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Volume 56(5); September 2023
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Original Articles
Non-vaccination Against COVID-19 Among Venezuelan Refugees and Migrants Adults in Peru: A Cross-sectional Study, 2022
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):397-406.   Published online August 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.078
  • 2,334 View
  • 166 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to determine factors associated with non-vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among the Venezuelan immigrant population residing in Peru.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted using data obtained from the Second Survey of the Venezuelan Population Residing in Peru in 2022. The dependent variable was vaccination status against COVID-19. The independent variables included socio-demographic, economic, and migratory characteristics of the included population. Crude and adjusted generalized linear Poisson-family models were used to calculate prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
Results
A total of 7739 Venezuelan migrants aged 18 years or older were included. The proportion of non-vaccination against COVID-19 was 5.7%. Regarding associated factors, unemployment (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.31; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.65) was linked to an increased likelihood of not being vaccinated against COVID-19. In contrast, women (aPR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.95), possessing a migration permit (aPR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.54), and having health insurance (aPR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.81) were associated with a decreased likelihood of being unvaccinated.
Conclusions
The primary governmental and non-governmental institutions responsible for supporting and protecting the Venezuelan migrant and refugee population should improve vaccination access by issuing migration permits and providing health insurance.
Summary
Key Message
• Vaccination against COVID-19 is a strategy that should be provided equitably to the entire population. However, there are vulnerable groups such as Venezuelan migrants who have structural, cultural and socioeconomic barriers that limit access to this prevention system. • In Peru, about 6% of Venezuelan migrants have not received the complete vaccination schedule against COVID-19 due to the lack of employment in this population. In fact, the majority (61.9%) of Venezuelan migrants have only received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine by February 2022.
Reliability of a Newly Developed Tool to Assess and Classify Work-related Stress (TAWS-16) for Indian Workforce
Gautham Melur Sukumar, Runalika Roy, Mariamma Philip, Gururaj Gopalkrishna
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):407-412.   Published online August 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.219
  • 1,374 View
  • 90 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Work stress is associated with non-communicable diseases, increased healthcare costs, and decreased work productivity among employees in the information technology sector. There is a need for regular work-stress screening among employees using valid and reliable tools. The Tool to Assess and Classify Work Stress (TAWS-16) was developed to overcome limitations in existing stress assessment tools in India. This study aimed to test the reliability of TAWS-16 in a sample of managerial-supervisory employees.
Methods
This observational reliability study included data from 62 employees. Test-retest and inter-method reliability were investigated using a TAWS-16 web application and interview by telephone, respectively. Kappa values and intra-class correlation coefficients were calculated. Internal consistency was assessed through Cronbach’s alpha.
Results
For both test-retest and inter-method reliability, the agreement for both work-related factors and symptoms suggestive of work stress exceeded 80%, and all kappa values were 0.40 or higher. Cronbach’s alpha for test-retest and inter-method reliability was 0.983 and 0.941, respectively.
Conclusions
TAWS-16 demonstrated acceptable reliability. It measured stressors, coping abilities, and psychosomatic symptoms associated with work stress. We recommend using TAWS-16 to holistically identify work stress among employees during periodical health check-ups in India.
Summary
Key Message
The study assessed test-retest and inter-method reliability of Tool to Assess Work Stress (TAWS – 16) developed by Centre for Public Health, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS) on 62 employees in Bengaluru, India. Kappa statistics, Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cronbach’s alpha were calculated. TAWS – 16 demonstrated acceptable reliability, good internal consistency and can be used to identify work stress among employees during periodical health check-ups in Indian setting.
Gender Inequalities in Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Population-based Study in Korea
Minku Kang, Sarah Yu, Seung-Ah Choe, Daseul Moon, Myung Ki, Byung Chul Chun
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):413-421.   Published online August 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.170
  • 1,631 View
  • 106 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study explored the effect of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on psychosocial stress in prime working-age individuals in Korea, focusing on gender inequalities. We hypothesized that the impact of COVID-19 on mental health would differ by age and gender, with younger women potentially demonstrating heightened vulnerability relative to men.
Methods
The study involved data from the Korea Community Health Survey and included 319 592 adults aged 30 years to 49 years. We employed log-binomial regression analysis, controlling for variables including age, education, employment status, marital status, and the presence of children. The study period included 3 phases: the period prior to the COVID-19 outbreak (pre–COVID-19), the early pandemic, and the period following the introduction of vaccinations (post-vaccination).
Results
The findings indicated that women were at a heightened risk of psychosocial stress during the early pandemic (relative risk [RR], 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98 to 1.05) and post-vaccination period (RR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.10) compared to men. This pattern was prominent in urban women aged 30-34 years (pre–COVID-19: RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.10; early pandemic: RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.25; post-vaccination period, RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.31).
Conclusions
The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted unequal impacts on psychosocial stress among prime working-age individuals in Korea, with women, particularly those in urban areas, experiencing a heightened risk. The findings highlight the importance of addressing gender-specific needs and implementing appropriate interventions to mitigate the psychosocial consequences of the pandemic.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 대유행이 국내 경제활동인구의 정신건강에 미친 젠더화된 영향을 조사하였다. 연구대상자는 2017-2021년 지역사회건강조사 조사대상자 319,592명이다. 연구 결과, 대유행 이후 30-39세 연령대 여성의 스트레스 수준이 남성에 비하여 현저히 증가한 것으로 나타났으며, 사회적 거리두기를 엄격하게 시행하였던 도시 지역에서 이러한 경향이 두드러졌다. 이번 연구 결과는 대유행 대응 노력에서 취약 집단을 지원하기 위한 중재 정책의 필요성을 강조한다
Key Message
We investigate the gendered impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of the working-age population in Korea, focusing on ages 30-49, utilizing data from the Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS) from 2017 to 2021 including 319,592 participants. Findings reveal a notable increase in stress levels among women in the 30-39 age group after the pandemic compared to men, accentuating in urban areas with stringent social distancing measures. Our results underscore the necessity for intervention policies to support vulnerable groups in pandemic response efforts.
Correlations Among Maternal and Infant Factors, Lead Exposure, and Serum Prolactin Levels During Lactation: A Cross-sectional Study in Indonesia
Linda Ratna Wati, Djanggan Sargowo, Tatit Nurseta, Lilik Zuhriyah, Bambang Rahardjo
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):422-430.   Published online August 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.238
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Prolactin is vital for breastfeeding and milk production, and its secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment. To date, no study has concurrently investigated the correlation of these factors with serum prolactin levels during lactation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation.
Methods
A cross-sectional approach was employed in Surabaya, Indonesia, among 110 exclusively lactating mothers. The mothers’ daily diets were determined using multiple 24-hour recalls, while blood lead levels were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum prolactin levels were assessed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. For bivariate analysis, we employed the Spearman correlation, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, while for multivariate analysis, we utilized multiple linear regression.
Results
The average serum prolactin level of the lactating mothers was 129.19±88.96 ng/mL. Positive correlations were found between serum prolactin levels and breastfeeding frequency (p < 0.001), protein intake (p < 0.001), and calcium intake (p = 0.011) but had negative correlation with blood lead levels (p < 0.001) and vitamin B6 intake (p = 0.003). Additionally, prolactin levels were not significantly associated with maternal age; parity; intake of calories, vitamin D, vitamin E, zinc, folic acid, magnesium, or iron; infant age; or infant sex.
Conclusions
Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.
Summary
Key Message
Prolactin secretion is influenced by factors related to the mother, infant, and environment, and this study was to investigate the correlations among maternal and infant factors, lead exposure, and serum prolactin levels during lactation. In total 110 exclusively lactating mothers were included, with information on their socio-demographic, daily diet, blood lead level, prolactin level, and infant characteristics. Breastfeeding frequency had a stronger positive relationship with serum prolactin levels than protein and calcium intake. However, lead exposure was associated with reduced serum prolactin levels during lactation. Consequently, specific interventions from policymakers are necessary to manage breastfeeding in mothers exposed to lead.
Clinical Features and Risk Factors of Post-COVID-19 Condition in Korea
Myungwon Jang, Dongkwon Choi, Jonghyuk Choi, Ho-Jang Kwon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):431-439.   Published online September 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.124
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
Numerous studies have explored the causes and spread of outbreaks, yet there is a lack of research on post-coronavirus disease 2019 condition (PCC) in Korea. The goal of this study was to identify the various types of PCC and associated factors in discharged patients and to provide directions for the ongoing health management of confirmed patients.
Methods
A telephone survey was conducted among 680 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients diagnosed between July 7, 2021 and August 26, 2021, in Dangjin, Chungnam, Korea. A descriptive analysis of characteristics, univariate analysis, and regression were performed using data from basic epidemiological surveys conducted at the time of diagnosis and post-discharge questionnaires.
Results
Of the 585 patients who responded, 159 (27.2%) developed PCC. Of the 211 patients with no initial symptoms, 27 (12.8%) developed PCC, versus 132 (35.3%) of the 374 patients with initial symptoms. Among the initial symptoms, fever or chills, cough or sputum, loss of smell, and sore throat were associated with PCC. Compared to patients with less than 10 days of hospitalization, those with a hospitalization period of 21 days to 30 days (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 5.2) and 31 days or more (OR, 5.8; 95% CI, 1.9 to 18.1) had a higher risk of PCC.
Conclusions
More than a quarter of COVID-19 patients, including those who had no initial symptoms, experienced PCC in Korea. People with the initial symptoms of fever, chills, and respiratory symptoms and those who had prolonged hospital stays had a high risk of PCC.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 후유증은 진단 시 초기증상과 연관되며, 입원기간이 길어질수록 후유증 발병 위험이 높았다. 코로나19 후유증의 위험인자에 대한 추가적인 연구가 필요하며, 이러한 특징을 갖는 확진환자를 대상으로 퇴원 후 지속직인 환자관리가 필요하다.
Key Message
Post-coronavirus disease 2019 condition (PCC) are associated with initial symptoms at diagnosis, and the risk of this increases with longer hospital stays. Further research on the risk factors for PCC is needed, and continued patient care is necessary for confirmed patients with these characteristics after discharge.
Health-related Quality of Life in Elderly Asian American and Non-Hispanic White Cancer Survivors
Suzanne Vang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):440-448.   Published online September 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.22.464
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to assess predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elderly Asian American and non-Hispanic White cancer survivors.
Methods
We conducted cross-sectional secondary data analyses using the combined datasets from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey.
Results
Elderly Asian American cancer survivors reported a lower mental HRQoL but a comparable physical HRQoL relative to elderly non-Hispanic White cancer survivors. Stress factors, such as comorbidities, difficulties with activities of daily living, and a history of depressive symptoms, along with coping resources like self-rated health and the ability to take the survey in English, were significantly associated with mental and physical HRQoL. Among elderly Asian American cancer survivors, a significantly lower mental HRQoL was observed among those taking the survey in the Chinese language.
Conclusions
The findings suggest that race exerts a differential impact on HRQoL. Interventions should be designed to address the distinct cultural, linguistic, and systemic needs of elderly Asian American cancer survivors. Such an approach could assist in reducing cancer-related health disparities.
Summary
Key Message
Secondary data analyses of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program and the Medicare Health Outcomes Survey combined datasets reveal that elderly Asian American cancer survivors had poorer mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) compared to their non-Hispanic White counterparts. Elderly Asian American cancer survivors who did not complete the survey in English had significantly worse mental HRQoL than their Asian American counterparts who did. These findings point to the need for increased research to identify and address the distinct cultural, linguistic, and system-related needs of elderly Asian American cancer survivors in order to optimize HRQoL in this population.
The Association Between PM2.5 Exposure and Diabetes Mellitus Among Thai Army Personnel
Apisorn Laorattapong, Sarun Poobunjirdkul, Thanapoom Thanapoom, Wiroj Jiamjarasrangsi
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):449-457.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.292
  • 1,557 View
  • 111 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
This study investigated the association between baseline exposures to particulate matter with a diameter < 2.5 microns (PM2.5) and subsequent temporal changes in PM2.5 exposure with the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Royal Thai Army personnel.
Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using nationwide health check-up data from 21 325 Thai Army personnel between 2018 and 2021. Multilevel mixed-effects parametric survival statistics were utilized to analyze the relationship between baseline (i.e., PM2.5-baseline) and subsequent changes (i.e., PM2.5-change) in PM2.5 exposure and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were employed to assess this association while considering covariates.
Results
There was a significant association between both PM2.5 baseline and PM2.5-change and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a dose-response manner. Compared to quartile 1, the HRs for quartiles 2 to 4 of PM2.5-baseline were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.65), 1.51 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.28), and 1.77 (95% CI, 1.07 to 2.93), respectively. Similarly, the HRs for quartiles 2 to 4 of PM2.5-change were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.14 to 1.75), 1.43 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.81) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.84 to 3.14), respectively.
Conclusions
Our findings contribute to existing evidence regarding the association between short-term and long-term exposure to PM2.5 and the incidence of diabetes among personnel in the Royal Thai Army.
Summary
Key Message
We simultaneously investigated the impact of the baseline and temporal variations in the exposure to particulate matter (PM) with a diameter <2.5 microns (PM2.5) on type 2 diabetes risk among the Royal Thai Army personnel. We found stronger evidence on the impact of the temporal variation in PM2.5 exposure on the disease risk than that of the baseline variation. This finding may reflect the shorter time frame between the increased PM2.5 exposure and changes in fasting plasma glucose level.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Influence of Air Pollution Exposures on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: a Review
    Li-Hao Guo, Mohammed Zeeshan, Guo-Feng Huang, Duo-Hong Chen, Min Xie, Jun Liu, Guang-Hui Dong
    Current Environmental Health Reports.2023; 10(4): 501.     CrossRef
Sleep Duration, Comorbidities, and Mortality in Korean Health Examinees: A Prospective Cohort Study
Sukhong Min, Woo-Kyoung Shin, Katherine De la Torre, Dan Huang, Hyung-Suk Yoon, Aesun Shin, Ji-Yeob Choi, Daehee Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):458-466.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.311
  • 1,357 View
  • 83 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Objectives
The association between long sleep duration and mortality is frequently attributed to the confounding influence of comorbidities. Nevertheless, past efforts to account for comorbidities have yielded inconsistent outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate this relationship using a large prospective cohort in Korea.
Methods
The study included 114 205 participants from the Health Examinees Study, who were followed for a median of 9.1 years. A composite comorbidity score was developed to summarize the effects of 21 diseases. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause, cancer, and cardiovascular mortality associated with sleep duration were estimated. These estimates were adjusted for socio-demographic factors, lifestyle factors, body mass index, and comorbidity score. Additionally, a stratified analysis by subgroups with and without comorbidities was conducted.
Results
Throughout the follow-up period, 2675 deaths were recorded. After all adjustments, an association was observed between a sleep duration of 8 hours or more and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). However, no such association was detected in the stratified analysis for the subgroups based on comorbidity status.
Conclusions
Long sleep duration was found to be associated with all-cause mortality among Koreans, even after adjusting for comorbidities. Additional studies are required to explore the mechanism underlying the association between sleep duration and major causes of mortality.
Summary
Korean summary
- 한국의 대규모 코호트 자료를 이용, 긴 수면 시간과 사망률 간의 연관성이 동반 상병으로 인한 교란 효과로 인한 것인지를 검토하였다. - 수면 시간과 총 사망률, 암 사망률, 심혈관질환 사망률 간의 연관성을 확인하였고, 이 중 총 사망률과 긴 수면 시간이 동반 상병 지수로 보정 한 뒤에도 유의한 연관성을 보였다.
Key Message
Using a large prospective cohort in Korea, the association between long sleep duration and mortality was evaluated, after adjusting for the confounding influence of comorbidities. When 114,205 participants from the Health Examinees Study were followed for a median of 9.1 years, sleep duration of 8 hours or more were found to be associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20). Additional studies are required to explore the mechanism underlying the association between sleep duration and major causes of mortality.
Health-related Quality of Life of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Measured With the Bahasa Indonesia Version of EQ-5D in Primary Care Settings in Indonesia
Muhammad Husen Prabowo, Ratih Puspita Febrinasari, Eti Poncorini Pamungkasari, Yodi Mahendradhata, Anni-Maria Pulkki-Brännström, Ari Probandari
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):467-474.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.229
  • 1,327 View
  • 94 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a serious public health issue that places a heavy financial, social, and health-related burden on individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is extensively used for monitoring the general population’s health conditions and measuring the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore, this study investigated HRQoL and associated factors among patients with type 2 DM at a primary healthcare center in Indonesia.
Methods
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Klaten District, Central Java, Indonesia, from May 2019 to July 2019. In total, 260 patients with DM registered with National Health Insurance were interviewed. HRQoL was measured with the EuroQol Group’s validated Bahasa Indonesia version of the EuroQoL 5-Dimension 5-Level (EQ-5D-5L) with the Indonesian value set. Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors influencing HRQoL.
Results
Data from 24 patients were excluded due to incomplete information. Most participants were men (60.6%), were aged above 50 years (91.5%), had less than a senior high school education (75.0%), and were unemployed (85.6%). The most frequent health problems were reported for the pain/discomfort dimension (64.0%) followed by anxiety (28.4%), mobility (17.8%), usual activities (10.6%), and self-care (6.8%). The average EuroQoL 5-Dimension (EQ-5D) index score was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.88). In the multivariate ordinal regression model, a higher education level (coefficient, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.14) was a significant predictor of the EQ-5D-5L utility score.
Conclusions
Patients with diabetes had poorer EQ-5D-5L utility values than the general population. DM patients experienced pain/discomfort and anxiety. There was a substantial positive relationship between education level and HRQoL.
Summary
Key Message
This study examined Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in 260 type 2 diabetes patients in Indonesia. Most were male (60.6%), over 50 (91.5%), with low education (75%) and unemployed (85.6%). Pain/discomfort was the most common issue (64%), followed by anxiety (28.4%). The average HRQoL score was 0.86. Higher education positively impacted HRQoL. Diabetes patients face lower HRQoL compared to the general population, with notable issues in pain and anxiety. Education level significantly influences HRQoL. This highlights the importance of education in improving the well-being of diabetes patients in Indonesia.

Citations

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  • Genetic CYP2A6 Polymorphism May Worsen Glycohemoglobin Levels: Study among Javanese Indonesian Smokers
    Christine Patramurti, Dita Maria Virginia
    Borneo Journal of Pharmacy.2024; 7(1): 29.     CrossRef
Brief Report
Characteristics and Health Care Spending of Persistently and Transiently High-cost Older Adults in Korea
Sungchul Park, Giryeon Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):475-480.   Published online September 4, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.270
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Objectives
This study examined differences in health care spending and characteristics among older adults in Korea by high-cost status (persistently, transiently, and never high-cost).
Methods
We identified 1 364 119 older adults using data from the Korean National Insurance Claims Database for 2017-2019. Outcomes included average annual total health care spending and high-cost status for 2017-2019. Linear regression was used to estimate differences in the outcomes while adjusting for individual-level characteristics.
Results
Persistently and transiently high-cost older adults had higher health care spending than never high-cost older adults, but the difference in health care spending was greater among persistently high-cost older adults than among transiently high-cost older adults (US$20 437 vs. 5486). Despite demographic and socioeconomic differences between transiently high-cost and never high-cost older adults, the presence of comorbid conditions remained the most significant factor. However, there were no or small differences in the prevalence of comorbid conditions between persistently high-cost and transiently high-cost older adults. Rather, notable differences were observed in socioeconomic status, including disability and receipt of Medical Aid.
Conclusions
Medical risk factors contribute to high health care spending to some extent, but social risk factors may be a source of persistent high-cost status among older adults in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
- 한국에서 65세 이상의 고령층 고비용 환자 그룹 내에서 두 개의 이질적인 그룹을 발견하였다. - 지속적으로 고비용인 환자는 일시적으로 고비용인 환자보다 의료비 지출이 유의미하게 더 많았다. - 두 그룹의 특성을 비교한 결과, 건강요인의 차이도 있었지만 그보다는 사회적 요인의 차이가 더 컸다.
Key Message
- High-cost older adults are heterogeneous in terms of health care spending and sample characteristics in Korea. - Persistently high-cost older adults had significantly higher health care spending than transiently high-cost older adults. - Medical risk factors contribute to high health care spending to some extent, but social risk factors may be a source of persistent high-cost status among older adults.
Perspective
Epidemiological Model for Conventional Tobacco Control Measures and Tobacco Endgame Policies
Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):481-484.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.239
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  • 96 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Epidemiological models, also known as host-agent-vector-environment models, are utilized in public health to gain insights into disease occurrence and to formulate intervention strategies. In this paper, we propose an epidemiological model that incorporates both conventional measures and tobacco endgame policies. Our model suggests that conventional measures focus on relationships among agent-vector-host-environment components, whereas endgame policies inherently aim to change or eliminate those components at a fundamental level. We also found that the vector (tobacco industry) and environment (physical and social surroundings) components were insufficiently researched or controlled by both conventional measures and tobacco endgame policies. The use of an epidemiological model for tobacco control and the tobacco endgame is recommended to identify areas that require greater effort and to develop effective intervention measures.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 기존의 담배규제와 관련된 역학 모형을 확장하여 담배 수요를 줄이기 위한 조치인 MPOWER 정책과 담배 종결전의 주요 정책을 아우르는 개념적 모형을 제시하였다. 각 정책을 개념적 모형 내 배치한 결과, MPOWER 정책은 모형 내 구성요소 간의 연결을 끊는 것을 목표로 하는 반면, 종결전 정책은 모형 내 요소들을 영구적으로 변화시키거나 제거하려는 특성을 가지고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 담배규제정책이 개체, 병원체, 벡터 및 환경 요소에 대한 균형 잡힌 포트폴리오를 갖추고 있는지 평가하기 위해 이 개념적 모형을 활용할 수 있다.
Key Message
We extended the conceptual epidemiological model for tobacco control by incorporating measures to reduce the demand for tobacco (MPOWER measures) and key endgame policies. The model suggests that MPOWER measures focus on disconnecting the relationships between model components, while endgame policies aim to permanently change or eliminate the components themselves. This model can be used to examine whether a country or jurisdiction's tobacco control policy maintains a balanced portfolio across agent, host, vector, and environmental factors.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Public support for tobacco endgame policies in South Korea: Findings from the 2020 International Tobacco Control Korea Survey
    Heewon Kang, Wonjeong Yoon, Hong Gwan Seo, Sungkyu Lee, Sujin Lim, Gil-yong Kim, Su Young Kim, Steve S Xu, Mi Yan, Anne C K Quah, Janet Chung-Hall, Lorraine V Craig, Coral E Gartner, Geoffrey T Fong, Sung-il Cho
    Tobacco Control.2024; : tc-2023-058454.     CrossRef
  • Decrease in household secondhand smoking among South Korean adolescents associated with smoke-free policies: grade-period-cohort and interrupted time series analyses
    Hana Kim, Heewon Kang, Sung-il Cho
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2024009.     CrossRef
Correspondence
Letter to the Editor: Tobacco Use: Strategies for Prevention in Low and Middle-income Countries
Israel Oluwasegun Ayenigbara
J Prev Med Public Health. 2023;56(5):485-486.   Published online September 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.23.351
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Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health