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Tae Ryong Kim 2 Articles
The Effect of an Oral Contraceptive (Eugynon) Upon Lactation.
E Hyock Kwon, Tae Ryong Kim, Kil Won Kang, Jae Woong Hong, Yoon Ok Ahn
Korean J Prev Med. 1975;8(1):15-24.
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  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
There are a number of published reports aimed at clarifying the effect of hormonal contracept -ives upon the quantity and quality of breast milk during postpartum and lactation periods. As to the volume of milk produced by breast feeding mothers, many authors seem to have agreed on a decrease as an established pattern in the periods following regular administration of oral contraceptives containing estrogen in varying dosage. The quality of milk following administration of hormonal contraceptives, however, remsins a controversial issue. Korea's experience in oral contraceptive is rather a brief one, but use of Eugynon has been widespread and frequent since this hormonal contraceptive was introduced into the national program in 1967. The authors have reviewed the potential significance of data concerning regular use of an oral contraceptive as affecting lactation, and have sought to clarify the interrelationship between the administration of Eugynon and quantity and quality of breast milk from mothers contracepting. with Eugynon in different periods following confinement. A total of 85 women, who were at different periods following deliveries, have been divided into, two groups, one comprising 28 women regularly taking oral pills and the other (57 women) not resorting to hormonal contraceptives if they were contracepting at all. 1. Milk Volume. In view of the possible influence of suckling on the amount of milk produced, efforts were made in this study to standardize the technique by extracting breastmilk by applying manual pressures on one side of the maw-nae, While the nipple on the other side was being sucked by the mother's own baby. The effetct of an exogenic ovarian hormone on the quantity as well as quality of breastmilk is generally understood to be inapparent until the drug is administered to women whose milk secreting function has been normalized. ") In the present study, it was observed that the decrease in the ammount of milk obtained from mothers in the periods following the 4th cycle of oral contraceptives or thereafter has turned out to be statistically insignificant. This result conforms i.u the findings by Tubari and others. It is assumed that it takes at lest 2 to 3 cycles of use before mammary glands are functionally adjusted to the use of exogenic hormonal contraceptives. 2. Specific Gravity and Composition of Milk There was no noticeable change in the protein and chloride content following continuous administration of ore.l contraceptives, while meaningful changes were observed in fat (increase) and calcium (decrease up to the 5th cycle use) contents. Also, there was a rather significant decrease in the specific gravity in the period following administration of the first cycle of the oral contraceptive. The findings from the present study partially conforms the results published by Ramadan and others, who reported that little change was noticed in the contents of total solids. ash, chlorides and lactose in the breast milk of women who had taken 4 cycles of ovosiston, although in our study lactose was not measured. Ramaden, however, reported that fat content did increase in the same milk, as in our study. A definitive conclusion, however, could not be made unless measures are taken to rule out the physiological changes of the maternal body affecting the composition of milks.
Summary
On Pattern of Birth and Death in Seoul City.
E Hyock Kwon, Tae Ryong Kim, Hyung Jong Park, Do Suo Koo, Yong Wook Lee, Soon Young Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1968;1(1):9-24.
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  • 37 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
A survey was conducted by the staff of the College of Medicine and School of Public Health, Seoul National University in cooperation with Seoul Special City from 1 December 1967 through 28 February 1968, on such events as delivery, death, abortion and pregnancy. The survey directed to a total population of 47,811 residing in 9,157 households led us to the following findings: 1. Two year averages of crude birth rate, crude death rate and natural increase rate were 30.1, 5.6 and 24.5, respectively. 2. Of all deliveries, home and hospital deliveries constituted 61.1 per cent and 35.5 per cent, respectively. 3. Deliveries other than hospital deliveries were found to be attended more often by mother-in-laws(26.5 per cent) than by doctors or midwives(23.4 per cent). 4. About 52 per cent of all women having experiences in pregnancy during the last two years had an experience of consulting a doctor at least one time throughout whole period of pregnancy. 5. In most cases scissors were used to cut umbilical cords, of which 71.0 per cent were not sterilized and only 28.3 per cent sterilized. 6. In many cases placenta was incinerated(48,2 per cent) and on many other occasions it was thrown away into water(28.3 per cent). 7. Cement page(37.4 per cent), gauze and absorbent cotton(29.8 per cent)were found to be most frequently used to receive new-born babies. 8. In 1966 8.8 per cent of the women had at least one abortion induced and in 1967 the percentage was 9.2 per cent. 9. Nearly all(95.8 per cent) of the induced abortions reportedly were done at doctor's clinics. 10. Of all the abortions induced 65.3 per cent were done by specialists in obstetrics, 30.3 per cent by general practitioners and 2.7 per cent by midwives. 11. Those who experienced spontaneous abortions were 1.9 per cent of all women both in 1966 and 1967. 12. About 9.2 per cent of women investigated were found to be currently pregnant. 13. Age specific death rate turned out to be highest among those under 1 year of age. 14. Ten major causes of death in their order of frequency were: 15. Places of death can be classified into homes(75.3 per cent) and hospitals(13.2 per cent). 16. Method of disposing of corpses comprised burials(54.2 per cent) and cremations(44.6 per cent). 17. Infant, neonatal and hebdomadal mortality rates have been computed at 32.2, 18.9 and 13.7, respectively. 18. Infants were found to have died either at homes(81.5 per cent) or at hospitals(18.5 per cent). 19. Birth registrations had been done for about 18.5 per cent of the dead infants.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health