Skip Navigation
Skip to contents

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

OPEN ACCESS
SEARCH
Search

Previous issues

Page Path
HOME > Browse Articles > Previous issues
13 Previous issues
Filter
Filter
Article category
Keywords
Authors
Volume 34(3); August 2001
Prev issue Next issue
Original Articles
Analysis of Socioeconomic Costs of Smoking in Korea.
Han Joong Kim, Tae Kyu Park, Sun Ha Jee, Hye Young Kang, Chung Mo Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):183-190.
  • 2,404 View
  • 52 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To estimate the annual economic costs attributable to cigarette smoking in Korea. METHODS: The costs were classified as being direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs and others. We focused on those costs related that are incurred in the treatment of selected diseases (cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, and cancers), which have been proven to be caused by smoking. In addition to the basic costs of treatment, the additional amount of costs occurred due to smoking was obtained by computing the population attributable risk (PAR%) caused by smoking. To compute the PAR%, relative risks of smoking to the number of outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and the death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model, respectively. Our major data source was the 'Korea Medical Insurance Corporation (KMIC) cohort study,' which was composed of a total of 115,682 male and 67,932 female beneficiaries who had complete records of their smoking histories in the year of 1992. RESULTS: The annual costs that could be attributable to smoking were estimated to be in the range of 2,847,500 million Won to 3,959,100 million Won. The maximum estimate of 3,959,100 million Won includes 233,100 million Won for medical costs, 5,100 million Won for transportation costs, 27,600 million Won for care giver's economic costs, 69,100 million Won in productivity loss, 3,435,000 million Won lost because of premature death, 172,100 million Won in costs resulting from passive smoke inhalation and 17,100 million Won for costs that resulted from fires that were caused by careless smoking. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that the magnitude of the economic burden of smoking to Korean society is substantial. Therefore, this study provides strong evidence that there is a strong need for a national policy of tobacco control in Korea.
Summary
Estimation of Attributable Burden due to Premature Death from Smoking in Korea.
Seok Jun Yoon, Beom Man Ha, Jong Won Kang, Hye Chung Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):191-199.
  • 2,112 View
  • 35 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
In this study, we focused on estimating the burden of premature death in Korea caused by smoking using the YLL (years of life lost due to premature death) measurement. METHODS: First, we determined parameters: such as age-specific standard life expectancy, age on death, sex, and cause of death by analyzing the national death certificate data and life table collected during 1997. These were provided by the National Statistical Office. Secondly, we estimated the age group- specific years of life lost due to premature death by employing the standard expected years of life lost (SEYLL) measurement. Thirdly, the burden of premature death caused by smoking was estimated using the YLLs measurement which was developed by the global burden of disease study group. Fourthly, We calculated the risk related to smoking using the population attributable risk. RESULTS: The following results were obtained in this study:1) Premature death that is attributable to smoking in males could be prevented in 60.9% (513,582 person-year) by non-smoking.2) The burden of premature death by smoking for female was prevented to 17.7% (513,582 person-year) by non-smoking. CONCLUSION: We found that the YLL method employed in this study was appropriate in quantifying the burden of premature death. This provides a rational basis for planning a national health policy regarding premature deaths caused by smoking and other related risk factors.
Summary
Analysis of the Abstracts of Cancer Related Articles Published from 1990 to 1996 in Korea.
Chang Yup Kim, Young Ho Khang, Young Sung Lee, Chul Whan Kang, Keun Young Yoo, Gilwon Kang, Beom Man Ha
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):200-210.
  • 1,828 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
To explore the status of cancer research in the Republic of Korea. METHODS: Thirty-eight medical journals, published in Korea between 1990 and 1996, were reviewed for abstracts relating to cancer research. Of the 5,899 eligible abstracts related to cancer, 4,732 were collected and evaluated. RESULTS: Including first author and first two co-authors, a total of 7,427 authors were identified. Those who published an average of one or more article per one year were defined as cancer researchers for this study. This group, however, accounted for a small proportion of the total (3.1%). Analysis of the selected abstracts showed that the study goals in more than half focused on pathophysiologic mechanisms. Studies that were designed to use causal relationships such as cohort studies and randomized controlled trials were rare. A greater number of analytic and experimental studies were found in abstracts published by the cancer researcher group. More advanced study designs that explored causal relationships and analytic procedures were found in abstracts published later than those abstracts published from 1990 to 1992. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that researchers who published more articles adopted more advanced study designs. This study provides primary data that can be used to compare the status of cancer research in future studies.
Summary
Development and Evaluation of the Reliability and Validity of the VSSS-82 Korean Version for Measuring Satisfaction with Community-based Mental Health Services in Psychiatric Patients.
Weon Seob Yoo, Young Jeon Shin, Ok Ryun Moon, Jung Hyun Nam
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):211-218.
  • 2,098 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To develop a Korean version of VSSS-82 for measuring the multi-dimensional satisfaction with community-based mental health services in psychiatric patients and to investigate both the reliability and validity of the Korean version. METHODS: The VSSS-82 English version was translated and back-translated with some modification. Data from 68 psychosis patients using community-based mental health services in three Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) was collected through a personal interview survey regarding the satisfaction and suitability of service. Variability of satisfaction and internal consistency, discriminant validity, and concurrent validity of the VSSS-82 Korean version were evaluated. RESULTS: A higher number of dissatisfied subjects and significant pairwise differences for the dimensions were found. The Crohnbach's alpha coefficient, a measure of internal consistency, ranged from 0.56 (overall satisfaction) to 0.90 (skills and behavior) and significant differences in satisfaction was found in patients by the self-rated suitability of service. CONCLUSIONS: The VSSS-82 Korean version is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring multi-dimensional satisfaction with community-based mental health service.
Summary
Current Status and Reasons for the Location Change of Primary Medical Institutions in Korea.
Beom Man Ha, Soon Ae Shin, Jin Seok Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):219-227.
  • 2,231 View
  • 22 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To understand the current status of the opening, closing and relocation of primary medical institutes in Korea and identify the underlying decision factors. METHODS: Sources of analyzed data included the medical institutional master file at the National Health Insurance Corporation (1998, 2000) and Regional Statistic Annual Bulletins. To investigate changes including the opening, closing and relocation, a total of primary medicalinstitutions (16,757 in 1998, 19,267 in 2000) were analysed. RESULTS: Between 1998 and 2000, there was a 15.0% (2,510) increase in the number of primary medical institutions and the rate of increase in the rural area was higher than the urban area, and higher for specialty clinics than primary practice. However, these findings did not suggestany improvement in the maldistribution of primary medical institutions. During the time period studied, newly opened and closed primary medical institutions numbered 4,085 and 1,573, respectively. Additionally, institutions thatrelocated numbered 2,729, or 16.3%of all primary medical institutions in operation in 1998. These openings and closings were more frequent among young doctors. As a result of our analysis on the underlying regional factors forrelocation, the factors that were statistically significant were local per capita tax burden and the number of schools per ten thousand persons. In the case of institutional factors, movements were significantly associated with gender and the location of primary medical institutions. CONCLUSIONS: In order to establish effective long-term intervention for primary medical institutions, further study and monitoring of primary medical institutions and the dentification of factors influencing opening location and relocation is necessary.
Summary
Validation Studies
A Proposal of Study Designs and Methods for Evaluating the Adverse Health Effects of Agent Orange among Korean Vietnam Veterans.
Sang Wook Yi, Jong Uk Won, Jae Seok Hong, Heechoul Ohrr
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):228-236.
  • 1,960 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To propose a feasible, valid and appropriate study designs and epidemiologic methods for evaluating the adverse health effects of Agent Orange-chemical defoliants used in Vietnam- in Korea. METHODS: A literature study was performed on Agent Orange, herbicides, pesticides and dioxins. The study subjects, study design, exposure assessment and health outcomes assessment were examined in each study. The potential data sources for the study subjects, study design, exposure assessment and health outcomes assessment in Korea were investigated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In earlier Korean studies, research subjects for studying the effects of Agent Orange were identified from the patients or persons who claimed to have Agent Orange-related diseases due to the difficulties in identifying the entire population of Vietnam veterans in Korea. In this study, an attempt was made to identify the total number of Vietnam veterans in Korea. As a result, the addresses of 20,000 Vietnam veterans were obtained. It is proposed that a retrospective cohort design on a sample of the total number of Vietnam veterans is a feasible and appropriate study design. Self report questionnaires and military records were proposed to assess the exposure level. It is believed that measuring the plasma or tissue TCDD should be used only for a validation study assessing the level of exposure. For the health outcomes assessment, it is possible to obtain the mortality, cancer frequency, physical examination, screening and medical insurance record data.
Summary
Original Articles
The Predictive Factors to Participation in Cervical Cancer Screening Program.
Young Bok Kim, Won Chul Lee, Myung Kim, Chee Kyung Chung
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):237-243.
  • 2,276 View
  • 42 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To examine the screening rate of cervical cancer in women and to find out the predictive factors for participation in cervical cancer screening programs within their life-time and within the last two years. METHODS: The data was based on self-reported questionnaires from 1,613 women whose ages ranged from 26 to 60 years; this survey was performed between December 1999 and January 2000. This study analyzed the predictive factors for participation in cervical cancer screening programs within their life-time and within the last two years. A logistic regression analysis was performed in order to derive the significant variables from the predisposing factors (demographic factor, health promotion behavior, reproductive factor), intervention factors (information channel, relation with medical staff), and proximal factors (attitude, social influence, self-efficacy). All analyses were performed by the PC-SAS 6.12. RESULTS: Our analyses showed that the screening rate for the women who received a cervical cancer screening (Pap smear) more than once within their life-time was 56.1% while those who had received one within the last two years was 34.5%. The significant factors for participation in cervical cancer screening program within their life-time were their income, married age, health promotion score, relation with medical staffs, social influence, and self-efficacy. On the other hand, age, number of pregnancies, menarche age, relation with medical staffs, social influences, and self-efficacy were significant factors for those being screened within the last two years. The predictive power of the logit model within their life-time was 68.8% and that within the last two years was 66.6%. CONCLUSION: The predictive factors for participation in cervical cancer screening program within their life-time are different from those for within the last two years, and that women's relations with medical staffs and social influences were the critical factors impacting on cervical cancer screening rates.
Summary
Severity Measurement Methods and Comparing Hospital Death Rates for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.
Youngdae Kwon, Hyungsik Ahn, Youngsoo Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):244-252.
  • 1,879 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
Health insurers and policy makers are increasingly examining the hospital mortality rate as an indicator of hospital quality and performance. To be meaningful, a risk-adjustment of the death rates must be implemented. This study reviewed 5 severity measurement methods and applied them to the same data set to determine whether judgments regarding the severity-adjusted hospital mortality rates were sensitive to the specific severity measure. METHODS: The medical records of 584 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery in 6 general hospitals during 1996 and 1997 were reviewed by trained nurses. The MedisGroups, Disease Staging, Computerized Severity Index, APACHElll and KDRG were used to quantify severity of the patients. The predictive probability of death was calculated for each patient in the sample from a multivariate logistic regression model including the severity score, age and sex to evaluate the hospitals' performance, the ratio of the observed number of deaths to the expected number for each hospital was calculated. RESULTS: The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 7.0%, ranging from 2.7% to 15.7% depending on the particular hospital. After the severity adjustment, the mortality rates for each hospital showed little difference according to the severity measure. The 5 severity measurement methods varied in their statistical performance. All had a higher c statistic and R2 than the model containing only age and sex. There was a little difference in the relative hospital performance evaluation by the severity measure. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that judgments regarding a hospital's performance based on severity adjusted mortality can be sensitive to the severity measurement method. Although the 5 severity measures regarding hospital performance concurred, more often than would be expected by chance, the assessment of an individual hospital mortality rates varied by the different severity measurement method used.
Summary
Case Report
Short-term Effect of Air Pollution on Respiratory Disease in Seoul : A Case-Crossover Study.
Young Ju Lee, Jong Tae Lee, Young Su Ju, Dong Chun Shin, Hyoung June Im, Soo Hun Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):253-261.
  • 2,213 View
  • 35 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the hypothesis that air pollution could increase emergency room visits for respiratory diseases, and if so, to quantify the strength of association between those. METHODS: We compiled daily records of hospital emergency room visits for respiratory diseases in Seoul, from November 1. 1995 to October 31. 1996, by using medical utilization data of unscheduled visits. In addition, air quality and weather data for the same period was collected. And a case-crossover design was applied by adopting conditional logistic regression analysis to determine the relationship between air pollutants and emergency room visits for respiratory diseases. In particular, the control periods were chosen by a bidirectional paired matching technique 7, 14, and 21days before and after the case periods. RESULTS: Only ozone was associated with the increased number of emergency room visits for respiratory diseases. The relative risk according to a 30ppb increase of ozone concentration (24hr mean, lagged 1day) was 1.91 (95% confidence interval = 1.78-2.05). CONCLUSION: There was a statistically significant association between the ambient ozone and daily emergency room visits for respiratory diseases.
Summary
Original Articles
A Meta-analysis of the Association between Blood Lead and Blood Pressure.
Sang Baek Koh, Chun Bae Kim, Chung Mo Nam, Hong Ryul Choi, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Ho Sung Jee
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):262-268.
  • 2,103 View
  • 23 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To integrate the results of studies which assess an association between blood lead and blood pressure. METHODS: We surveyed the existing literature using a MEDLINE search with blood lead and blood pressure as key words, including reports published from January 1980 to December 2000. The criteria for quality evaluation were as follows: 1) the study subjects must have been workers exposed to lead, and 2) both blood pressure and blood lead must have been measured and presented with sufficient details so as to estimate or calculate the size of the association as a continuous variable. Among the 129 articles retrieved, 13 studies were selected for quantitative meta-analysis. Before the integration of each regression coefficient for the association between blood pressure and blood lead, a homogeneity test was conducted. RESULTS: As the homogeneity of studies was rejected in a fixed effect model, we used the results in a random effect model. Our quantitative meta-analysis yielded weighted regression coefficients of blood lead associated with systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure results of 0.0047 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.0061, 0.0155) and 0.0004 (95% CI: -0.0031, 0.0039), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The published evidence suggested that there may be a weak positive association between blood lead and blood pressure, but the association is not significant.
Summary
Concentration of Urinary Cotinine and Frequency of Sister Chromatid Exchange in Lymphocytes among Male Adolescents.
Dong Ki Paek, Seong Sil Chang, Tae Yong Lee, Young Man Roh, Yeonkyeng Lee, Young Chae Cho, Dong Bae Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):269-276.
  • 1,933 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the internal burden and hazardous effects associated with smoking in middle and high school students. METHODS: We analysed urinary cotinine (U-cotinine) concentrations and the frequency of Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE). A comparison was done of U-cotinine concentrations and the frequency of SCE in peripheral lymphocytes across school levels (middle vs. high) and smoking types (direct: daily & occasional smoking, indirect: usual indirect & non-smoking), in 122 males. RESULTS: The middle school student group comprised 6.8% daily smokers, 15.9% occasional smokers, 40.9% daily indirect smokers, and 35.4% nonsmokers, while the high school student group comprised 18.0%, 20.5%,39.7%, and 21.8%, respectively. The U-cotinine concentration and the frequency of SCE among the middle school students were 79.11 microgram/literand 2.0 per cell, respectively, which were significantly lower than the 146.85 microgram/liter (p=0.078) and 2.6 per cell (p=0.005) of the high school students. Among the 40 direct smokers, these two biomarkers were 235.66 microgram/literand 2.59 per cell, significantly higher than the 67.33 microgram/liter (p=0.0001) and2.1 per cell (p=0.003) among indirect smoking groups. The variation in individual U-cotinine concentration ranged widely in both the indirect and direct smoking groups. CONCLUSION: Urinary cotinine concentrations and the frequency of Sister Chromatid Exchange seem to objectively and effectively evaluate student exposure whether it was direct or indirect smoking. Consequently, these biomarkers may be useful in monitoring the objective efficacy of anti-smoking programs in adolescent populations.
Summary
Prevalence of Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Consumption Using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in Chungju Area.
Hyeongsu Kim, Sounghoon Chang, Kunsei Lee, Cheongsik Kim, Kiock Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):277-283.
  • 1,876 View
  • 27 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To investigate the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol use, which are a subthreshold of alcohol related disorders. METHODS: Direct-interview questionnaires to 1,183 rural persons (489 male, 694 female) were conducted in Chungju-city from July 2 to 26, 1998. As a screening instrument, the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) was used. RESULTS: The prevalence of alcohol use was 41.7%. In males, it was 66.3% and in females, it was 24.4%. The mean of the AUDIT score of males and females was 13.2 and 5.6, respectively. As WHO guideline, the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use in males and females was 80.3% and 20.7%, respectively. This suggests that the prevalence of 'hazardous drinking' and 'harmful drinking' was 45.4% and 29.3% for males and 1.2% and 2.4% for females, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study presented the prevalence of hazardous and harmful drinking of a rural population in Korea and reviewed those health problems. Further evaluation to detect and treat lower alcoholic drinkers is recommended
Summary
Association between Snoring and Hypertension in a Rural Population.
Hee Young Shin, Jin Su Choi, Jung Ae Rhee
Korean J Prev Med. 2001;34(3):284-290.
  • 2,101 View
  • 20 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate the association of snoring and hypertension in a rural population. METHODS: A population-based sample of 1,763 adults in Chonnam, Korea was investigated with questionnaires and height, weight, and blood pressure measurements. Information on the demographic characteristics, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension and snoring was collected through a person-to-person interview using a structured questionnaire. The level of obesity was measured by the body mass index (BMI). Hypertension was considered to be present if the average of two blood pressure measurements was greater than 140mmHg systolic or 90mmHg diastolic, or if they were currently on antihypertensive treatments. RESULTS: The prevalence of snoring was 42.7% in men and 39.8% in women. With regard to age, snoring prevalence was 44.3% in the middle-aged group (45 to 64 years), greater than 33.9% in the younger (<45 years) group or 38.7% in the elderly(> or =65 years) group. The snoring prevalence increased progressively with increasing BMI, but cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption was not associated with snoring. Hypertension occurred more frequently in snorers than in non-snorers (Odds ratio: 1.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.55). However after adjusting for sex, age, obesity, smoking, and alcohol use, an effect of snoring on hypertension was no longer present (Odds ratio: 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.90-1.41). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that snoring might not be associated with hypertension.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health