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18 "Soon Woo Park"
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Original Article
Changes in Dietary Behavior Among Adolescents and Their Association With Government Nutrition Policies in Korea, 2005-2009
Sang Geun Bae, Jong Yeon Kim, Keon Yeop Kim, Soon Woo Park, Jisuk Bae, Won Kee Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2012;45(1):47-59.   Published online January 31, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2012.45.1.47
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  • 37 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives

This study was conducted to observe recent changes in adolescents' dietary behavior and indirectly evaluate the effects of the government's nutritional policies in Korea.

Methods

We analyzed the secular trends in seven dietary behaviors using the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey data from 2005 to 2009. Through literature review, we included the policies implemented for the improvement of adolescents'dietary behaviors during the same periods.

Results

The significant linear trends were observed in all dietary behaviors (p<0.05). Overall, all behaviors except the fruit intake rate were desirably changed during five years but undesirable changes were observed between 2008 and 2009 in all behaviors. Within those periods, several policies were implemented including 'Ban on carbonated-beverages in school', 'Green Food Zone', etc. Despite confirmed evidence of their effects, the policies on individual behavior such as nutrition education didn't influence the prevalence of dietary behaviors because they were conducted to too limited persons. Polices on the school environmental improvement, such as ban on carbonated beverage in school, were more effective because they decreased the exposure of undesirable food environment. However, for effect of Green Food Zone improving community environment we couldn't come to a conclusion because of too short period after full implementation.

Conclusions

Among government nutrition policies conducted from 2005 to 2009, those on environmental improvement, especially in school, were more effective than those on individual behavior. Therefore, the development and implement of policies on school environmental improvement are needed in Korea.

Summary

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Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Test-Retest Reliability of a Questionnaire for the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey.
Jisuk Bae, Hyojee Joung, Jong Yeon Kim, Kyoung Nam Kwon, Young Taek Kim, Soon Woo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(5):403-410.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.5.403
  • 7,287 View
  • 180 Download
  • 96 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
A web-based survey has been administered annually since 2005 throughout Korea to assess the prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors among middle and high school students. The aim of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) questionnaire. METHODS: A convenience sample of 2298 middle and high school students participated in self-administered questionnaire surveys twice, approximately two weeks apart, in 2008. The percent agreement, kappa statistics, and prevalence rates at the first and second surveys were computed for the core subset of 39 self-reported health risk behavior indices of the KYRBWS. RESULTS: Among 39 indices, seven indices had kappas > or = 0.81 and all of the indices had kappas > or = 0.41. Based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals, three indices had significantly different prevalence rates between the first and second surveys. In the subgroup analyses by school grade and gender, two indices had significantly different reliability estimates between middle and high school students. There were no significantly different reliability estimates between male and female students, except for one index. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the reliability estimates for the KYRBWS questionnaire are varied, but generally reliable over time. The indices with low reliability estimates need to be evaluated further in order to determine whether the indices should be modified or deleted from future versions of the KYRBWS.
Summary

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Validation Studies
Validity of Self-Reported Height, Weight, and Body Mass Index of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey Questionnaire.
Jisuk Bae, Hyojee Joung, Jong Yeon Kim, Kyoung Nam Kwon, Yoonjung Kim, Soon Woo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(5):396-402.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.5.396
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Self-reported anthropometric values, such as height and weight, are used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and assess the prevalence of obesity among adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of self-reported height, weight, and BMI of the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey questionnaire. METHODS: A convenience sample of 137 middle school students and 242 high school students completed a self-administered questionnaire in 2008. Body height and weight were directly measured after self-reported values were obtained from the questionnaire survey. Sensitivity, specificity, and kappa statistics were computed in order to evaluate the validity of the prevalence of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile or > or = 25 kg/m2) based on self-reported data. RESULTS: Self-reported weight and BMI tended to be underestimated. Self-reported height tended to be overestimated among middle school females and high school males. Obese adolescents tended to underestimate their weight and BMI and overestimate their height more than non-obese adolescents. The prevalence estimate of obesity based on self-reported data (10.6%) was lower than that based on directly measured data (15.3%). The estimated sensitivity of obesity based on self-reported data was 69.0% and the specificity was 100.0%. The value of kappa was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.88). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that self-reported height and weight may lead to the underestimation of BMI and consequently the prevalence of obesity. These biases should be taken into account when self-reported data are used for monitoring the prevalence and trends of obesity among adolescents nationwide.
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Original Article
Validity of Self-reported Smoking Using Urinary Cotinine among Vocational High School Students.
Soon Woo Park, Jong Yeon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):223-230.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.223
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  • 84 Download
  • 27 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to validate self-reported smoking among high school students using urinary cotinine. METHODS: A self report of smoking behavior was collected together with urine sample for cotinine analysis from 130 male and female students in two vocational high school students in November, 2007. Validity and agreement between self-reported smoking and urinary cotinine was analyzed with STATA 9.0 for different definitions of current smokers, and frequent and daily smokers. Urinary cotinine concentration was measured by the DRI Cotinine Assay for urine (Microgenics Corp., Fremont, CA) on Toshiba 200FR. The cut-off point of urinary cotinine was 50 ng/dl. RESULTS: The concentrations of urinary cotinine were significantly different according to the frequency and amount of smoking. Sensitivity and specificity was 90.9% and 91.8% respectively, and the Cohen's kappa value was 0.787 among the current smokers who smoked at least one day during one month preceding the survey. The comparable high sensitivity, specificity, and kappa value were shown also among the other definitions of current smokers, that is, subjective smokers, and weekly smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed the high validity of self-reported smoking among high school students. However, due to the small sample size and limitation of the participants, it is cautious to generalize the results to overall high school students.
Summary

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English Abstract
Predictors of Current Smoking among Male Students in a Technical High School: A Prospective Study.
Jong Yeon Kim, Soon Woo Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(1):59-66.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.1.59
  • 4,723 View
  • 32 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed using a longitudinal approach to explore the predictors for current smoking among male high school students. METHODS: Baseline data was collected in May 2004 through a self-administrated questionnaire completed by 607 male students in a technical high school in Daegu city, Korea. Subsequently, their smoking behaviors were followed one year after. Among the 544 followed participants, data for 439 non-smokers in the first year was used in longitudinal analysis. Current smokers were defined as those respondents who had smoked one or more cigarettes within the 30 days preceding the survey. Several potential predictors for smoking were investigated including smoking history (never, experimental, former smoker), sociodemographic factors, environmental factors, attitudes toward smoking, and behavioral factors. Logistic regression was used to predict smoking with SPSS ver. 12.0. RESULTS: According to multiple logistic regression analysis, those students who were more likely to smoke after one year were former smokers (OR: 2.12, 95% CI=1.01-4.44), current drinkers (OR: 2.55, 95% CI=1.33-4.89), who had four or five smokers among five best friends (OR: 3.43. 95% CI=1.14-10.30). In addition, those who had smokers among family members besides parents or siblings (OR: 1.66, 95% CI=0.92-2.98), exhibited a high level of subjective stress (OR: 1.77, 95% CI=0.96-3.26), or had a very good relationship with friends (OR: 1.93, 95% CI=0.99-3.75) were also more likely to smoke albeit with marginal statistical significance (p<0.1). CONCLUSIONS: A smoking prevention program aimed at high school students may be more effective with due consideration of the predictors highlighted in this study. However, further studies with larger sample size and various target populations are necessary to find potential predictors not found in this study but suggested in other longitudinal studies.
Summary

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Original Articles
Annual Visit Days, Prescription Days and Medical Expenses of Hypertensive Patients.
Bu Dol Lim, Byung Yeol Chun, Sin Kam, Jeong Soo Im, Soon Woo Park, Jung Han Park
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):340-350.
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  • 57 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the annual visit days, the annual prescription days and the medical costs of hypertensive patients. METHODS: The medical insurance records of 40,267 incident patients with the diagnostic code of hypertension from September 1998 through August 1999 in Daegu city were reviewed. RESUJLTS: The proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group (Group VIII) who visited for 6-15 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was only 6.2%. The proper care group (Group IX) who visited for more than 16 days with 240 prescription days or more a year was 9.3%. The overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was therefore 15.5%. The proportion of the insufficient care group (Group I,IV) in both the number of visiting days and prescription days was 57.4%. The mean prescription day of the most proper group (Group VIII) was 29 days; the mean annual medical expenses, 453,587won; the mean annual amount paid by patients, 218,013won; and mean medical expenses per prescription day, 1,483won. The proportion of the overall proper care group (Group VIII+IX) was significantly higher in adults aged 50-59, those who were enrolled in industrial workers health insurance as well as government employees and private school teachers health insurance, and those who made a higher contribution per month (p<0.01). According to the type of medical facilities, the proportion of the most proper medical care pattern group was highest in the general hospitals (9.3%) but the overall proper care group was higher in the public health centers (22.1%) and private clinics (17.1%). CONCLUSIONS: The management system of hypertension should be reinforced urgently. Therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines including the number of visiting days per year and prescription days per visit day, and make the system provide medical facilities to more properly care for hypertensive patients.
Summary
Decision-making process and satisfaction of pregnant women for delivery method.
Hae Ri Jun, Jung Han Park, Soon Woo Park, Chang Kyu Huh, Soon Gu Hwang
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):751-769.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to assess the attitude of pregnant women toward delivery method, understanding of the reason for determining her own delivery method, participation in decision-making process and satisfaction with delivery method after labor. Study subjects were 693 pregnant women who had visited obstetric clinic for prenatal care in the last month of pregnancy in one general hospital and one obstetrics-gynecology specialty hospital in Taegu city from February 1 to March 31 in 1998. A questionnaire was administered before and after labor and a telephone interview was done one month after labor. Proportion of women who had health education and/or counselling about delivery method during prenatal care was 24.0% and this proportion was higher for women who had previous c-section(35.5%) than others. Women thought vaginal delivery is better than c-section for both maternal and baby's health regardless of previous delivery method. About 90% of primipara and multiparous women who had previous vaginal delivery wanted vaginal delivery for the index birth, while 85.6% of multiparous women who had previous c-section wanted repeat c-section. Reasons for choosing c-section in pregnant women who preferred vaginal delivery before labor were recommendation of doctors(81.9%), recommendation of husband(0.8%), agreement between doctor and pregnant woman(4.7%), and mother's demand(12.6%). Reasons for choosing vaginal delivery were mother's demand(30.6%) and no indication for c-section(67.2%). Reasons for choosing c-section in pregnant women who preferred c-section before labor were recommendation of doctors(76.2%), mother's demand(20.0%), recommendation of husband(1.3%), and agreement between doctor and pregnant woman(2.5%). Of the pregnant women who had c-section, by doctor's recommendation, the proportion of women who had heard detailed explanation about reason for c-section by doctor was 55.1%. Mother's statement about the reason for c-section was consistent with the medical record in 75.9%. However, over 5% points disparities were shown between mother's statement and medical record in cases of the repeat c-section and mother's demand. In primipara and multiparous women who had previous vaginal delivery, the delivery method for index birth had statistically significant association with the preference of delivery method before labor(p<0.05). All of the women who had previous c-section had delivered the index baby by c-section. Among mothers who had delivered the index baby vaginally, 84.9% of them were satisfied with their delivery method immediately after labor and 85.1% at 1 month after labor. However, mothers who had c-section stated that they are satisfied with c-section in 44.6% immediately after labor and 42.0% at 1 month after labor. Preferred delivery method for the next birth had statistically significant association with delivery method for the index birth both immediately after labor and in 1 month after labor. The proportion of mothers who prefer vaginal delivery for the next birth increased with the degree of satisfaction with the vaginal delivery for the index birth but the proportion of mothers who prefer c-section for the next birth was high and they did not change significantly with the degree of satisfaction with the c-section for the index birth. These results suggest that the current high technology-based, physician-centered prenatal and partritional cares need to be reoriented to the basic preventive and promotive technology-based, and mother-fetus-centered care. It is also suggested that active involvement of pregnant woman in decision-making process for the delivery method will increase the rate of vaginal birth after c-section and decrease c-section rate and improve the degree of maternal satisfaction after delivery.
Summary
Temporary Threshold Shift of Vibration Sensation by Dental Handpiece.
Seong Ah Kim, Jong Young Lee, Doohie Kim, Soon Woo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1995;28(4):765-772.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was performed to investigate the possibility of temporary threshold shift (TTS) of vibration sense could induced by exposure to high-frequency vibration or by work position taking by dentists in drilling or polishing. The vibratory perception thresholds (VPT) of 28 healthy men were measured on the index fingertip pulp of dominant hand at 250Hz. The vibrating tool used in test was a low-speed handpiece of 34,000 rpm. For the TTS test, the dominant hand was exposed to high-frequency vibration and to work position for five minutes, respectively. The VPTs before and after vibratory exposure were 23.5+/-3.5 dB, 30.8+/-4.2 dB, respectively and VPT after work position was 23.7+/-4.6 dB. The difference between before and after vibartory exposure was statistically significant (P<0.001). The correlation of height, weight and BMl with baseline VPTs was not statistically significant. Also, there was no difference of VPTs by smoking. These results suggest that high-frequency vibration from dental handpieces might cause the impairment of vibration sensation.
Summary
The Relationship of Low-Level Blood Lead to Plasma Renin Activity and Blood Pressure.
Soon Woo Park, Doo Hie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1991;24(4):516-530.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the effect of low-level blood lead on the blood pressure. The plasma renin activity (PRA) was measured also to investigate one of the possible mechanisms by which lead may play a role to influence on the blood pressure. Seventy-two hypertensive and sixty-nine control study subjects were selected from the workers who had no history of job-related lead exposure, in Ulsan city and it's vicinity, Korea. In addition to measuring blood lead levels and PRA, body mass index(BMI), hematocrit, serum sodium, potassium, creatinine, ionized calcium, and cholesterol were measured. Also, the habits of smoking, alcohol drinking and family history of hypertension were checked. The blood lead level of the hypertensive group was 19.8+/-5.5 microgram/dl, which was significantly higher than that of the control group, 12.5+/-4.7 microgram/dl (p<0.01). On multiple logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio of blood lead level on the occurrence of high blood pressure was 1.38, also statistically significant (p<0.01). There was no significant differences between the hypertensive and the control group in the PRA or In(PRA), but there was a marginally significant linear relationship between blood lead and PRA in the hypertensive group (p<0.1). In conclusion, blood lead level which has been known to be within normal limits may be one of the possible risk factors of hypertension and PRA alteration by lead may act as one of the mechanisms.
Summary
Relationship of Hair Copper and Mercury Contents to Personality in Chronic Schizophrenia.
Doohie Kim, Young Woo Kang, Soon Woo Park, Kuen Hoo Lee, Young Sook Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1990;23(3):296-308.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The relationship between copper and mercury contents in the scalp hair and chronic schizaphrenia was investigated. The samples of scalp hair were collected from 80 male chronic schizophrenic patients at the age from 20 to 20, who were hospitalized in the National Psychiatric Hospital in Seoul. As the napes and the Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) was performed also. The copper and mercury contents were determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Significantly higher T-score of MMPI was seen in patients group for Hypochondriasis Scale (Hs), Depression Scale (D), Psychopathic Deviate Scale (Pd), Paranoia Scale (Pa), Psychasthenia Scale (Pt), Schizophrenia Scale (Sc) subscales than control group, and the frequency distribution by T-score was also significantly different between the patient and the control group for above scales. The content of copper in the hair of patient group was significantly higher than control group. In the case of mercury, the mean value of patient group was significantly higher than control group. Between the value of copper and mercury, statistically significant negative correlation (r=-0.25) was found. When grouped by the T-score of MMPI, there was no difference of copper contents between T-score subgroup at all MMPI scale. But the mercury contents showed significant difference between T-score subgroup at Pt, Sc scale. When compared between the group of above 70 T-score and the group of less than 70, the mercury contents of Pa, Pt, Sc scale of above 70 T-score group were significantly higher than the group of less than 70. In other scales, the mercury content of the above 70 group were higher than the group of less than 70 except Mf scale, although there were no statistically significances. In D, Pa, Sc scales, as the T-score of MMPI increased, the contents of mercury also increased. When divided into the patient group and the control group, the copper contents of the patient groups were significantly lower than the control group at each T-score scale in most MMPI scales. In the case of mercury, the value of patient group were significantly lower than the control group in the less than 44 scale of D, in the 60~69 scale of Pd, in the 45~59 scale of Mf, in the 60~69 scale of Ma, in the less than 44 of Si. These results suggest that the effects of the deficiency of copper or high intake of mercury on schizophrenia and personality may be of possible value. Thus further studies are necessary to determine whether schizophrenia and personality formation would be attributed to copper deficiency or mercury intake.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children IV: In Association with Copper.
Doohie Kim, Sang Soong Nam, Soon Woo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(4):518-527.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The relationship between copper content in scalp hair and mental retardation was investigated. Samples of scalp hair were collected from 297 mentally retarded children who were students in one of two schools providing special educational services, one, consisted of children living in an orphan home, the other, children living with parents. For comparison, 117 scalp hair samples were collected from the children who had got average or above average academic achievement in a regular elementary school. Hair samples were taken from the nape of the neck and the copper content was determined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (IL 551). There was no statistically significant difference in scalp copper levels across different age groups except female orphan group, but no trend or correlation between copper contents and age was found. The hair copper contents of the group accompanied by Down's syndrome and unknown group were significantly lower than that of control group in both sex, and in the case of accompanied by epilepsy or autism, lower than control group in male. Although the results of this study show no evidence that mental retardation has owed to copper deficiency, the possibility of copper deficiency in their fetal or infant age could not be ruled out. Thus further study is needed to determine whether mental retardation could be attributed to copper deficiency. through the examinations about their living environments, dietary pattern, eating habit and the impact of copper deficiency on brain development.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children III: In Association with Mercury.
Ki Hwan Han, Bong Ki Jang, Soon Woo Park, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(3):368-379.
  • 2,405 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The relationship between mercury level of hair and mental retardation was investigated. The 297 subjects with mental retardation were drawn from two schools providing special educational services, one, consisted of children living in an orphan home, another, children with parents. The 117 control subjects were drawn from whom had got average or above average academic achievement in a regular elementary school. Hair sample were taken from the nape of the neck and the mercury analysis was carried out on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer(IL 551). There was no relationship between mercury contents and age, and there was a statistically significant difference in mercury contents between male and female in the mentally retarded children living with parents. Children in the retarded group had significantly higher mercury contents compared with control group except the female group with parents. Also, the mercury levels in the retarded group living in an orphan home were significantly higher than that of the retarded group with parents. The concomitant diseases were Down's syndrome, epilepsy, cerebral palsy and autism. There were statistically significant differences in hair mercury levels in the cases of accompanying Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy in male and Down's syndrome and autism in female compared with the control group of the same sex. The most accompanying handicap was speech disturbance(40.7%) and the others were crippled, emotional disturbance etc. The percentages of double handicap were 66.7% among 6 persons exceeding 6ppm of their hair mercury contents, 10.4% among 3~6 ppm and 15.7% among the group of 3ppm or less. The findings of this study suggest that the more opportunities of exposure to mercury in mentally retarded children may have occurred, so it can not be excluded the possibility of mercury as a contributing factor to mental retardation. Therefore, the causal relationship between mercury levels and mental retardation should be established through the examinations about their living environments, dietary pattern, eating habit etc.
Summary
Hair Heavy Metal Contents in Mentally Retarded Children II: In Association with Cadmium and Zinc.
Soon Woo Park, Jong Young Lee, Doohie Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(2):215-222.
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The relationship between cadmium level and mental retardation was investigated. The 297 subjects with mental retardation were drawn from two schools providing special educational services, one, consisted of children living in an orphan home, another, children with parents. The 117 control subjects were drawn from whom had got average or above average academic achievement in a general elementary school. Hair sample was taken from the nape of the neck and the cadmium and zinc analysis were carried out on an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (IL 551). Children in the retarded group had significantly higher cadmium levels compared with control but not in zinc levels. There was no relationship between metal concentrations and age except control male group, which showed significant positive linear relationship in zinc, and there was no difference between sex in both metal except the male orphan group in cadmium. In the orphan group, there was relationship between severity of retardation and cadmium concentration in both sex but not in retarded children with parents. No difference in cadmium levels between the group with Down's syndrome, one of causes of mental retardation and the control group suggested the cadmium as a possible cause of mental retardation. In the case of accompanying autism, zinc level was significantly lower than that of other accompanying disease. Although not establishing an etiologic relationship, findings of this study suggest that there are some influences of cadmium on mental retardation, and call for a continuing study.
Summary
Resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Against the Environmental Factors.
Sang Chual Kim, Doohie Kim, Soon Woo Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(1):183-194.
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This study was carried out to investigate for resistance of V. parahaemolyticus that isolated from patients of food poisoning and fish and shellfish, captured in east coast of Kyungpook province of Korea from 1985 to 1986. VP ATCC 17802 and NAG V. ATCC 6538 were used as control. In fish, shellfish and seaweed, the more temperature increased, the shorter survival time was. In case of sea-water, the more temperature rose up, the longer survival time was, particularly in 37 degrees C and 25 degrees C, the strains had survived after 6 months. And in tapwater, it was sterilized in 150 mins. and survived for 11.5 days on maximum in ground water. In kimchi, at room temperature, germicidal time was shorter more than 6 times compared with that which had been kept in refrigerator. It survived for 57.1 days in milk, 49.2 mins. in yougurt. Strains had been surviving in frozen condition at -70 degrees C even after 6 months, present study time. In resistance test in water bath at several degrees of temperature, all the strains were sterilized in 20 mins. with 60 degrees C. In resistance test to driness, number of surviving strains dropped rapidly in 10-11% water contents. In UV 2538A, strains were sterilized in 20 mins. In resistance test to alcohol, strains had survived for 0.1-4 mins. in fermentative wine of below than 25% and distilled wine of over than 25% in alcohol concentration. The bactericidal concentration of disinfectant was 1% in phenol and 3% in cresol. In 0.1M acetic acid and 0.1M lactic acid, number of surviving colonies decreased rapidly but not in citric acid. The more NaCl concentration rose up, the lower decreasing rate of number of surviving colonies was. The strains had showed sensitive response to vancomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and resisted to carbenicillin, ampicillin and kanamycin. When one day culture strain was cultured till 25th day, resistant strains to tetracycline and cephalothin were changed to sensitive.
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English Abstract
Estimation of Smoking Prevalence among Adolescents in a Community by Design-based Analysis.
Soon Woo Park, Jong Yeon Kim, Sang Won Lee, Jung Han Park, Yeon Oh Yun, Won Kee Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(4):317-324.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to estimate the unbiased smoking prevalence and its standard errors among adolescents in a large city in Korea, by designbased analysis. METHODS: All the students in Daegu city were stratified by grade, gender and region, and then schools as primary sampling units (PSU) were selected by probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling. One or two classes were sampled randomly from each grade, from 5th grade in elementary schools to the 3rd grade in high schools. The students anonymously completed a standardized selfadministered questionnaire from October to December 2004. The total number of respondents was 8,480 in the final analysis, excluding the third graders in the general high schools because of incomplete sampling. The sampling weight was calculated for each student after poststratification adjustment, with adjustment being made for the missing cases. The data were analyzed with Stata 8.0 with consideration of PSU, weighting and the strata variables. RESULTS: The smoking prevalence (%) and standard errors for male students from the fifth grade in elementary schools to the second grade in high schools were 0.93[0.47, 1.83[ 0.74, 3.16[1.00, 5.12[1.02, 10.86[1.13, 15.63[2.44 and 17.96[2.67, and those for the female students were 0.28[ 0.28, 1.17[0.73, 3.13[0.60, 1.45[0.58, 3.94[0.92, 8.75 [1.86 and 10.04[1.70, sequentially. CONCLUSIONS: The smoking prevalence from this study was much higher than those from the other conventional studies conducted in Korea. The point estimates and standard errors from the design-based analysis were different from those of the model-based analysis. These findings suggest the importance of design-based analysis to estimate unbiased prevalence and standard errors in complex survey data and this method is recommended to apply to future surveys for determining the smoking prevalence for specific population.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health