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Volume 29(2); June 1996
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Original Articles
A Case-Control Study on Risk Factors of Uterine Cervix Cancer in Korea.
Hye Won Koo, Keun Young Yoo, Dong Hyun Kim, Yong Sang Song, No Hyun Park, Soon Beom Kang, Hyo Pyo Lee, Yoon Ok Ahn, Chae Un Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):159-172.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A hospital-based case-control study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of uterine cervical cancer in korea. Information on a wide-range of life-styles, which might be related with uterine cervix cancer, has been routinely collected through a dual application of the self-administered questionnaire and the direct interview by a well-trained nurse at the Department of Gynecology, Seoul National University Hospitals since 1992. The number of cervical cancer cases, histologically confirmed at the hospital, were 284. Included were 939 women as controls, who were free of past history of any malignancies. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence limits were based on the unconditional logistic regression model. The multivariate logistic model was constructed under the consideration of biologic characteristics on the natural history of the malignancy. In the multivariate results, the uterine cervical cancer risk was higher in women of shorter height(P(trend) <0.05), less educated spouse (P(trend) < 0.001), multiple marriages(adjusted OR=2,70,95% C.I. 1.64~4.47), ever had a family history (adjusted OR=2.14., 95 % C.I. l.18~3.89), multiparity (P(trend) < 0.001), and early age at first delivery (P(trend) < 0.001). These results strongly suggest that the uterine cervix cancer might be related to the reproductive factors, and probably with sexual behaviour of both women and men in Korea.
Summary
Physical Fitness, Leisure Time Physical Activity, and Serum Lipid Levels in Middle-Aged Male Workers .
Jang Rak Kim, Bock Dong Nam, Ju Ho Kim, Song Kwan Lee, Joong Kap Moon, Jang Ho Lee, Dae Yong Hong
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):173-186.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This is a cross-sectional study to evaluate the relationships between physical fitness, leisure time physical activity, and serum lipid levels in middle-aged male workers. Physical fitness was measured by a step test score, and leisure time physical activity was self-reported on a questionnaire. Serum total cholesterol was negatively related to physical fitness(r=-0.27), and positively to obesity index(r=0.27). But leisure time physical activity was related to total cholesterol negatively(r.-0.20) only in subjects whose total cholesterol levels were above 170mg/dl. High density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol was positively related to physical faintness(r=0.15), negatively to obesity index(r=-0.22), and positively to weekly alcohol consumption(r=0.14). Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio was related to physical fitness(r=-0.23), obesity index(r=0.32), total cigarette index (r=0.13), weekly alcohol consumption(r=-0.13), and vegetable preference(r=0.13) physical fitness was also related to leisure time physical activity(r=0.19) and obesity index(r=-0.18). In multiple linear regression models, physical fitness(beta= -0.23) and obesity index(beta=0.18) were significantly associated with total cholesterol, obesity index(beta=-0.25) with HDL cholesterol, and obesity index(beta=0.30), physical fitness(beta= -0.16) and vegetable preference (beta=0.14) with total cholesterol HDL cholesterol ratio. In conclusion, as physical fitness has a stronger relationship with serum lipid levels than leisure time physical activity, and the association between physical fitness and leisure time physical activity is modest, physical fitness should be added as an important variable in addition to activity in future epidemiologic studies.
Summary
Medical Surveillance of Glass Fiber Workers in Korea.
Se Wi Lee, Kyoo Sang Kim, Jung Keun Choi, Yang Ho Kim, Seong Kyu Kang, Kyuong Suk Choi, Young Hahn Moon
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):187-198.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The industrial use of MMMF(man-made mineral fibers), has been increasing, particularly since the banning of most asbestos products. Fibrous minerals can cause health abnormalities currently associated with occupational exposure to glass fiber. This study was conducted to evaluate health risks of glass fiber manufactory workers within the country. we examined questionaries, physical examination including auscultation, chest x-ray, pulmonary function test for 488 male workers, to go through their dermal itching symptoms and respiratory evaluation. we had the results as follows. 1. In 45% of the workers itching had been expressed at their entrance. At that time we was investigating, 18.5% had itching, and most of them complained it when they fall asleep and night. The frequent itching site is waist and groin, upper and lower extremity in order, and it had been expressed mainly during summer and winter. 2. As the results of ventilatory functions test, 6.0% were obstructive type, 1.0% were restrictive type. so, glass fiber exposures should be controlled or elimination by protective devices in the workplace. 3. The means of FVC, FFV1, FFV1% were in normal range. As the comparison of ventilatory functions by age groups, MMF was decreased significantly for the group, 50 years old and more than other groups. And the comparison by the serving periods at glass fiber producing factory, MMF was decreased for the workers had worked for 11-15 years. Therefore, MMF be more sensitive index in the evaluation of ventilatory impairments caused by glass fiber workers.
Summary
Study on the Factors Related to the Cognitive Function and Depression Among the Elderly.
Cheol Ho Shin, Soo Young Kim, Young Soo Lee, Young Chae Cho, Tae Yong Lee, Dong Bae Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):199-214.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To investigate the factors which affecting the cognitive function and depression of the 65 or more age group, the authors surveyed for the subjects in the region of Taejon and nearby Taejon area. 729 studied subjects were tested for cognitive function with MMSE and depression with GDS. The main results were followings; In the studied subjects, the rate of normal cognitive function was 56.8%, the rate of mildly impaired was 24.l% and the rate of severe impairment was 19.l%. The cognitive function level was closely related to the depression score. As the age increased, the cognitive function was more impaired. Sexual difference was also existed in the cognitive function level and the depression score. After adjusting the effect of age, the variables such as sex, marital status, education level, past job, instrumental ability of daily living, regular physical exercise, frequencies of going out the house, chest discomfort, visual and auditory disturbance, and dizziness had the significant relationship with cognitive function impairment. Among these variables instrumental ADL, age, visual disturbance, and sex showed statistical significance in the logistic regression model. In the multiple stepwise regression, the variables which had significant relationship to depression score were education level, frequencies of going out house, current job and house work activity, regular physical exercise, instrumental ADL, self-rated health and nutritional status, dizziness, visual disturbance, and chest pain. In conclusion, main characteristics which had close relationship to the cognitive function and depression symptoms in the studied subjects were physical function and self rated health status.
Summary
Determining the Location of Urban Health Sub-center According to Geographic Accessibility.
Kun Sei Lee, Chang Yup Kim, Yong Ik Kim, Youngsoo Shim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):215-226.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Decentralization to local governments and amending of Health center Law are to promote the efforts of health planning at the level of local agencies. In the health facility planning, it is important to take into account that what to be built, where to be located, how far should be service area and so forth, because health facilities are immovable, and require capital as well as personnel and consumable supplies. The aim of our study, answering to the question of 'where to be located?`, is to determine the best location of urban health sub-center. At the local level, planning is the matter of finding the best location of specific facility, in relation to population needs. We confine the accessibility, which is basic to location planning, to geographic one. Location-Allocation Model is used to solve the problem where the location is to maximize geographic accessibility. To minimize the weighted travel distance, objective function, Rk= aijwidij is used. Distances are measured indirectly by map measure-meter with l:25,000 Suwon map, and each potential sites, 10 administrative Dongs in Kwonson Gu, Suwon, are weighted by each number of households, total population, maternal age group, child age group, old age group, Relief for the livelihood, and population/primary health clinics. we find that Kuwoon-Dong, Seodun-Dong, Seryu3-Dong, according the descending orders, are best sites which can minimize the weighted distance, and conclude that it is reasonable to determine the location of urban health sub-center among those sites.
Summary
A Study of the Cause-of-Death reported on Official Death Registry in a Rural Area.
Hae Sung Nam, Kyeong Soo Park, Byeong Hwan Sun, Jun Ho Shin, Seok Joon Sohn, Jin Su Choi, Byong Woo Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):227-238.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the official death registry in rural area. The base data used for the study was 379 deaths registered during the period of 1993 and 1994 in 4 rural townships of Chonnam Province. The interview survey for cause-of-death was performed on the next of kin and/or neighbor. Additional medical informations were collected from hospitals and medical insurance associations for the purpose of verification. The underlying cause-of-death of 278 cases presumed by the survey was compared to the cause on official death registry. There was a prominent disagreement of cause-of-death between the survey data and the registry data(agreement rate: 38.9~44.6%%, according to disease classification method). These results may be caused by extremely low rates of physicians' certification, which were mostly confined to the poisoning and injury. Symptoms, signs, and ill defined conditions on death registry could be classified into circulatory disease(32.3%), neoplasm(21.2%), digestive disease(7.l%), injury and poisoning(7.l%) and so on. These results suggest that careful attention and verification be required on utilization of death registry data in rural area.
Summary
The Relationship between Noise Exposure Level in Worksite and Workers' Stress symptoms.
Kyung Ok Park, Myung Sun Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):239-254.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Health services on industrial noisy environment have been provided only for noise-induced hearing loss management until now. But gradually, modern diseases and death have come to be related to stress and mental health deeply, therefore noise-induced mental disorder, like a stress became very important. In this point, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between noise exposure level in worksite and workers' stress symptoms. This study included a survey of 786 manual workers selected from 89 worksites in 21 factories in Puchon. The results were as follows: 1. For demographic characteristics, most of the workers were males(80.8%), the 20~29 years old were 34.5% and those who graduated from high school were 65.3%. The workers whose monthly income ranged from 500,000 to 800,000 won were 37.5% and who have a religion were 47.9%. 2. For occupational characteristics, workers who had worked 1~5 years in the factories were 33.0%. Those who felt much for them workload were 43.9% and who worked more than 8 hours a day were 73.9 %. Those who were dissatisfied with their job and pay were 31.9% and 50.6%. The workers who responded ventilation condition of their worksites were bad were 51.9% and the dissatisfied with working environment of their wofksites were 45.9%. 3. Workers who were suffering from tinnitus were 53.3% and those who perceived hearing loss were 50.l%. Persons who reported they always wore earplugs at work were 35.4%. Those who felt earplugs bigger than their ears were 30.6% and those who experienced eardiseases caused by earplugs were 25.6%. 4. For the noise exposure level in worksite, workers who were exposed to 80-90dB were 30.3%, 90-100dB were 26.4% and 50~70dB were 19.2%. 5. workers' stress symptoms were significantly related to marital status and their monthly income p< 0.05). Workers who were single and had lower monthly income showed higher PSl (Psychiatric symptom Index) scores than those who were married and had higher monthly income. Higher PSl scores were also significantly related to l~2 days night-work per week, much for them workload, dissatisfaction with their job, and bad relationship with their bosses and coworkers. 6. Higher PSl scores were significantly related to severe tinnitus and perceived hearing loss p<0.001). Workers who felt the earplugs they use did not fit their ears showed significantly higher PSl scores(p<0.01). Workers who reported that they did not feel they need earplugs showed significantly higher PSl scores(p<0.05). Increased experience of eardisease caused by earplugs that did not fit were also significantly related to higher PSl scores(p<0.001). 7. The higher noise exposure level in worksite from 80dB was, the more severe stress symptoms including PSl subparts were reported; Anxiety, Anger, Depression, and cognitive disorder(p<0.001). 8. According to the results of stepwise multiple regression analysis, factors affecting workers' PSl scores were perceived hearing loss(R2=0.160), noise exposure level jn worksite(R2=0.110), relationship with coworkers, amount of workload, monthly income and relationship with bosses orderly and the total R2 of this 6 factors was 0.371. 9. The most significant factors that have impact on manual workers' stress symptoms were perceived hearing loss and noise exposure level in worksite, especially noise exposure level in the worksite was the most affective factor on the depression symptom.
Summary
Reliability and Validity of PWI (Psychosocial Wellbeing Index).
Chae Yong Lee, Jong Young Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):255-264.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To study reliability and validity of PWl, this newly developed self-administered questionnaire which measures stress, was given to medial students. All respondent(133) were followed 4 weeks later and 92 were retested. Cronbach's a coefficient of data was 0.93. Test-retest reliability measured by pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.72(p<0.01l). Exploratory factor analysis(EFA) performed by principal axis factor method without iteration and by varimax rotation explored 13 principal components(eigenvalues > l). After exploring 4 factor structure according to previous study results, factor 1 showed good agreement but other factors did not. Confirmatory factor analysis(CFA) showed poor fit of 4 factor model to data. In the further study, it may be considered to model that has unidimensional factor structure.
Summary
Professional Socialization of Medical Students.
Dal Sun Han, Byung Hee Cho, Sangsoo Bae, Chang Yup Kim, Sang Il Lee, Young Jo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):265-276.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This paper concerns professional socialization of medical students. Professional socialization, in the context of this paper, means the process through which a layperson becomes a doctor equipped with professional identity and values. While medical education does not include such process in the curriculum, medical students obtain certain values and identity informally. The dependent variables were professional values and professionalism. The former means the desirable attributes required to conducting professional works such as humane attitudes, science-oriented mind, capability for organizational management. The latter means socio-political reasoning with which doctors can rationalize their privileges such as autonomy. A specially designed questionnaire was developed. The data were collected from five medical schools for 1,318 students in 1994. A total of 1,070 cases were finally included in the statistical analysis. The students emphasized the human factor in the professional values. Their attitude did not change with the grade. Other independent variables such as motives for entering a medical school, socioeconomic status, satisfaction with medical education, etc. also did not influence professional values. It implies that professional values were not consolidated among the students. However, the factors of professionalism change significantly with the grade. It implies that the students paid more attention to socio-political issues related to doctor`s interests as the grade went up. And the factor scores for professionalism were higher for those students who had more positive attitude towards doing medical practice for profit, expected higher income, and were more conservative about social reform. Other independent variables did not influence professionalism. It seems that the students also give emphasis on professionalism, like current medical doctors, mainly because of their concern with recent unfavorable changes in economic conditions of medical care providers.
Summary
Relationship between structural characteristics and hospital mortality rates on tertiary referral hospitals in Korea.
Tae Yong Sohn, Seung Hum Yu
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):279-294.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was to evaluate hospital characteristics as composition of manpower and facilities to the death rate of patient; and to earmark the factors affecting the overall hospital mortality rates. The data utilized were derived from survey material conducted by the Korean Hospital Association on 32 tertiary referral hospitals in Korea between 1986 and 1994. The findings are: 1. Those hospitals having the most capacity per bed had little difference to the mortality rates than the others. 2. Those hospitals having the most daily patients per specialist had significantly higher mortality rates than the others, but the number of daily patients per nurse had little effect on the mortality rates. 3. Those hospitals which had a relatively sufficient number of quality assurance activities revealed a lower mortality, and particularly in case where such effort was directed to the clinicians, the outcome was remarkable. we concluded that the major factor affecting the hospital mortality rates seems to be the number of specialists per number of beds, the degree of quality assurance assessment of the clinicians, the quality assurance activities of each hospital as a whole, and the number of daily patient per specialist. According to the findings of this study, the composition and quality of specialist and adequate quality assurance activities seemed to be the essential for the improvement of hospital care. Therefore, in this regard the proper implementation of policy and support is highly recommended. Due to lack of available research material, the personal characteristics of specialists haven't been considered in this study However, this longitudinal observation of 32 tertiary referral hospitals over a nine year period has significant merit alone.
Summary
The Effect of Job Stress and Social Support on the Organizational Effectiveness of Hospital Employees.
Jong Wook Ko, Young Joon Seo, Ha Young Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):295-308.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of job stress and social support on the organizational effectiveness of hospital employees and to examine the role of social support in the experience of job stress among the employees. Previous studies have yielded mixed results regarding the role of social support. Some studies provide supporting evidence for the buffering effect of social support, while others do not. Still others report findings about reverse buffering effects. These inconsistent findings are, in part, accounted for by methodological problems such as poor measurement, small sample size, and the existence of high multicollinearity. To examine more rigorously the role of social support in relation to the negative effects of job stress, this study was carefully designed to overcome methodolgical shortcomings found in the past research. In addition, unlike the previous studies, which were concerned mostly with health-related variables as consequences of job stress, in this study, three work-related variables (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to stay) which had close relationships with organizational effectiveness were examined as output variables. The sample used in this study consisted of 353 employees from a university hospital in the suburbs of seoul. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires and analyzed using canonical analysis and hierarchical regression analysis. The results of this study indicate that; (l) job stress has negative main effects on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to stay; (2) social support has positive main effects on the same three output variables, (3) social support does not moderate the harmful effects of job stress on the three outcome variables, and (4) the three-way interaction effects of (social support * job stress * gender) and of (social support * job stress * education) are not supported The implications of these findings for the management of human resources are discussed.
Summary
A Comparative Study on Medical Utilization between Urban and Rural Korea.
Kyungshik Joo, Hanjoong Kim, Sunhee Lee, Hyeyoung Min
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):311-330.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study was designed to compare the level of medical utilization between the urban and rural areas of Korea and to explain the differences between the two regions. Data from the National Health Interview survey performed by the korean Institute of Health & social Affairs in 1992 were used for this study utilizing a sample size of 21,841 people. The level of medical utilization such as the number of physician visits and the number of hospital admissions was compared between the regions with ANOVA. Various determinants for medical use were also compared by univariate analysis. Statistical models which included enabling factors, predisposing factors, need factors and region were constructed for bivariate analysis in order to further elucidate the level of medical utilization. The results were as follows: 1. There was greater medical use, both in terms of physician visits and inpatient care in the rural areas in spite of insufficient health resources. The particular reasons for higher medical utilization in rural areas were attributed to a higher number of initial physician visits as well as a longer the length of stay per hospital admission. Therefore, indicators representing the degree of met need (utilization/need) showed no significant difference between rural and urban areas in spite of the fact that the medical need is larger in rural areas. 2. Use of public health facilities received a significant portion of physician visits in the rural area. The government's effort to enhance primary health care through health centers, health subcenters and the nurse practitioner's post in rural areas has contributed to the increase of access to medical care in the rural areas. 3. There were some differences in the socio-demographic characteristics between two regions; There were more elderly people over the age of 65; unstable marital status, less education and lower incomes also characterized the rural areas. Therefore, among rural people, there were more predisposing factors for medical use. Additionally, need factors such as poor self-reported health status and high morbidity level were also high in the rural area. 4. In contrast it was learned that, the supply of health resources was mostly concentrated in the urban areas except for public health facilities. Therefore, geographical access to medical care was lower in the rural area both in terms travel time and travel cost. 5. The coefficient of the region variable was insignificant in the regression model which controlled the supply factor only However, utilization was significantly higher in urban areas if the model included predisposing factors and need factors in addition to the supply factor. The results were interpreted as rural people have greater medical needs.
Summary
The change of route of HIV transmission for the past 11 years in Korea and the projection of the HIV/AIDS cases to the year 2000.
Soon Young Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):331-346.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Exploring the epidemiological trend of HIV/AIDS is required for making the national AIDS policy. In this study, the trend of HIV/AIDS incidence, rout of transmission and some characteristics of AIDS for the past 11 years in Korea using the reported cases from the national STD screening scheme were reviewed. Based on the results, the trend of main route of transmission according to the year was established by stage and the HIV/AIDS cases in this year was estimated and that to the year 2000 was projected by 'Epimodel' programme. The results were as follows. 1. Of the total infected persons, 76% were in their twenties and thirties, socioeconomically and sexually active age groups while the transmission by sexual contact overseas was decreasing, the infection through domestic heterosexual and homosexual contact was increasing. 2. In the middle of the 1980's, the infected persons were mainly prostitutes infected through heterosexual contact with the HIV positive foreigner in this county(stage l). And in the late of the 1980's the main source of infection was the sexual contact overseas and the domestic heterosexual contact(stage 2). Since the early of the 1990's, the infection through the heterosexual contact with non-regular sexual partner in this country has increased rapidly(stage 3), which was the evidence of the possibility of HIV epidemics. After that, it was expected that the infection through the homosexual contacts, the heterosexual contacts with commercial sex workers outside and the non-regular sexual contact inside of this county would increase continuously. In the result, the occurrence of neonatal infection by vertical transmission was expected(stage 4). 3. The number of HIV/AIDS was estimated at 572 to 2,313 and the projected number of HIV/AlDS to the year 2000 was around 5,800 including 627 AlDS patients. For the further study on the estimation and projection of HIV/AIDS, it was suggested that the sampling survey on the HIV infection rate in the high risk groups and the sentinel hospital surveillance system should be conducted.
Summary
Cost-Benefit Analysis of Back School Program for Occupational Low Back pain Patients.
Yeong Su Ju, Mi Na Ha, Sang Hwan Han, Ho Jang Kwon, Soo Hun Cho, Chang Yup Kim, Sun Min Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):347-358.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Although occupational low back pain accounts for 20~40% of all occupational illness and injury, there are limited numbers of studies regarding the effectiveness of back school program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of back school program for early return to work of occupational low back pain patients in the current occupational injury compensation and management system. The cost-benefit analysis in this study was conducted to evaluate the relative magnitude of benefit to cost. The total cost was estimated by calculating the value of components in back school program according to governmental budget protocol. The back school program was consisted of three major approaches, pain center, work-hardening program and functional restoration program and each of components had various facilities and experts. The total amount of cost was estimated as 250,866,220 won per year. The most promising type of back school program were quite intensive (a 3 to 5-week stay in a specialized center), therefore, if we adopted the 5-week stay course, 10 courses could be held in a year. Following to the medical act, 20 patients per doctor could participate in a each course, ie, total 200 patients in a year. As a result, we could estimate the cost of 1,254,331 won a patient. we estimated the benefit by using data of a few local labor offices about average medical treatment beneficiary and off-duty beneficiary of 46 occupational low back pain patients in 1994. Ullman and Larsson(1977) mentioned that the group of chronic low back pain patients who participated in back school program needed less time to recover by 48.4% of beneficiary duration. And in the trying to estimate the benefit, we asked 10 rehabilitation board certificate doctors about reduction proportion of treatment cost by introducing back school program. The answered reduction proportions were in the range of 30~45%, average 39%. As a final result, we could see that the introduction of back school program in treatment of chronic occupational low back pain patients could produce the benefit to cost ratio as 3.90 and 6.28. And we could conclude that the introduction of back school program was beneficial to current occupational injury compensation and management system.
Summary
An Epidemiologic Study on an Outbreak of Dermatosis Associated with Moths at a Factory.
Hyung Sul Lim, Cheol Jung, Doohie Kim, Yeol Oh Sung, Jung Ran Kim, Yoo Hang Shin
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(2):359-370.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
An outbreak of dermatosis occurred at a machinery manufacture factory in kyongju on Aug 1995. Authors conducted a questionnaire survey among 92 workers in the factory and a dermatologist examined their skin lesions. Authors also collected moths and identified them. The results are as follows; 1. Forty-two cases of dermatosis were identified with attack rate of 45.7%. Attack rate was not different by company, age, sex, educational level and duration of employment. Attack rate was 47.8% among productive workers, 25.0% among clerical workers and 100.0% among patrolmen. 2. Two cases among 42 dermatosis cases and three subjects among 50 non-cases had a history of same dermatosis last year. Four of dermatosis cases had a history of dermatosis among their family members. 3. skin lesions of the cases were scattered or grouped rice-sized erythematous papules or vesicles. Duration of dermatosis from the onset to the time of survey was from one day to more than 30 days. The most frequent site of skin lesion was the arms(81.0%), and it was also observed at the neck(47.6%), abdomen(45.2%), chest(42.9%), legs(38.1%) and back(35.7%). skin lesion was aggravated with sweating(31.0%), after shower(16.7%) and with scratching(l1.9%). 4. Moths were collected and identified as Euproetis subflava(Bremer). Many poisons stings were observed on their wngs which is harmful to human. 5. Contact with moths' wing droppings to two authors on their forearms for provocation resulted in severe immediate pain followed by prolonged pruritus. Erythematous macules quickly appeared and suoceeded by firm wheal-like red papules. Authors thought that the outbreak of dermatosis was brought about by Euproetix subflava(Bremer). Further studies on the factors contributing to the prosperity of the moths in this area are needed.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health