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Special Article
Cohort Study Protocol: A Cohort of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Offspring
Seong-geun Moon, Ansun Jeong, Yunji Han, Jin-Wu Nam, Mi Kyung Kim, Inah Kim, Yu-Mi Kim, Boyoung Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(1):1-11.   Published online January 31, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.469
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
In 1945, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Approximately 70 000 Koreans are estimated to have been exposed to radiation from atomic bombs at that time. After Korea’s Liberation Day, approximately 23 000 of these people returned to Korea. To investigate the long-term health and hereditary effects of atomic bomb exposure on the offspring, cohort studies have been conducted on atomic bomb survivors in Japan. This study is an ongoing cohort study to determine the health status of Korean atomic bomb survivors and investigate whether any health effects were inherited by their offspring. Atomic bomb survivors are defined by the Special Act On the Support for Korean Atomic Bomb Victims, and their offspring are identified by participating atomic bomb survivors. As of 2024, we plan to recruit 1500 atomic bomb survivors and their offspring, including 200 trios with more than 300 people. Questionnaires regarding socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, past medical history, laboratory tests, and pedigree information comprise the data collected to minimize survival bias. For the 200 trios, whole-genome analysis is planned to identify de novo mutations in atomic bomb survivors and to compare the prevalence of de novo mutations with trios in the general population. Active follow-up based on telephone surveys and passive follow-up with linkage to the Korean Red Cross, National Health Insurance Service, death registry, and Korea Central Cancer Registry data are ongoing. By combining pedigree information with the findings of trio-based whole-genome analysis, the results will elucidate the hereditary health effects of atomic bomb exposure.
Summary
Korean summary
해당 연구는 한국인 원폭피해 생존자 및 그 후손에서 피폭이 건강에 미치는 영향과 그것의 유전적 영향 유무를 밝히고자 계획된 연구이다. 이 연구는 연구대상자들에 대한 건강 설문 조사, 신체계측, 가계도 조사, 유전체 조사 뿐 아니라 2차 자료 연계를 통해 폭넓고 정확한 건강 정보를 수집하고 있다. 이 연구를 통해 연구대상자들의 건강 상태 파악 및 개선에 도움이 되고자 한다.

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  • Intergenerational effects of ionizing radiation: review of recent studies from human data (2018–2021)
    A. Amrenova, C. Baudin, E. Ostroumova, J. Stephens, R. Anderson, D. Laurier
    International Journal of Radiation Biology.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Effect of Uric Acid on the Development of Chronic Kidney Disease: The Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study
Kwang Ho Mun, Gyeong Im Yu, Bo Youl Choi, Mi Kyung Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Dong Hoon Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2018;51(5):248-256.   Published online September 7, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.112
  • 6,398 View
  • 173 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Several studies have investigated the effects of serum uric acid (SUA) levels on chronic kidney disease (CKD), with discrepant results. The effect of SUA levels on CKD development was studied in the Korean rural population.
Methods
A total of 9695 participants aged ≥40 years were recruited from 3 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2009. Of those participants, 5577 who participated in the follow-up and did not have cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, cancer, or CKD at baseline were studied. The participants, of whom 2133 were men and 3444 were women, were grouped into 5 categories according to their quintile of SUA levels. An estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at the time of follow-up was considered to indicate newly developed CKD. The effects of SUA levels on CKD development after adjusting for potential confounders were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models.
Results
Among the 5577 participants, 9.4 and 11.0% of men and women developed CKD. The hazard ratio (HR) of CKD was higher in the highest quintile of SUA levels than in the third quintile in men (adjusted HR, 1.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 2.51) and women (adjusted HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.14 to 2.15). Furthermore, CKD development was also more common in the lowest quintile of SUA levels than in the third quintile in men (adjusted HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.90). The effect of SUA was consistent in younger, obese, and hypertensive men.
Conclusions
Both high and low SUA levels were risk factors for CKD development in rural Korean men, while only high levels were a risk factor in their women counterparts.
Summary

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  • Serum Uric Acid Levels and Nephrosclerosis in a Population-Based Autopsy Study: The Hisayama Study
    Kenji Maki, Jun Hata, Satoko Sakata, Emi Oishi, Yoshihiko Furuta, Toshiaki Nakano, Yoshinao Oda, Takanari Kitazono, Toshiharu Ninomiya
    American Journal of Nephrology.2022; 53(1): 69.     CrossRef
  • Clinical features suggesting renal hypouricemia as the cause of acute kidney injury: a case report and review of the literature
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    Journal of Nephrology.2022; 36(3): 651.     CrossRef
  • U-shaped relationship between serum uric acid level and decline in renal function during a 10-year period in female subjects: BOREAS-CKD2
    Kazuma Mori, Masato Furuhashi, Marenao Tanaka, Keita Numata, Takashi Hisasue, Nagisa Hanawa, Masayuki Koyama, Arata Osanami, Yukimura Higashiura, Masafumi Inyaku, Megumi Matsumoto, Norihito Moniwa, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Tetsuji Miura
    Hypertension Research.2021; 44(1): 107.     CrossRef
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    Po-Ya Chang, Yu-Wei Chang, Yuh-Feng Lin, Hueng-Chuen Fan
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2021; 11(5): 415.     CrossRef
  • Detailed association between serum uric acid levels and the incidence of chronic kidney disease stratified by sex in middle-aged adults
    Shingo Nakayama, Michihiro Satoh, Yukako Tatsumi, Takahisa Murakami, Tomoko Muroya, Takuo Hirose, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Takefumi Mori, Atsushi Hozawa, Hirohito Metoki
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  • Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and ESRD or Death in a Korean Population
    Kipyo Kim, Suryeong Go, Hyung Eun Son, Ji Young Ryu, Hajeong Lee, Nam Ju Heo, Ho Jun Chin, Jung Hwan Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Renal effects of uric acid: hyperuricemia and hypouricemia
    Jung Hwan Park, Yong-Il Jo, Jong-Ho Lee
    The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine.2020; 35(6): 1291.     CrossRef
  • Hyperuricemia Predicts Residual Diuresis Decline in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients
    Natalia Stapanova, Lyudmyla Snisar, Larysa Lebid
    Electronic Journal of General Medicine.2020; 18(1): em270.     CrossRef
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    Ji-Yong Ge, Yuan Ji, Zhen-Yan Zhu, Xun Li
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  • Threshold Effects of Serum Uric Acid on Chronic Kidney Disease in US Women without Hypertension and Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study
    Guiping Hu, Yi Bai, Tian Chen, Shichuan Tang, Lihua Hu
    Kidney and Blood Pressure Research.2019; 44(5): 1036.     CrossRef
C-reactive Protein Concentration Is Associated With a Higher Risk of Mortality in a Rural Korean Population
Jung Hyun Lee, Hyungseon Yeom, Hyeon Chang Kim, Il Suh, Mi Kyung Kim, Min-Ho Shin, Dong Hoon Shin, Sang-Baek Koh, Song Vogue Ahn, Tae-Yong Lee, So Yeon Ryu, Jae-Sok Song, Hong-Soon Choe, Young-Hoon Lee, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(5):275-287.   Published online August 23, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.025
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  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, has been widely used as a preclinical marker predictive of morbidity and mortality. Although many studies have reported a positive association between CRP and mortality, uncertainty still remains about this association in various populations, especially in rural Korea.
Methods
A total of 23 233 middle-aged participants (8862 men and 14 371 women) who were free from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and acute inflammation (defined by a CRP level ≥10 mg/L) were drawn from 11 rural communities in Korea between 2005 and 2011. Blood CRP concentration was analyzed as a categorical variable (low: 0.0-0.9 mg/L; intermediate: 1.0-3.0 mg/L; high: 3.1-9.9 mg/L) as well as a continuous variable. Each participant’s vital status through December 2013 was confirmed by death statistics from the National Statistical Office. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the independent association between CRP and mortality after adjusting for other risk factors.
Results
The total quantity of observed person-years was 57 975 for men and 95 146 for women, and the number of deaths was 649 among men and 367 among women. Compared to the low-CRP group, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality of the intermediate group was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.40) for men and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.01 to 1.61) for women, and the corresponding values for the high-CRP group were 1.98 (95% CI, 1.61 to 2.42) for men and 1.41 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.95) for women. Similar trends were found for CRP evaluated as a continuous variable and for cardiovascular mortality.
Conclusions
Higher CRP concentrations were associated with higher mortality in a rural Korean population, and this association was more prominent in men than in women.
Summary

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  • Binary cutpoint and the combined effect of systolic and diastolic blood pressure on cardiovascular disease mortality: A community-based cohort study
    Ju-Yeun Lee, Ji Hoon Hong, Sangjun Lee, Seokyung An, Aesun Shin, Sue K. Park, Tariq Jamal Siddiqi
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(6): e0270510.     CrossRef
  • Association of serum high-sensitivity C reactive protein with risk of mortality in an Asian population: the Health Examinees cohort
    Sang-Ah Lee, Sung Ok Kwon, Hyerim Park, Xiao-Ou Shu, Jong-Koo Lee, Daehee Kang
    BMJ Open.2022; 12(7): e052630.     CrossRef
  • Associations of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen with mortality from all-causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer among U.S. adults
    Junxiu Liu, Yanan Zhang, Carl J. Lavie, Fred K. Tabung, Jiting Xu, Qingwei Hu, Lixia He, Yunxiang Zhang
    Preventive Medicine.2020; 139: 106044.     CrossRef
  • Sex differences in the association between self-rated health and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in Koreans: a cross-sectional study using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Se-Won Park, Seong-Sik Park, Eun-Jung Kim, Won-Suk Sung, In-Hyuk Ha, Boyoung Jung
    Health and Quality of Life Outcomes.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans
Hye Sook Min, Ji Yeon Kang, Joohon Sung, Mi Kyung Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2016;49(3):153-164.   Published online May 17, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.16.014
  • 9,030 View
  • 160 Download
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Objectives
Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters.
Methods
This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships.
Results
Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall.
Conclusions
Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI.
Summary

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English Abstracts
Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension and Related Factors in the Jurisdictional Areas of Primary Health Care Posts in a Rural Community of Korea.
Hyung Min Lee, Yu Mi Kim, Cheol Heon Lee, Jin Ho Shin, Mi Kyung Kim, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(2):74-83.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.2.74
  • 5,461 View
  • 98 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to identify and assess the factors related to the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension based on jurisdictional areas of primary health care posts in a rural community of Korea. METHODS: This study was performed on 4598 adults aged over 30 years in a rural community and we measured their blood pressure (BP) from October. 2007 to August. 2009. Hypertension is defined as a condition characterized by a systolic BP > or =140 mmHg, a diastolic BP > or =90 mmHg or reported treatment with antihypertensive medications. We analyzed the factors related with the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension using chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 34.7%. The age-adjusted rates of hypertension awareness, treatment and control were 50.6%, 93.9% and 64.1%, respectively. Awareness of hypertension was related with increasing age. Higher awareness was found among men who were felt more stress, were obese and had hypercholesterolemia, and among women who were regulary taking medicine for hypertension, were obese and had diabetes mellitus. In women, the hypertension treatment was related a Medical aid and education for hypertension management. Controlled hypertension was more common among men who were educated about the management of hypertension and among women who had hypercholesterolemia. CONCLUSIONS: The awareness of hypertension was low and the control of hypertension was high compared with the nationwide data (KNHANES 2005). The results suggest that understanding the characteristics of hypertension in a community is important to perform a community based hypertension control program.
Summary

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    Z Hashim, E Fukusaki
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The Relationship between Physical Activity and Clustering of Metabolic Abnormalities in Children.
Hyun Jin Son, Mi Kyung Kim, Hyun Ja Kim, Ho Kim, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):427-433.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.6.427
  • 3,761 View
  • 46 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was performed to assess the association between physical activity and the clustering of metabolic abnormalities among Korean children. The effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for the time spent in inactivity was examined as well. METHODS: The study subjects were comprised of 692 (354 boys, 338 girls) 4th grade elementary school students. We used a modified form of the physical activity questionnaire that was developed in the Five-City Project. The subjects with clustering of metabolic abnormalities were defined as having two or more of the following five characteristics: waist circumference > or =90 %, systolic or diastolic blood pressure > or =90 %, fasting glucose > or =110 mg/dl, triglycerides > or =110 mg/dl and HDL cholesterol < or =40 mg/dl. We calculated the odds ratios to assess the effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for time spent in inactivity. RESULTS: The risk of clustered metabolic abnormalities was inversely correlated with the increased time spent on moderate to vigorous physical activity, but the correlation was not significant. The odds ratio for clustering of metabolic abnormalities that represented the effect of substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for 30minutes of sedentary activity was 0.87 (95% CI=0.76-1.01). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that substituting moderate to vigorous physical activity for sedentary activity could decrease the risk of clustered metabolic abnormalities.
Summary

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The Concept and Measurement of Food Security.
Kirang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Young Jeon Shin
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(6):387-396.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.6.387
  • 5,815 View
  • 207 Download
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
During the past two decades, food deprivation and hunger have been recognized to be not just the concerns of only underdeveloped or developing countries, but as problems for many affluent Western nations as well. Many countries have made numerous efforts to define and measure the extent of these problems. Based on these efforts, the theory and practice of food security studies has significantly evolved during the last decades. Thus, this study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the concept and measurement of food security. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this review, we introduce the definition and background of food security, we describe the impact of food insecurity on nutrition and health, we provide its measurements and operational instruments and we discuss its applications and implications. Some practical information for the use of the food security index in South Korea is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: Food security is an essential element in achieving a good nutritional and health status and it has an influence to reduce poverty. The information about the current understanding of food security can help scientists, policy makers and program practitioners conduct research and maintain outreach programs that address the issues of poverty and the promotion of food security.
Summary

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    Kowoon Lee, Hye-Sook Yoo
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    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2014; 19(5): 459.     CrossRef
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Original Articles
A Case-control Study of the Relationships between Reproductive Factors and Degree of Dysplasia of the Colorectal Adenoma and Cancer.
Se Young Lee, Won Chul Lee, Kyu Yong Choi, Mi Kyung Kim, Jin Hee Lee, Kwang Ho Meng
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(3):279-288.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Evidence for an effect of reproductive factors on colorectal carcinogenesis is not yet consistent. Little research has been conducted to investigate whether reproductive factors were associated with colorectal adenomas that are the precursors of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the relationships between reproductive factors and the degree of dysplasia of the colorectal adenoma and cancer as colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence. METHODS: For this study, 241 adenoma cases with histo-pathologically confirmed incident colorectal adenoma, 76 cancer cases with colorectal cancer and 1677 controls were collected from Our Lady of Mercy Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, during 1994-1999. Before colonoscopy, information on demographic characteristics, reproductive factors, life style habits and dietary intake were obtained by interviewed questionnaire. Adjusted OR and 95% CI were estimated by using polytomous logistic regression model. Potential confounders that were selected based on the goodness of fit statistics and interaction between risk factors were considered in this adjustment. The Wald statistic was calculated to test the heterogeneity of the odds ratios for each case. RESULTS: Postmenopausal women with natural menopause were found to be positively associated with the risk of mild dysplasia adenoma (multivariate-adjusted OR : 2.59, 95% CI=1.1-6.2). Parity was found to be negatively associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (age-adjusted OR : 0.40, 95% CI=0.2-0.9), but did not significantly decrease the risk of colorectal cancer (multivariate-adjusted OR : 0.95, 95% CI=0.3-2.9). No associations were seen between age at menarche, breast feeding, induced abortion, oral contraceptive use, menopausal types, menopausal age or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and the degree of dysplasia of the colorectal adenoma and cancer. However, none of these associations differed significantly between the degree of dysplasia of the colorectal adenoma and cancer. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that postmenopausal women with natural menopause may experience increased risk of mild dysplasia adenoma among colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence.
Summary
Lipid Profiles and Related Factors in Adolescent.
Moran Ki, Boyoul Choi, Mi Kyung Kim, Ki Rang Kim, Jin Nu Fang, Yun Ju Kang
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):83-90.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To assess the prevalence rate of dyslipidemia and the level of related factors in adolescents groups in Seoul and Yangpyong area. METHODS: Design; School based survey during May-Jun 1996 in Seoul and Yangpyong county. Subject; 2,453 boys and girls, aged 13 to 19 years; 1,137 Seoul and 1,316 Yangpyong county. Main Outcome Measures; Prevalence rates of raised serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, decreased HDL-cholesterol, obesity, and levels of energy intake and expenditure RESULTS: Energy intake and fat intake of boys were higher than those of girls and they were higher in Seoul. Energy expenditure per day of boys was bigger than that of girls too. Prevalence rate of obesity was higher in boys of Seoul(15.2%) and girls in Yangpyong county(14.0%). Serum lipid profiles(total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol) were higher among girls and all prevalence rates of dyslipidemia were higher in boys in Seoul and in girls in Yangpyong county. Especially, girls(29.1%) in Yangpyong had raised serum cholesterol level(> or =170 mg/dl). In contrast, boys in Seoul had higher level of decreased HDL-cholesterol(46.8%) compared to Yangpyong(23.6%). The relationships between serum lipid profiles and relative weights and sex are highly significant. And the relationship between triglycerides and energy intake is significant(p=0.038). But, the associations between serum lipid profiles and energy expenditure had borderline significances. CONCLUSIONS: Hypercholesterolemia rates in girls were higher. Obesity prevalence rate was highest in boys of Seoul. Relative weight and sex are significantly related to lipid profiles. Therefore, Korea is in need of preventive strategies for different obesity and gender groups.
Summary
English Abstract
The Resting Electrocardiographic ST Segment Depression and Related Factors at a Rural Adult Community, Korea.
Yu Mi Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, Jin Ho Shin, Heon Kil Lim, Do Myung Paek, Bo Youl Choi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2006;39(6):485-492.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To measure the distribution of electrocardiographic ST segment depression, and evaluate its relationships with cardiovascular risk factors based on the cross-sectional studies within a rural Korean community. METHODS: This study analyzed 1,343 persons, over 40 years old, who participated in a baseline survey during 2002~2005; the exclusion criteria included: a past history of myocardial infarction and angina pectoris, and specific conduction abnormalities. A Standard 12 leads ECG was recorded using an FCP-2101 (Fukuda Denshi Co.). The ST segment depression was retrospectively measured by a physician, according to the Minnesota code classification. RESULTS: ST segment depression was found in 3.6 and 6.4% of male and female participants, respectively. After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, physical activity and obesity differences, high blood pressure showed significant relations with ST depression in females (male ORs=2.67, 95% CI=0.85-8.50; female ORs=2.62, 95% CI=1.29-5.32) CONCLUSIONS: As an ischemic ECG sign, ST depression was related to hypertension in female participants. This relationship remained significant, even after cases with left ventricular hypertrophy were removed.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health