberculosis Cohort)는 한국의 결핵 모니터링 및 관리에 대한 인구집단 수준에서의 새로운 근거를 마련하고자 구축한 우리나라 결핵 환자 코호트입니다. 국가 결핵감시체계의 일환으로 구축된 질병관리청의 결핵신고자료와 국민건강보험공단의 국민건강정보DB 자료, 통계청 사망원인 자료의 연계로 구축되었으며, 각 자료원이 보유한 정보를 활용하여 통합적인 결핵 환자 연구가 가능할 것으로 기대하고 있습니다. 결핵의 정책 효과 연구뿐만 아니라, 치료 성공, 실패, 중단 등 치료결과에 대한 영향 요인 및 환자들의 건강 관련 행태에 대한 역학 연구 등 향후 다양한 연구에 활용될 수 있을 것으로 기대됩니다.

Citations

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  • A Quasi-experimental Study on the Effect of Pre-entry Tuberculosis Screening for Immigrants on Treatment Outcomes in South Korea: A Difference-in-Differences Analysis
    Sarah Yu, Dawoon Jeong, Hee-Yeon Kang, Young Ae Kang, Gyeong In Lee, Hongjo Choi
    Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Relationship between metformin use and mortality in tuberculosis patients with diabetes: a nationwide cohort study
    Eunki Chung, Dawoon Jeong, Jeongha Mok, Doosoo Jeon, Hee-Yeon Kang, Heejin Kim, Heesun Kim, Hongjo Choi, Young Ae Kang
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2024; 39(2): 306.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in the impact of diabetes mellitus on tuberculosis recurrence: a retrospective national cohort study
    Dararat Eksombatchai, Dawoon Jeong, Jeongha Mok, Doosoo Jeon, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Hongjo Choi, Young Ae Kang
    International Journal of Infectious Diseases.2023; 127: 1.     CrossRef
  • Nationwide Treatment Outcomes of Patients With Multidrug/Rifampin-Resistant Tuberculosis in Korea, 2011–2017: A Retrospective Cohort Study (Korean TB-POST)
    Hongjo Choi, Jeongha Mok, Young Ae Kang, Dawoon Jeong, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Doosoo Jeon
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and associated factors of diabetes mellitus among patients with tuberculosis in South Korea from 2011 to 2018: a nationwide cohort study
    Dawoon Jeong, Jeongha Mok, Doosoo Jeon, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Jeong Mi Seo, Hongjo Choi, Young Ae Kang
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(3): e069642.     CrossRef
  • Impact of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Use on Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Pulmonary Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study with Propensity Score Matching
    Hongjo Choi, Dawoon Jeong, Young Ae Kang, Doosoo Jeon, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Jeongha Mok
    Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.2023; 86(3): 234.     CrossRef
  • Retreatment after loss to follow-up reduces mortality in patients with multidrug/rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis
    Hongjo Choi, Jeongha Mok, Young Ae Kang, Dawoon Jeong, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Doosoo Jeon
    ERJ Open Research.2023; 9(4): 00135-2023.     CrossRef
  • Association between diabetes mellitus and cause of death in patients with tuberculosis: A Korean nationwide cohort study
    Se Hyun Kwak, Dawoon Jeong, Jeongha Mok, Doosoo Jeon, Hee-Yeon Kang, Hee Jin Kim, Hee-Sun Kim, Hongjo Choi, Young Ae Kang, Frederick Quinn
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(12): e0295556.     CrossRef
Application of Standardization for Causal Inference in Observational Studies: A Step-by-step Tutorial for Analysis Using R Software
Sangwon Lee, Woojoo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2022;55(2):116-124.   Published online February 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.21.569
  • 3,537 View
  • 232 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Epidemiological studies typically examine the causal effect of exposure on a health outcome. Standardization is one of the most straightforward methods for estimating causal estimands. However, compared to inverse probability weighting, there is a lack of user-centric explanations for implementing standardization to estimate causal estimands. This paper explains the standardization method using basic R functions only and how it is linked to the R package stdReg, which can be used to implement the same procedure. We provide a step-by-step tutorial for estimating causal risk differences, causal risk ratios, and causal odds ratios based on standardization. We also discuss how to carry out subgroup analysis in detail.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 standardization 방법을 이용하여 risk difference, relative risk, risk ratio와 같은 인과성 효과를 R software을 이용하여 도출하는 튜토리얼을 제공합니다. 간암환자의 치료를 예시로, 합성 데이터를 이용한 치료제의 사망에 대한 인과적 효과를 탐색하는 튜토리얼을 제공합니다. 추가적으로, 인과성 관련 기본 이론을 집약적으로 설명하였고, standardization을 이용한 subgroup analysis 수행 방법이 제공됩니다.

Citations

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  • Homologous and Heterologous Prime-Boost Vaccination: Impact on Clinical Severity of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron Infection among Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients in Belgium
    Marjan Meurisse, Lucy Catteau, Joris A. F. van Loenhout, Toon Braeye, Laurane De Mot, Ben Serrien, Koen Blot, Emilie Cauët, Herman Van Oyen, Lize Cuypers, Annie Robert, Nina Van Goethem
    Vaccines.2023; 11(2): 378.     CrossRef
  • Improved Clinical Outcomes With Early Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha Therapy in Children With Newly Diagnosed Crohn’s Disease: Real-world Data from the International Prospective PIBD-SETQuality Inception Cohort Study
    Renz C W Klomberg, Hella C van der Wal, Martine A Aardoom, Polychronis Kemos, Dimitris Rizopoulos, Frank M Ruemmele, Mohammed Charrout, Hankje C Escher, Nicholas M Croft, Lissy de Ridder, Ivan D Milovanovich, James J Ashton, Paul Henderson, Oren Ledder, T
    Journal of Crohn's and Colitis.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
Bacterial Contamination and Disinfection Status of Laryngoscopes Stored in Emergency Crash Carts
Jae Hyung Choi, Young Soon Cho, Jung Won Lee, Hee Bong Shin, In Kyung Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(3):158-164.   Published online April 4, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.17.013
  • 22,746 View
  • 207 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
To identify bacterial contamination rates of laryngoscope blades and handles stored in emergency crash carts by hospital and area according to the frequency of intubation attempts.
Methods
One hundred forty-eight handles and 71 blades deemed ready for patient use from two tertiary hospitals were sampled with sterile swabs using a standardized rolling technique. Samples were considered negative (not contaminated) if no colonies were present on the blood agar plate after an 18-hour incubation period. Samples were stratified by hospital and according to the frequency of intubation attempts (10 attempts per year) using the χ2-test and Fisher exact test.
Results
One or more species of bacteria were isolated from 4 (5.6%) handle tops, 20 (28.2%) handles with knurled surfaces, and 27 (18.2%) blades. No significant differences were found in microbial contamination levels on the handle tops and blades between the two hospitals and two areas according to the frequency of intubation attempts. However, significant differences were found between the two hospitals and two areas in the level of microbial contamination on the handles with knurled surfaces (p<0.05).
Conclusions
Protocols and policies must be reviewed to standardize procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles; handles should be re-designed to eliminate points of contact with the blade; and single-use, one-piece laryngoscopes should be introduced.
Summary

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    James Ellis, Albert H Park, Aaron Prussin
    American Journal of Otolaryngology.2022; 43(2): 103321.     CrossRef
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    International Journal of Surgery: Global Health.2021; 4(3): e54.     CrossRef
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    Anaesthesia Critical Care & Pain Medicine.2021; 40(4): 100907.     CrossRef
  • Economic and Epidemiological Impact of an Improvement Plan for the Decrease of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in a Tertiary Hospital in Mexico
    Oscar Sosa-Hernández, Bernardina Matías-Téllez, Yefté Efraín Silva-López, Verónica Alarcón-Hernández, Juan Manuel Bello-López, Mónica Alethia Cureño-Díaz, Gustavo Esteban Lugo-Zamudio
    Journal of Patient Safety.2021; 17(8): e1889.     CrossRef
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    Infection.2020; 48(1): 125.     CrossRef
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    Sharon Ann Van Wicklin
    AORN Journal.2019; 110(1): 49.     CrossRef
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    Stephen Y. Liang, Madison Riethman, Josephine Fox
    Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America.2018; 36(4): 873.     CrossRef
Determinants of Poor Self-rated Health in Korean Adults With Diabetes
Hwi-Won Lee, Minkyo Song, Jae Jeong Yang, Daehee Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2015;48(6):287-300.   Published online October 23, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.15.048
  • 9,809 View
  • 113 Download
  • 18 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Self-rated health is a measure of perceived health widely used in epidemiological studies. Our study investigated the determinants of poor self-rated health in middle-aged Korean adults with diabetes.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted based on the Health Examinees Study. A total of 9759 adults aged 40 to 69 years who reported having physician-diagnosed diabetes were analyzed with regard to a range of health determinants, including sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial, and physical variables, in association with self-rated health status using multivariate logistic regression models. A p-value <0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.
Results
We found that negative psychosocial conditions, including frequent stress events and severe distress according to the psychosocial well-being index, were most strongly associated with poor self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]Frequent stress events, 5.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.63 to 6.29; ORSevere distress, 11.08; 95% CI, 8.77 to 14.00). Moreover, younger age and being underweight or obese were shown to be associated with poor self-rated health. Physical factors relating to participants’ medical history of diabetes, such as a younger age at diagnosis, a longer duration of diabetes, insulin therapy, hemoglobin A1c levels of 6.5% or more, and comorbidities, were other correlates of poor reported health.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that, in addition to medical variables, unfavorable socioeconomic factors, and adverse lifestyle behaviors, younger age, being underweight or obese, and psychosocial stress could be distinc factors in predicting negative perceived health status in Korean adults with diabetes.
Summary

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    Laleh Gharacheh, Mostafa Amini-Rarani, Amin Torabipour, Saeed Karimi
    International Journal of Preventive Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Lanlan Chu, Anjelynt Lor, Mary-Genevieve Moisan, Kieu My Phi
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Special Article
The Role of Major Donors in Health Aid to the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Haewon Lee, Deborah Y. Ahn, Soyoung Choi, Youngchan Kim, Hyunju Choi, Sang Min Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(3):118-126.   Published online May 31, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2013.46.3.118
  • 9,873 View
  • 105 Download
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

We investigated the major trends in health aid financing in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) by identifying the primary donor organizations and examining several data sources to track overall health aid trends. We collected gross disbursements from bilateral donor countries and international organizations toward the DPRK according to specific health sectors by using the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development creditor reporting system database and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs financial tracking service database. We analyzed sources of health aid to the DPRK from the Republic of Korea (ROK) using the official records from the ROK's Ministry of Unification. We identified the ROK, United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) as the major donor entities not only according to their level of health aid expenditures but also their growing roles within the health sector of the DPRK. We found that health aid from the ROK is comprised of funding from the Inter-Korean Cooperation Fund, private organizations, local governments, and South Korean branches of international organizations such as WHO and UNICEF. We also distinguished medical equipment aid from developmental aid to show that the majority of health aid from the ROK was developmental aid. This study highlights the valuable role of the ROK in the flow of health aid to the DPRK, especially in light of the DPRK's precarious international status. Although global health aid from many international organizations has decreased, organizations such as GFATM and UNFPA continue to maintain their focus on reproductive health and infectious diseases.

Summary

Citations

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    Chang-Jun Lee, Sungwhan Lee, Hee-Jin Kim, Young Ae Kang
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  • Fighting Hepatitis B in North Korea: Feasibility of a Bi-modal Prevention Strategy
    Markus Unnewehr, August Stich
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Original Article
Changes in the Distribution of Maternal Age and Parity and Increasing Trends in the Low Birth Weight Rate in Korea Between 1995 and 2005
Jisuk Bae, Jung Han Park, Yoo Keun Park, Jong-Yeon Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Soon-Woo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(3):111-117.   Published online May 17, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.3.111
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study measured the impact of shifts in maternal age and parity on the increase in the low birth weight (LBW) rate in Korea.

Methods

We obtained raw data for all 6 397 945 live births registered at the Korea National Statistical Office between 1995 and 2005. We calculated the proportion of increment in the LBW rate due to changes in the distribution of maternal age and parity (AP-dis) and the proportion due to changes in the age- and parity-specific LBW rate (AP-spe).

Results

The LBW rate increased from 3.02% in 1995 to 4.28% in 2005. The multiple birth rate increased from 1.32% to 2.19% during the same period. Of the 1.26% points increment in the LBW rate, 0.64% points occurred among singleton births and 0.62% points occurred among multiple births. Changes in the AP-dis accounted for 50% of the increase in the LBW rate among singleton births, but did not contribute to the increase in the LBW rate among multiple births. The remainder of the total increment in the LBW rate was explained by the increase in the AP-spe.

Conclusions

This study demonstrated that shifts in maternal age and parity among singleton births and increased multiple births were important contributors to the increment in the LBW rate. This study also revealed that the increase in the AP-spe was an equally important contributor as the shifts in maternal age and parity to the increment in the LBW rate among singleton births and was a major contributor among multiple births.

Summary

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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Relationship Between Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) and Urinary Hydroxyproline and Proline Concentrations in Hospital Workers.
Keou Won Lee, Soo Jeong Kim, Jae Beom Park, Kyung Jong Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):9-13.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.9
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Although increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) is caused by stress accelerates collagen degradation, there was no data on the relationship between stress and urinary hydroxyproline (Hyp) and proline (Pro), a good marker of collagen degradation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between depression, anxiety, and stress (DAS) and concentrations of urinary Hyp and Pro. METHODS: 97 hospital employees aged 20 to 58 were asked to fill out comprehensive self-administrated questionnaires containing information about their medical history, lifestyle, length of the work year, shit-work and DAS. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) was applied to evaluate chronic mental disorders. Urine samples were analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with double derivatization for the assay of hydroxyproline and proline. RESULTS: The mean value of Hyp and Pro concenturation in all subjects was 194.1+/-113.4 micromol/g and 568.2+/-310.7 micromol/g. DASS values and urinary Pro concentrations were differentiated by sex (female > male, p < 0.05) and type of job (nurse > others, p < 0.05). In the stepwise multiple linear regressions, urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations were influenced by stress (Adjusted r2 = 0.051) and anxiety and job (Adjusted r2 = 0.199), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found that stress and anxiety were correlated with urinary Hyp and Pro concentrations. To identifying a definite correlation, further study in large populations will be needed.
Summary

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Brief Communication
An Outbreak of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) in the English Language Institute.
Joon Hyung Kim, Han Sung Lee, Hye Kyung Park, Jin Seok Kim, Sang Won Lee, Seong Sun Kim, Jong Koo Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(3):274-278.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.3.274
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This report describes the results of an investigation on an outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1) in an English language Institute in Seoul, Korea in May 2009. METHODS: In this outbreak, novel influenza A (H1N1) was confirmed in 22 of 91 trainees, trainers and staff members. The trainees and 2 staff members were isolated in an assigned facility and the rest were isolated in their homes after we discovered the first patient with novel influenza A (H1N1). After the isolation, the people in the assigned facility were educated to use N95 respirators and they received oseltamivir for prophylaxis. RESULTS: The initial findings in this study suggest that the symptoms were mild and similar to those of seasonal influenza. The classmates and roommates of the infected patients were more likely to get infected with novel influenza A (H1N1) than the trainees who were not classmates or roommates of the patients (OR: 3.19, 95% CI=0.91 - 11.11 for classmates and OR: 40.0, 95% CI=7.4-215.7 for roommates). CONCLUSIONS: The public health response seems successful in terms of preventing the spread of this virus into the local community.
Summary

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  • In-Flight Transmission of Novel Influenza A (H1N1)
    Joon Hyung Kim, Dong-Han Lee, Sang-Sook Shin, Chun Kang, Jin Seok Kim, Byung Yool Jun, Jong-Koo Lee
    Epidemiology and Health.2010; 32: e2010006.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Professional Job Perception, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Westerm Doctors and Oriental Doctors Practicing at Local Clinic.
Jong Yeon Kim, Sin Kam, Yune Sik Kang, Yong Kee Cho, Sang Won Lee, Dae Gu Jin, Soon Gi Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):44-50.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate the professionalism, job stress and job satisfaction in western and oriental doctors in Korea. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey using a selfadministered questionnaire, conducted between August and September, 2001. The study subjects were 457 western doctors and 161 oriental doctors practicing at local clinics in Daegu City. RESULTS: For the professionalism scale, the score for 'belief in service to the public' of western doctors was significantly higher than that of oriental doctors (p< 0.05) whereas the scores for 'sense of calling to the field' and 'feeling of autonomy' were higher in oriental doctors (p< 0.01). For the job stress scale, the scores for 'work factor', and 'clinical responsibility/decision factor' of western doctors were significantly higher than those of oriental doctors (p< 0.01). Of the western doctors, 59.7% expressed satisfaction with their job as a doctor, 69.5% responded that the role of a doctor was appropriate to their aptitude, and 61.8% answered that they wouldn't consider other kinds of job even if offered. In case of oriental doctors, these responses were83.1%, 82.5%, and 82.3%, espectively. CONCLUSION: The job stress scores of western doctors were higher than those of oriental doctors, but the job satisfaction was lower. The reasons for the above results are not clear. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job stress and job satisfaction in doctors.
Summary
Professional Job Perception, Job Stress and Job Satisfaction of Doctors Practicing in Local Clinic in Daegu City.
Dae Gu Jin, Sin Kam, Yune Sik Kang, Yong Kee Cho, Sang Won Lee, Jong Yeon Kim, Soon Gi Ahn, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(2):153-162.
  • 2,518 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This study was conducted in order to investigate professional job perception, job stress and job satisfaction in doctors. METHOD: The authors conducted a survey using a self-administered questionnaire, conducted between August and September, 2001. The study subjects were 457 doctors practicing at local clinics in Daegu City. RESULTS: For the professionalism scale, the score for 'sense of calling to field' and 'feeling of autonomy' were relatively high. Age, working hours per day, and perception of socioeconomic status significantly influenced the professionalism scale scores (p< 0.01). For the job stress scale, the scores for 'clinical responsibility/ decision' factor were the highest of all the surveyed factors. Working hours per day significantly influenced the job stress scores (p< 0.01). To investigate the overall relationship between the variables, the authors conducted a linear structural equation model analysis. The equation was statistically appropriate and a good fit. The job stress, and the professionalism factors, respectively influenced job satisfaction negatively and positively (T> 2.0). The working hours per day and status perception also influenced their job satisfaction (T> 2.0). CONCLUSION: To promote the job satisfaction of doctors, the development of coping tools and other intervention methods are needed to increase doctor's professional job perception and reduce their job stress. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job satisfaction and for its promotion with doctors.
Summary
Cause of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Infection in Ulju County, Korea.
Geun Ryang Bae, Sang Won Lee, Byung Guk Yang, Bok Kwon Lee, Jae Gu Park, Byeong Hun Hwang, Hyun Sul Lim
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(1):77-84.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Two related cases of Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS) were reported to the Korea National Institute of Health in May, 2001. Shiga toxin 2 genes were detected in both stool samples. We suspected an enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection as the cause of the HUS, and conducted an investigation to find the source of the infection and its route of transmission. METHODS: We performed case investigations on these two related HUS cases, and obtained interviews and rectal swabs form the family members and other close contacts. Additionally, we performed rectal swabs on the cattle raised by the household of the index patient. RESULTS: We found a 20 month old index patient and a 6 year-old cousin had developed HUS, where there had been a 2 day history of contact with the index, and bacteriological examinations for these two patients revealed, indistinguishably, the same E. coli O171. The grandmother of the index patient was found to be asymptomatic, but E. coli O26 was isolated. We also found a probable case in the mother of the cousin. She reported a history of contact with the index, and developed bloody diarrhea of 3 days duration. The test results for the cattle revealed E. coli O26 in one cow, and E. coli O26 and O55 in another. E. coli O26, which was isolated in both cows and the grandmother of the index, were indistinguishably the same. CONCLUSIONS: We found that the E. coli O26 in the grandmother had originated from the cows, and that the E. coli O171 found in the index patient had been transmitted to the cousin through person-to-person contact.
Summary
Epidemiologic Investigation on an Outbreak of Cholera in Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea, 2001.
Jun Ho Lee, Hyun Sul Lim, Kwan Lee, Jun Chul Kim, Sang Won Lee, Un Yeong Go, Byung Kuk Yang, Jong Koo Lee, Moon Sik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):295-304.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was carried out to investigate the cause, magnitude and transmission route of the cholera outbreak in 2001. METHODS: The study population were those persons who ingested foods at the restaurant, were confirmed as cholera patients, had symptoms of diarrhea and served as workers at the restaurant. A questionnaire survey and microbiological examinations on the microbes isolated from rectal swabs were conducted. Of the cases, 316 food histories were surveyed by an analysis of the restaurant menu. RESUJLTS: There were 139 confirmed cases of cholera reported in Korea in 2001. Of these, 104 were related to the restaurant. By region, Gyeongsangbuk-do had the highest incidence with 91 cases. Of these 91 cases, 74 had ingested foods at the restaurant, 2 were employees and 3 were secondary infection cases within the families. The results of the odds ratio analysis of the 316 persons having ingested foods at the restaurant were as follows: sandwiches 5.07 (95% CI, 1.85-14.59), soybean curd 2.45 (95% CI, 1.09-5.56), noodles 2.34 (95% CI, 1.24-4.42), steamed squid 2.01 (95% CI, 1.17-3.47) and vinegared rice 1.82 (95% CI, 1.08-3.09). It was certain the restaurant in question was the cause of the 2001 outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: We suspected that more than one restaurant employee contaminated foods served at the restaurant. In addition, eating raw fishes purchased at the Pohang Fisheries infected the employees of the restaurant. There is a possibility that these raw fishes were themselves contaminated by cholera bacilli in the sea.
Summary
Incidence of Hypertension in a Cohort of an Adult Population.
Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Hee Sook Oh, Sang Won Lee, Kook Hyeun Woo, Moon Young Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(2):141-146.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed in order to assess the incidence of hypertension based on two-years follow-up of a rural hypertension-free cohort in Korea. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 2,580 subjects aged above 20 (1,107 men and 1,473 women) of Chung-Song County in Kyungpook Province judged to be hypertensive-free at the baseline examination in 1996. For each of two examinations in the two-year follow-up, those subjects free of hypertension were followed for the development of hypertension to the next examination one year (1997) and two years later (1998). The drop-out rate was 24.7% in men and 19.6% in women. Hypertension was defined as follows 1) above mild hypertension as a SBP above 140 mmHg or a DBP above 90 mmHg, 2) above moderate hypertension as a SBP above 160 mmHg or a DBP above 100 mmHg or when the participant reported having used antihypertensive medication after beginning this survey. RESULTS: The age-standardized incidence of above mild hypertension was 6 per 100 person years (PYS) in men and that of above moderate hypertension was 1.2. In women, the age-standardized rate for above mild hypertension was 5.7 and 1.5 for above mild and moderate hypertension, respectively. However, the rates of incidence as calculated by the risk method were 4.8% and 1.0% in men and 4.6%, 1.2% in women, respectively. In both genders, incidence was significantly associated with advancing age(p<0.01), In men, the incidences of above moderate hypertension by age group were 0.5 per 100 PYS aged 20-39, 0.7 aged 40-49, 1.7 aged 50-59, 3.6 aged 60-69, and 5.8 aged above 70(p<0.01). In women, those the incidence measured 0.6 per 100 PYS aged 20-39, 1.8 aged 40-49, 1.3 aged 50-59, 3.3 aged 60-69, and 5.6 aged above 70(p<0.01). After age 60, the incidence of hypertension increased rapidly. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence data of hypertension reported in this study may serve as a reference data for evaluating the impact of future public efforts in the primary prevention of hypertension in Korea.
Summary
Job Stress and Its Related Factors in South Korean Doctors.
Yune Sik Kang, Sin Kam, Sang Won Lee, Byung Yeol Chun, Min Hae Yeh
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(2):141-148.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To investigate the sources, extent and related factors in South Korean doctors. METHODS: The study subjects were 934 doctors in Taegu, Kyungpook Province, Korea(540 independent practitioners, 105 employed at hospitals and 289 residents in training). Information concerning job stress was obtained using a 9-item questionnaire. Information regarding related factors such as demographic characteristics(age, sex, marital status), perceptions on the socioeconomic status of doctors and working conditions(work time, on-call days per week) was also obtained by self-administered questionnaire during April and May, 2000. RESULTS: Major sources of job stress included clnical responsibility/judgement factor, patient factor and work loading factor. The job stress score of residents was the highest among three groups. The score was lower in older doctors. The score was low among those who thought doctors socioeconomic status was not good. The longer the work time, the higher the job stress score was. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to control for the mutual influence of independent variables. In regression analysis, the score of residents was higher than practitioners. Work time and socioeconomic status perception had negative effects on job stress score. CONCLUSION: The average job stress score of the doctors was high. Age, work type, working conditions and perceptions of socioeconomic status were found to besignificantly related to job stress score. Although the job stress of doctors is somewhat inevitable due to the nature of the doctor's job, control of work time, development of coping tools and other intervention methods are needed to reduce job stress of doctors. Further studies are required to understand the characteristics of job stress and reduce the job stress of doctors.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health