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Volume 42(4); July 2009
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Original Articles
South Korean Study in a Public Health: Preventive Medicine and Sports Environment.
Dan Silviu Radut, You Jin Kim, Byung Nam Min, Ki Jeoung Cho, Jong Young Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):209-214.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.209
  • 3,757 View
  • 56 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to develop search filters able to retrieve the South Korean scientific output and relating the fields of public health, preventive medicine, and physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport in MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007. METHODS: The search filters were constructed and applied in MEDLINE accessed through PubMed according to the affiliation and subject. The language and place of publication were identified and the evaluation of the geographical filter performance was done. RESULTS: The search format was successfully elaborated and applied, and the articles originated, published in Korea and/or abroad focusing on the fields of public health, preventive medicine, physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport, added to MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved. Publications in six languages originated in South Korea were detected. CONCLUSIONS: A geographic search filter determined the South Korean research output, and combined with additional filters focused on specific areas. The dynamics of the scientific output followed an increased evolution in all categories. Articles were written mainly in English/Korean. Further research is recommended on developing search strategies in order to retrieve precise and reliable information.
Summary
Relationship between Perceived Neighborhood Characteristics and Vigorous Physical Activity among Adult Seoul Residents.
Chung Gun Lee, Youngtae Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):215-222.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.215
  • 4,509 View
  • 39 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Vigorous physical activity is a well-known method to promote people s health. This research aims to investigate whether perceived neighborhood characteristics affect vigorous physical activity among adult Seoul residents (aged 19 to 64). METHODS: Utilizing the 2005 Seoul Citizens Health Indicators Survey data, this study estimates the probability of vigorous physical activity. Particular attention is given to the effects of three perceived neighborhood characteristics (satisfaction with relationship to the neighborhood, satisfaction with park and recreational facilities, and satisfaction with public security). Logistic regression models are analyzed separately by gender for the parameter estimation. RESULTS: Vigorous physical activity is positively associated with three perceived neighborhood characteristics for women, while neither significant nor substantive association is found for men. CONCLUSIONS: As vigorous physical activity among Seoul citizens is differentially affected by perceived neighborhood characteristics and by gender, a different approach will be needed to increase vigorous physical activity of men and women in Seoul.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
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    Jae Lee, Sungjin Park, Sanghoon Jung
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    Su-Chuan Yuan, Shuo-Chun Weng, Ming-Chih Chou, Yih-Jing Tang, Shu-Hsin Lee, Der-Yuan Chen, Ya-Wen Chuang, Chia-Hui Yu, Hsien-Wen Kuo
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Validity of Self-reported Smoking Using Urinary Cotinine among Vocational High School Students.
Soon Woo Park, Jong Yeon Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):223-230.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.223
  • 5,293 View
  • 84 Download
  • 27 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to validate self-reported smoking among high school students using urinary cotinine. METHODS: A self report of smoking behavior was collected together with urine sample for cotinine analysis from 130 male and female students in two vocational high school students in November, 2007. Validity and agreement between self-reported smoking and urinary cotinine was analyzed with STATA 9.0 for different definitions of current smokers, and frequent and daily smokers. Urinary cotinine concentration was measured by the DRI Cotinine Assay for urine (Microgenics Corp., Fremont, CA) on Toshiba 200FR. The cut-off point of urinary cotinine was 50 ng/dl. RESULTS: The concentrations of urinary cotinine were significantly different according to the frequency and amount of smoking. Sensitivity and specificity was 90.9% and 91.8% respectively, and the Cohen's kappa value was 0.787 among the current smokers who smoked at least one day during one month preceding the survey. The comparable high sensitivity, specificity, and kappa value were shown also among the other definitions of current smokers, that is, subjective smokers, and weekly smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed the high validity of self-reported smoking among high school students. However, due to the small sample size and limitation of the participants, it is cautious to generalize the results to overall high school students.
Summary

Citations

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    Myung Bae Park, Eun Woo Nam, Seon Kui Lee, Chun-Bae Kim, Chhabi Ranabhat
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    Cheol-Hwan Kim, Min-jung Jun, Sung-eun Kim
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Brief Communication
Determination of Appropriate Sampling Time for Job Stress Assessment: the Salivary Chromogranin A and Cortisol in Adult Females.
Ran Hi Hong, Yun Jung Yang, Sang Yon Kim, Won Young Lee, Yeon Pyo Hong
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):231-236.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.231
  • 5,692 View
  • 165 Download
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to determine the appropriate sampling time of the salivary stress markers, chromogranin A (CgA) and cortisol as objective indices of job stress assessment in adult females. METHODS: The subjects were 20~39-year-old women (13 office workers, 11 sales-service workers, and 11 college students) who were eligible for the study and free of acute and chronic medical conditions. Salivary CgA and cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Saliva samples were collected (2ml each) at 7:00, 8:00, 10:30, 12:00, 17:30, and 22:30 on a typical day. Salivary CgA and cortisol levels, according to sampling time, were compared among the three groups using general linear model. The full version of the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS), which includes socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, work-related characteristics, and BMI, was used to access the subjects' job stress. Multiple regression analysis of the job stressors identified by the KOSS was performed on salivary CgA and cortisol levels. RESULTS: The salivary CgA level peaked at 7:00 (time of awakening), then decreased and were maintained at a low level throughout the day, and increased slightly at 17:30. The salivary cortisol level increased steeply within the 1st hour after awakening, followed by a gradual decrease by 12:00, and was then maintained at a low level throughout the day. The salivary cortisol levels of subjects who worked < or =5 days per week and graduated from the university were significantly lower at 8:00 (p=0.006). The salivary cortisol levels of non-smokers were significantly lower at 7:00 (p=0.040) and 8:00 (p=0.003) compared to smokers. There were no significant differences in salivary CgA and cortisol levels at 10:30 and 12:00 in general characteristics. The regression coefficients on salivary CgA level were significant with interpersonal conflict at 17:30 and job insecurity at 22:30. Regression coefficients on salivary cortisol level were significant with organizational system and total job stressors at 17:30. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the appropriate sampling times for the salivary stress markers, CgA and cortisol, are at 7:00 (time of awakening), 8:00 (1 hour after awakening), 17:30 (early evening), and 22:30 (before sleep).
Summary

Citations

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English Abstracts
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Brucellosis among Slaughterhouse Workers in Korea.
Seok Ju Yoo, Young Sill Choi, Hyun Sul Lim, Kwan Lee, Mi Yeoun Park, Chaeshin Chu, Young A Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):237-242.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.237
  • 5,789 View
  • 68 Download
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The incidence of zoonoses in Korea has increased recently. However, the study of high risk groups for zoonoses has not been conducted to date in Korea. Thus, we did this study to obtain data on brucellosis among slaughterhouse workers in Korea. METHODS: We evaluated the structure of slaughterhouses and the process of slaughtering by reviewing the relevant literature and doing field studies. We visited 73 slaughterhouses and 62 residual products handle houses across the country. In addition, we conducted a questionnaire survey of the work activities, and obtained blood samples in order to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis. The titers of brucellosis antibodies were measured using the standard tube agglutination test (SAT). We diagnosed subjects as seropositive for Brucellosis if the titers were more than 1:160. The data collected was evaluated using SPSS ver. 17.0. RESULTS: We included 1,503 subjects and obtained 1,482 blood samples among them: 849 workers involved in slaughtering, 351 handlers of residual products, 190 inspectors and their assistants, and 92 grading testers and their assistants. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among the slaughterhouse workers was 0.8% (95% CI=0.4-1.5). Broken down, the seroprevalence of brucellosis among the workers involved in slaughtering was 0.7% (95% CI=0.3-1.6), the handlers of residual products was 1.7% (95% CI=0.7-3.9) respectively. Risk factors for contracting brucellosis among slaughterhouse workers were being splashed with cattle blood around the mouth, cattle secretions around the body and not putting on protective apron while at work. CONCLUSIONS: An educational program is needed for high risk groups on zoonoses about the prevention of infection. Thus, effective working guidelines for workers who participate in the slaughter of animals must be developed in order to protect them from zoonoses.
Summary

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Costs of Initial Cancer Care and its Affecting Factors.
So Young Kim, Sung Gyeong Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Eun Cheol Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):243-250.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.243
  • 5,503 View
  • 97 Download
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The purposes of this study is to estimate the cost of cancer care after its diagnosis and to identify factors that can influence the cost of cancer care. METHODS: The study subjects were patients with an initial diagnosis one of four selected tumors and had their first two-years of cancer care at a national cancer center. The data were obtained from medical records and patient surveys. We classified cancer care costs into medical and nonmedical costs, and each cost was analyzed for burden type, medical service, and cancer stage according to cancer types. Factors affecting cancer care costs for the initial phase included demographic variables, socioeconomic status and clinical variables. RESULTS: Cancer care costs for the initial year following diagnosis were higher than the costs for the following successive year after diagnosis. Lung cancer (25,648,000 won) had higher costs than the other three cancer types. Of the total costs, patent burden was more than 50% and medical costs accounted for more than 60%. Inpatient costs accounted for more than 60% of the medical costs for stomach and liver cancer in the initial phase. Care for late-stage cancer was more expensive than care for early-stage cancer. Nonmedical costs were estimated to be between 4,500,000 to 6,000,000 won with expenses for the caregiver being the highest. The factors affecting cancer care costs were treatment type and cancer stage. CONCLUSIONS: The cancer care costs after diagnosis are substantial and vary by cancer site, cancer stage and treatment type. It is useful for policy makers and researchers to identify tumor-specific medical and nonmedical costs. The effort to reduce cancer costs and early detection for cancer can reduce the burden to society and improve quality of life for the cancer patients.
Summary

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Socioeconomic Costs of Stroke in Korea: Estimated from the Korea National Health Insurance Claims Database.
Seung ji Lim, Han joong Kim, Chung mo Nam, Hoo sun Chang, Young Hwa Jang, Sera Kim, Hye Young Kang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):251-260.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.251
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To estimate the annual socioeconomic costs of stroke in Korea in 2005 from a societal perspective. METHODS: We identified those 20 years or older who had at least one national health insurance (NHI) claims record with a primary or a secondary diagnosis of stroke (ICD-10 codes: I60-I69, G45) in 2005. Direct medical costs of the stroke were measured from the NHI claims records. Direct non-medical costs were estimated as transportation costs incurred when visiting the hospitals. Indirect costs were defined as patients' and caregivers' productivity loss associated with office visits or hospitalization. Also, the costs of productivity loss due to premature death from stroke were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 882,143 stroke patients were identified with prevalence for treatment of stroke at 2.44%. The total cost for the treatment of stroke in the nation was estimated to be 3,737 billion Korean won (KRW) which included direct costs at 1,130 billion KRW and indirect costs at 2,606 billion KRW. The per-capita cost of stroke was 3 million KRW for men and 2 million KRW for women. The total national spending for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke was 1,323 billion KRW and 1,553 billion KRW, respectively, which together consisted of 77.0% of the total cost for stroke. Costs per patient for hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke were estimated at 6 million KRW and 2 million KRW, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is a leading public health problem in Korea in terms of the economic burden. The indirect costs were identified as the largest component of the overall cost.
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Apolipoprotein E Polymorphism and Cognitive Function Change of the Elderly in a Rural Area, Korea.
Sang Kyu Kim, Tae Yoon Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang, Hee Soon Cho, Young Kyung Bae
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):261-266.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.261
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study is to examine the cognitive function change related to aging, the incidence of cognitive impairment, and the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cognitive impairment through a follow-up of the elderly with normal cognitive ability at baseline. METHODS: Two hundred and fifteen subjects aged 65 and over were surveyed in February, 1998 (baseline survey), and their cognitive function was assessed again in 2003 (1st follow-up) and the once again in 2006 (2nd follow-up). Ninety one subjects completed all surveys up through the 2nd follow-up and their cognitive function scores using MMSE-K (Korean Version of the Mini-Mental State Examination) and the distribution of apolipoprotein E allele were analyzed. RESULTS: The cognitive function scores decreased with aging and the difference between baseline and the 2nd follow-up scores of the study increased with the age group. The incidence rate of cognitive impairment through an 8-year follow-up was 38.5% and higher in older age groups. Age was the only significant factor for incidence of cognitive impairment, but there was no significant association between apolipoprotein E genotype and incidence of cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The cognition of the elderly decreased with aging and the association of apolipoprotein E genotype with incidence of cognitive impairment was not significant in this study. To confirm the association between apolipoprotein E polymorphism and incidence of cognitive impairment further studies will be needed.
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  • ApoE Type 4 Allele Affects Cognitive Function of Aged Population in Tianjin City, China
    Shoudan Sun, Jingming Fu, Jun Chen, Wei Pang, Ruomei Hu, Haiqiang Li, Long Tan, Yugang Jiang
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A Comparative Study on Comorbidity Measurements with Lookback Period using Health Insurance Database: Focused on Patients Who Underwent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.
Kyoung Hoon Kim, Lee Su Ahn
J Prev Med Public Health. 2009;42(4):267-273.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2009.42.4.267
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To compare the performance of three comorbidity measurements (Charlson comorbidity index, Elixhauser's comorbidity and comorbidity selection) with the effect of different comorbidity lookback periods when predicting in-hospital mortality for patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. METHODS: This was a retrospective study on patients aged 40 years and older who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. To distinguish comorbidity from complications, the records of diagnosis were drawn from the National Health Insurance Database excluding diagnosis that admitted to the hospital. C-statistic values were used as measures for in comparing the predictability of comorbidity measures with lookback period, and a bootstrapping procedure with 1,000 replications was done to determine approximate 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Of the 61,815 patients included in this study, the mean age was 63.3 years (standard deviation: +/-10.2) and 64.8% of the population was male. Among them, 1,598 (2.6%) had died in hospital. While the predictive ability of the Elixhauser s comorbidity and comorbidity selection was better than that of the Charlson comorbidity index, there was no significant difference among the three comorbidity measurements. Although the prevalence of comorbidity increased in 3 years of lookback periods, there was no significant improvement compared to 1 year of a lookback period. CONCLUSIONS: In a health outcome study for patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using National Health Insurance Database, the Charlson comorbidity index was easy to apply without significant difference in predictability compared to the other methods. The one year of observation period was adequate to adjust the comorbidity. Further work to select adequate comorbidity measurements and lookback periods on other diseases and procedures are needed.
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