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Climate Change: Original Article
Association Between Air Conditioning Use and Self-reported Symptoms During the 2018 Heat Wave in Korea
Yong-Han Lee, Sanghyuk Bae, Seung-sik Hwang, Jong-Hun Kim, Kyoung-Nam Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Miji Kim, Sohwa Jung, Ho-Jang Kwon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2020;53(1):15-25.   Published online November 26, 2019
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  • 224 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
The purpose of this study was to investigate the health effects of air conditioning use during the 2018 heat wave in Korea, included the highest temperature ever recorded in the nation.
The participants in this study were 1000 adults aged 19 years and older recruited from across Korea. The participants were asked about their experience of symptoms of various diseases, disruptions of their daily lives, and use of air conditioning during the heat wave. The associations between air conditioning use during the heat wave and health outcomes were analyzed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models.
Among participants who lacked air conditioning in the main space where they spent time outside the home, 33.9%, 8.1%, 43.5%, and 19.4% experienced symptoms of heat-related, cardiovascular, nervous system diseases, and air-conditioningitis, respectively. In comparison, participants who did have air conditioning outside the home experienced the same symptoms at proportions of 21.0%, 1.9%, 26.8%, and 34.2%, respectively (p=0.027, 0.007, 0.007, and 0.023, respectively). Among participants who had no air conditioner at home, 10.0% were absent from school or work due to the heat wave. In contrast, among participants who had an air conditioner at home, only 3.7% were absent as a result of the heat wave (p=0.007).
When air conditioning was not used at home or in the main space where participants spent time outside the home during the 2018 heat wave, adverse health effects were more prevalent, but the risk of air-conditioningitis was reduced.
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국 기상관측사상 가장 더웠던 2018년 한국의 폭염 기간 동안, 에어컨 사용이 건강에 미치는 영향에 대해 조사하였다. 가정 외 주 생활공간에 에어컨이 가동되지 않거나 가정에 에어컨이 없으면 폭염 기간 동안의 건강 및 일상생활에 좋지 않은 영향을 줄 수 있으나, 냉방병 위험은 낮아질 수 있다.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Integration and Optimal Control of MicroCSP with Building HVAC Systems: Review and Future Directions
    Mohamed Toub, Chethan R. Reddy, Rush D. Robinett, Mahdi Shahbakhti
    Energies.2021; 14(3): 730.     CrossRef
  • Climate Change and Health: More Research Is Still Needed
    Ho-Jang Kwon
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2020; 53(1): 1.     CrossRef
Health Indicators Related to Disease, Death, and Reproduction
Jeoungbin Choi, Moran Ki, Ho Jang Kwon, Boyoung Park, Sanghyuk Bae, Chang-Mo Oh, Byung Chul Chun, Gyung-Jae Oh, Young Hoon Lee, Tae-Yong Lee, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi, Jung Han Park, Sue K. Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2019;52(1):14-20.   Published online January 23, 2019
  • 12,423 View
  • 223 Download
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
One of the primary goals of epidemiology is to quantify various aspects of a population’s health, illness, and death status and the determinants (or risk factors) thereof by calculating health indicators that measure the magnitudes of various conditions. There has been some confusion regarding health indicators, with discrepancies in usage among organizations such as the World Health Organization the, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the CDC of other countries, and the usage of the relevant terminology may vary across papers. Therefore, in this review, we would like to propose appropriate terminological definitions for health indicators based on the most commonly used meanings and/or the terms used by official agencies, in order to bring clarity to this area of confusion. We have used appropriate examples to make each health indicator easy for the reader to understand. We have included practical exercises for some health indicators to help readers understand the underlying concepts.
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 질병과 사망, 출생 관련 지표들의 개념과 종류를 설명하고, 특히 연구자들이 흔히 혼동하여 사용하는 지표들에 대한 적절한 정의를 제시하였다. 또한 지표들의 예시를 부록으로 수록하여 독자들이 지표의 개념을 보다 쉽게 습득하도록 돕고자 하였다.


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    Revista de Salud Pública.2022; 24(5): 1.     CrossRef
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  • Mortality and complications of scrub typhus in the paediatric population: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Kaushik Mukhopadhyay, Samir Chakrabarty, Chandan Chatterjee, Saheli Chatterjee Misra
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  • Relation between molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) occurrence and war pollutants in bombarded regions: Epidemiological pilot study in Lebanon
    R Elzein, E Chouery, F Abdel-Sater, R Bacho, F Ayoub
    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice.2021; 24(12): 1808.     CrossRef
  • Use of Population-Based Surveys for Estimating the Population Size of Persons Who Inject Drugs in the United States
    Heather Bradley, Elizabeth M Rosenthal, Meredith A Barranco, Tomoko Udo, Patrick S Sullivan, Eli S Rosenberg
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases.2020; 222(Supplement): S218.     CrossRef
  • Whence the next pandemic? The intersecting global geography of the animal-human interface, poor health systems and air transit centrality reveals conduits for high-impact spillover
    Michael G. Walsh, Shailendra Sawleshwarkar, Shah Hossain, Siobhan M. Mor
    One Health.2020; 11: 100177.     CrossRef
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    Elena Cyrus, Rachel Clarke, Dexter Hadley, Zoran Bursac, Mary Jo Trepka, Jessy G. Dévieux, Ulas Bagci, Debra Furr-Holden, Makella Coudray, Yandra Mariano, Sandra Kiplagat, Ines Noel, Gira Ravelo, Michelle Paley, Eric F. Wagner
    Health Equity.2020; 4(1): 476.     CrossRef
    Faruk YILMAZ, Selma SÖYÜK
    Sosyal Guvence.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Ju-Yeun Lee, Sung-il Cho
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2019; 16(18): 3333.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Mercury Exposure in Association With Decrease of Liver Function in Adults: A Longitudinal Study
Jonghyuk Choi, Sanghyuk Bae, Hyungryul Lim, Ji-Ae Lim, Yong-Han Lee, Mina Ha, Ho-Jang Kwon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2017;50(6):377-385.   Published online November 7, 2017
  • 24,216 View
  • 223 Download
  • 23 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Although mercury (Hg) exposure is known to be neurotoxic in humans, its effects on liver function have been less often reported. The aim of this study was to investigate whether total Hg exposure in Korean adults was associated with elevated serum levels of the liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT).
We repeatedly examined the levels of total Hg and liver enzymes in the blood of 508 adults during 2010-2011 and 2014-2015. Cross-sectional associations between levels of blood Hg and liver enzymes were analyzed using a generalized linear model, and nonlinear relationships were analyzed using a generalized additive mixed model. Generalized estimating equations were applied to examine longitudinal associations, considering the correlations of individuals measured repeatedly.
GGT increased by 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.5 to 18.0%) in women and 8.1% (95% CI, -0.5 to 17.4%) in men per doubling of Hg levels, but AST and ALT were not significantly associated with Hg in either men or women. In women who drank more than 2 or 3 times per week, AST, ALT, and GGT levels increased by 10.6% (95% CI, 4.2 to 17.5%), 7.7% (95% CI, 1.1 to 14.7%), and 37.5% (95% CI,15.2 to 64.3%) per doubling of Hg levels, respectively, showing an interaction between blood Hg levels and drinking.
Hg exposure was associated with an elevated serum concentration of GGT. Especially in women who were frequent drinkers, AST, ALT, and GGT showed a significant increase, with a significant synergistic effect of Hg and alcohol consumption.


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PM10 Exposure and Non-accidental Mortality in Asian Populations: A Meta-analysis of Time-series and Case-crossover Studies
Hye Yin Park, Sanghyuk Bae, Yun-Chul Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2013;46(1):10-18.   Published online January 31, 2013
  • 9,937 View
  • 125 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF

We investigated the association between particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) exposure and non-accidental mortality in Asian populations by meta-analysis, using both time-series and case-crossover analysis.


Among the 819 published studies searched from PubMed and EMBASE using key words related to PM10 exposure and non-accidental mortality in Asian countries, 8 time-series and 4 case-crossover studies were selected for meta-analysis after exclusion by selection criteria. We obtained the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of non-accidental mortality per 10 µg/m3 increase of daily PM10 from each study. We used Q statistics to test the heterogeneity of the results among the different studies and evaluated for publication bias using Begg funnel plot and Egger test.


Testing for heterogeneity showed significance (p<0.001); thus, we applied a random-effects model. RR (95% CI) per 10 µg/m3 increase of daily PM10 for both the time-series and case-crossover studies combined, time-series studies relative risk only, and case-crossover studies only, were 1.0047 (1.0033 to 1.0062), 1.0057 (1.0029 to 1.0086), and 1.0027 (1.0010 to 1.0043), respectively. The non-significant Egger test suggested that this analysis was not likely to have a publication bias.


We found a significant positive association between PM10 exposure and non-accidental mortality among Asian populations. Continued investigations are encouraged to contribute to the health impact assessment and public health management of air pollution in Asian countries.



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Reliability of Covariates in Baseline Survey of a Cohort Study: Epidemiological Investigation on Cancer Risk Among Residents Who Reside Near the Nuclear Power Plants in Korea.
Sanghyuk Bae, Bo Young Park, Zhong Min Li, Yoon Ok Ahn
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):159-165.
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  • 53 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
We evaluated the reliability of the possible covariates of the baseline survey data collected for the Epidemiological Investigation on Cancer Risk Among Residents Who Reside Near the Nuclear Power Plants in Korea. METHODS: Follow-up surveys were conducted for 477 participants of the cohort at less than 1 year after the initial survey. The mean interval between the initial and follow-up surveys was 282.5 days. Possible covariates were identified by analyzing the correlations with the exposure variable and associations with the outcome variables for all the variables. Logistic regression analysis with stepwise selection was further conducted among the possible covariates to select variables that have covariance with other variables. We considered that these variables can be representing other variables. Seven variables for the males and 3 variables for the females, which had covariance with other possible covariates, were selected as representative variables. The Kappa index of each variable was calculated. RESULTS: For the males, the Kappa indexes were as follow; family history of cancer was 0.64, family history of liver diseases in parents and siblings was 0.56, family history of hypertension in parents and siblings was 0.51, family history of liver diseases was 0.50, family history of hypertension was 0.44, a history of chronic liver diseases was 0.53 and history of pulmonary tuberculosis was 0.36. For females, the Kappa indexes were as follow; family history of cancer was 0.58, family history of hypertension in parents and siblings was 0.56 and family history of hypertension was 0.47. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the possible covariates showed good to moderate agreement.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Cancer Risk in Adult Residents near Nuclear Power Plants in Korea - A Cohort Study of 1992-2010
    Yoon-Ok Ahn, Zhong Min Li
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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health