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Sung Il Cho 16 Articles
Gender, Professional and Non-Professional Work, and the Changing Pattern of Employment-Related Inequality in Poor Self-Rated Health, 1995-2006 in South Korea.
Il Ho Kim, Young Ho Khang, Sung Il Cho, Heeran Chun, Carles Muntaner
J Prev Med Public Health. 2011;44(1):22-31.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.1.22
  • 5,943 View
  • 101 Download
  • 24 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We examined gender differential changes in employment-related health inequalities according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) in South Korea during the last decade. METHODS: Data were taken from four rounds of Social Statistical Surveys of South Korea (1995, 1999, 2003, and 2006) from the Korean National Statistics Office. The total study population was 55435 male and 33 913 female employees aged 25-64. Employment arrangements were divided into permanent, fixed-term, and daily employment. RESULTS: After stratification according to occupational position (professional/nonprofessional) and gender, different patterns in employment - related health inequalities were observed. In the professional group, the gaps in absolute and relative employment inequalities for poor self-rated health were more likely to widen following Korea's 1997 economic downturn. In the nonprofessional group, during the study period, graded patterns of employment-related health inequalities were continuously observed in both genders. Absolute health inequalities by employment status, however, decreased among men but increased among women. In addition, a remarkable increase in relative health inequalities was found among female temporary and daily employees (p = 0.009, < 0.001, respectively), but only among male daily employees (p = 0.001). Relative employment-related health inequalities had clearly widened for female daily workers between 2003 and 2006 (p = 0.047). The 1997 Korean economic downturn, in particular, seemingly stimulated a widening gap in employment health inequalities. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that whereas absolute health inequalities in relation to employment status increased in the professional group, relative employment-related health inequalities increased in the nonprofessional group, especially among women. In view of the high concentration of female nonstandard employees, further monitoring of inequality should consider gender specific patterns according to employee's occupational and employment status.
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  • Association between temporary employment and current smoking and change in smoking behaviors: A prospective cohort study from South Korea (2009–2018)
    Seong-Uk Baek, Min-Seok Kim, Myeong-Hun Lim, Taeyeon Kim, Jin-Ha Yoon, Yu-Min Lee, Jong-Uk Won
    Journal of Epidemiology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Initiatives Addressing Precarious Employment and Its Effects on Workers’ Health and Well-Being: A Systematic Review
    Virginia Gunn, Bertina Kreshpaj, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Emilia F. Vignola, David H. Wegman, Christer Hogstedt, Emily Q. Ahonen, Theo Bodin, Cecilia Orellana, Sherry Baron, Carles Muntaner, Patricia O’Campo, Maria Albin, Carin Håkansta
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(4): 2232.     CrossRef
  • Changes in cause-specific mortality trends across occupations in working-age Japanese women from 1980 to 2015: a cross-sectional analysis
    Bibha Dhungel, Kuniyasu Takagi, Shijan Acharya, Koji Wada, Stuart Gilmour
    BMC Women's Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Longitudinal Evaluation of Risk Factors and Interactions for the Development of Nonspecific Neck Pain in Office Workers in Two Cultures
    Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Steven M. McPhail, Shaun O’Leary
    Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.2021; 63(4): 663.     CrossRef
  • Initiatives addressing precarious employment and its effects on workers’ health and well-being: a protocol for a systematic review
    Virginia Gunn, Carin Håkansta, Emilia Vignola, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Bertina Kreshpaj, David H. Wegman, Christer Hogstedt, Emily Q. Ahonen, Carles Muntaner, Sherry Baron, Theo Bodin
    Systematic Reviews.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comparison of occupational health problems of employees and self-employed individuals who work in different fields
    Jungsun Park, Boyoung Han, Yangho Kim
    Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health.2020; 75(2): 98.     CrossRef
  • Nonstandard workers and differential occupational safety and health vulnerabilities
    Jungsun Park, Boyoung Han, Jong‐shik Park, Eun Ji Park, Yangho Kim
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine.2019; 62(8): 701.     CrossRef
  • Relationship of Occupational Category With Risk of Physical and Mental Health Problems
    Jaeouk Ahn, Nam-Soo Kim, Byung-Kook Lee, Jungsun Park, Yangho Kim
    Safety and Health at Work.2019; 10(4): 504.     CrossRef
  • Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) in the Korean working population
    Deokhoon Jun, Venerina Johnston, Jun-Mo Kim, Shaun O’Leary
    Work.2018; 59(1): 93.     CrossRef
  • Self‐employed individuals performing different types of work have different occupational safety and health problems
    Jungsun Park, Boyoung Han, Yangho Kim
    American Journal of Industrial Medicine.2018; 61(8): 681.     CrossRef
  • Nonstandard Employment and Health in South Korea: The Role of Gender and Family Status
    Sojung Lim, Sun Young Jeon, Joongbaeck Kim, Hyeyoung Woo
    Sociological Perspectives.2018; 61(6): 973.     CrossRef
  • “Blue flags”, development of a short clinical questionnaire on work-related psychosocial risk factors - a validation study in primary care
    Charlotte Post Sennehed, Gunvor Gard, Sara Holmberg, Kjerstin Stigmar, Malin Forsbrand, Birgitta Grahn
    BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders.2017;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Occupational Class with Healthcare Utilization among Economically Active Korean Adults from 2006 to 2014: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study of Koreans Aged 19 Years and Older
    Jae-Hyun Kim, Kwang Soo Lee, Yunhwan Lee, Eun-Cheol Park
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2017; 38(6): 365.     CrossRef
  • Gender Differences in the Effects of Job Control and Demands on the Health of Korean Manual Workers
    HeeJoo Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Yeon Jin Jang, Ji Young Bae
    Health Care for Women International.2016; 37(3): 290.     CrossRef
  • Economic shocks and health resilience: lessons from the Russian Federation
    Vladimir S. Gordeev, Yevgeniy Goryakin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler, Bayard Roberts
    Journal of Public Health.2016; 38(4): e409.     CrossRef
  • Impact of health insurance status changes on healthcare utilisation patterns: a longitudinal cohort study in South Korea
    Jae-Hyun Kim, Sang Gyu Lee, Kwang-Soo Lee, Sung-In Jang, Kyung-Hee Cho, Eun-Cheol Park
    BMJ Open.2016; 6(4): e009538.     CrossRef
  • Working conditions, psychosocial environmental factors, and depressive symptoms among wage workers in South Korea
    Minsung Sohn, Mankyu Choi, Minsoo Jung
    International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health.2016; 22(3): 209.     CrossRef
  • Scoping review: national monitoring frameworks for social determinants of health and health equity
    Leo Pedrana, Marina Pamponet, Ruth Walker, Federico Costa, Davide Rasella
    Global Health Action.2016; 9(1): 28831.     CrossRef
  • Trade liberalization, social policies and health: an empirical case study
    Courtney McNamara
    Globalization and Health.2015;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • A Systematic Review on Health Resilience to Economic Crises
    Ketevan Glonti, Vladimir S. Gordeev, Yevgeniy Goryakin, Aaron Reeves, David Stuckler, Martin McKee, Bayard Roberts, Daisuke Nishi
    PLOS ONE.2015; 10(4): e0123117.     CrossRef
  • The impact of economic crises on social inequalities in health: what do we know so far?
    Amaia Bacigalupe, Antonio Escolar-Pujolar
    International Journal for Equity in Health.2014;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Socioeconomic inequalities in health status in Korea
    Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Yu-Mi Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2013; 56(3): 167.     CrossRef
  • Self-rated health and its determinants in Japan and South Korea
    J.H. Park, K.S. Lee
    Public Health.2013; 127(9): 834.     CrossRef
  • Health Status and Affecting Factors related to Job among Korean Women Employees
    Eun-Young Hong, Sang-Dol Kim
    Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society.2012; 13(9): 4107.     CrossRef
Assessment of Applicability of Standardized Rates for Health State Comparison Among Areas: 2008 Community Health Survey.
Geun Yong Kwon, Do Sang Lim, Eun Ja Park, Ji Sun Jung, Ki Won Kang, Yun A Kim, Ho Kim, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):174-184.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.174
  • 5,246 View
  • 47 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study shows the issues that should be considered when applying standardized rates using Community Health Survey(CHS) data. METHODS: We analyzed 2008 CHS data. In order to obtain the reliability of standardized rates, we calculated z-score and rank correlation coefficients between direct standardized rate and indirect standardized rate for 31 major indices. Especially, we assessed the change of correlations according to population composition (age and sex), and characteristics of the index. We used Mantel-Haenszel chi-square to quantify the difference of population composition. RESULTS: Among 31 major indices, 29 indices' z-score and rank correlation coefficients were over 0.9. However, regions with larger differences in population composition showed lower reliability. Low reliability was also observed for the indices specific to subgroups with small denominator such as 'permanent lesion from stroke', and the index with large regional variations in age-related differences such as 'obtaining health examinations'. CONCLUSIONS: Standardized rates may have low reliability, if comparison is made between areas with extremely large differences in population composition, or for indicies with large regional variations in age-related differences. Therefore, the special features of standardized rates should be considered when health state are compared among areas.
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  • Ambient air quality and subjective stress level using Community Health Survey data in Korea
    Myung-Jae Hwang, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Jong-Hun Kim, Youn Seo Koo, Hui-Young Yun
    Epidemiology and Health.2018; 40: e2018028.     CrossRef
  • Illustration of Calculating Standardized Rates Utilizing Logistic Regression Models: The National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS)
    Sang-Hoon Cho, Gunseog Kang, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2017; 42(1): 70.     CrossRef
  • Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles
    Yang Wha Kang, Yun Sil Ko, Yoo Jin Kim, Kyoung Mi Sung, Hyo Jin Kim, Hyung Yun Choi, Changhyun Sung, Eunkyeong Jeong
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2015; 6(3): 211.     CrossRef
  • Health behavior affecting on the regional variation of standardized mortality
    Jin A Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Se Rom Kim, Ki Hong Chun, Yun Hwan Lee, Soon Young Lee
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2015; 32(3): 23.     CrossRef
  • Convergence-based analysis on geographical variations of the smoking rates
    Ji-Hye Lim, Sung-Hong Kang
    Journal of Digital Convergence.2015; 13(8): 375.     CrossRef
  • Overview of Korean Community Health Survey
    Young Taek Kim, Bo Youl Choi, Kay O Lee, Ho Kim, Jin Ho Chun, Su Young Kim, Duk-Hyoung Lee, Yun A Ghim, Do Sang Lim, Yang Wha Kang, Tae Young Lee, Jeong Sook Kim, Hyun Jo, Yoojin Kim, Yun Sil Ko, Soon Ryu Seo, No-Rye Park, Jong-Koo Lee
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2012; 55(1): 74.     CrossRef
The Distribution of Intraocular Pressure and Its Association With Metabolic Syndrome in a Community.
Sang shin Park, Eun Hee Lee, Ganchimeg Jargal, Domyung Paek, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2010;43(2):125-130.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2010.43.2.125
  • 5,341 View
  • 120 Download
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The current study was performed to assess the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its association with metabolic syndrome (MS) in a community. METHODS: We measured IOP and MS components from 446 adults, age 20 or more years old, who reside in a community in Kyunggi Province, South Korea. We compared the level of IOP according to the number of metabolic abnormalities and between normal and abnormal metabolic components. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the relationship between IOP and metabolic components. RESULTS: No significant difference in IOP (mean +/- SE) was found between men (12.24 +/- 2.42) and women (12.55 +/- 2.41 mmHg, p > 0.1), while IOP of men tended to decrease as age increased (p for trend < 0.01). After adjusting for age, IOP of subjects with abdominal obesity in men and high blood pressure in women were significantly higher than those without abdominal obesity or high blood pressure (p < 0.05). Female subjects with MS showed significantly higher IOP than those without MS. Participants with more metabolic disturbances tended to have a greater IOP elevation with a linear trend after adjusting for age and sex. In the univariate regression analysis, age and waist circumference were significantly associated with IOP in men, but systolic and diastolic blood pressure were associated with IOP in women. In final multiple regression model, age, systolic blood pressure, and triglyceride were associated with IOP in women, and age in men. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that MS and its components may be important determinants of elevated IOP.
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    Konuralp Tıp Dergisi.2023; 15(2): 190.     CrossRef
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    Sangshin Park, Nam-Kyong Choi
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    Di Zhao, Myung Hun Kim, Roberto Pastor-Barriuso, Yoosoo Chang, Seungho Ryu, Yiyi Zhang, Sanjay Rampal, Hocheol Shin, Joon Mo Kim, David S. Friedman, Eliseo Guallar, Juhee Cho, Demetrios Vavvas
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    Hyung-Deok Jang, Do Hoon Kim, Kyungdo Han, Suk Gyu Ha, Yang Hyun Kim, Jae Woo Kim, Ji Young Park, Su Jung Yoon, Dong Wook Jung, Sang Woon Park, Ga Eun Nam
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Multiple Roles and Health among Korean Women.
Su Jin Cho, Soong Nang Jang, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(5):355-363.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.5.355
  • 5,134 View
  • 51 Download
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Most studies about multiple roles and women's health suggested that combining with paid job, being married and having children was more likely to improve health status than in case of single or traditional roles. We investigated whether there was better health outcome in multiple roles among Korean women coinciding with previous studies of other nations. METHODS: Data were from the 2005 Korea National Health & Nutritional Examination Survey, a subsample of women aged 25-59 years (N=2,943). Health status was assessed for self-rated poor health, perceived stress and depression, respectively based on one questionnaire item. The age-standardized prevalence of all health outcomes were calculated by role categories and socioeconomic status. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of self rated health, perceived stress, and depression with multiple roles adjusted for age, education, household income, number of children and age of children. RESULTS: Having multiple roles with working role was not associated with better health and psychological wellbeing. Compared to those with traditional roles, employed women more frequently experienced perceived stress, with marital and/or parental roles. Non-working single mothers suffered depression more often than women with traditional roles or other role occupancy. Socioeconomic status indicators were potent independent correlates of self-rated health and perceived stress. CONCLUSIONS: Employment of women with other roles did not confer additional health benefit to traditional family responsibility. Juggling of work and family responsibility appeared more stressful than traditional unemployed parental and marital role in Korean women.
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    Sol Lee, Bok-Mi Jung
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    Sangmi Kim, Seonju Yi, Meekyung Kim, Bokyung Kim, Hwayoung Lee, Taekryeon Jeon, Youngtae Cho
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2015; 27(2): NP1002.     CrossRef
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    Sung Suk Chung, Il Young Yoo, Kyoung Hwa Joung
    International Journal of Mental Health Nursing.2013; 22(4): 359.     CrossRef
  • Depression of married and employed women based on social-role theory
    Insook Cho, Sukhee Ahn, Souk Young Kim, Young Sook Park, Hae Won Kim, Sun Ok Lee, Sook Hee Lee, Chae Weon Chung
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2012; 42(4): 496.     CrossRef
The Effects of Actual and Perceived Body Weight on Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors and Depressed Mood among Adult Women in Seoul, Korea.
Dong Sik Kim, Hyun Sun Kim, Youngtae Cho, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2008;41(5):323-330.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2008.41.5.323
  • 5,257 View
  • 85 Download
  • 33 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to examine the mediating function of body weight perception (BWP) on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and unhealthy weight control behaviors (UWCB: e.g., fasting, or taking diet pills or laxatives) and between BMI and depressed mood, and to explore the effect of distorted BWP on UWCB and depressed mood among adult women. METHODS: A regionally representative sample of 8,581 women aged 20-64 years residing in Seoul, the capital of Korea, completed the 2001 Seoul Citizens Health Indicator Survey which provides self-reported information about height, weight, BWP, UWCB, depressed mood, demographic/ socioeconomic characteristics, and health-related behaviors. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: BMI was significantly associated both with UWCB and depressed mood, even controlling for all covariates. However, the magnitude and significance of each association was considerably attenuated when BWP was taken into account, indicating that BWP functioned, in part, as a mediator between BMI and UWCB and between BMI and depressed mood, respectively. Among the combinations of BMI and BWP, women who perceived themselves to be heavier than their actual BMIs appeared more likely to use UWCB, whereas women who had a distorted BWP, either underestimation or overestimation as compared with their BMIs, tended to be at greater risk for depressed mood than those who had an undistorted BWP. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that how women perceive their body weight may be an important predictor and/or mediator of UWCB and depressed mood among adult Korean women.
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Trend of Socioeconomic Inequality in Participation in Cervical Cancer Screening among Korean Women.
Soong Nang Jang, Sung il Cho, Seung Sik Hwang, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, So Young Im, Ji Ae Lee, Minah Kang Kim
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):505-511.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.505
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
While cervical cancer is one of the leading cancers among women worldwide, there are a number of effective early detection tests available. However, the participation rates in cervical cancer screening among Korean women remain low. After the nationwide efforts in 1988 and thereafter to encourage participation in cervical cancer screening, few studies have investigated the effects of socioeconomic inequality on participation in cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate 1) the level of socioeconomic disparities in receiving cervical cancer screening by age group and 2) if there was an improvement in reducing these disparities between 1995 and 2001. METHODS: Using data from the Korean National Health Status, Health Behavior and Belief Survey in 1995, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1998 and 2001 (sample sizes of 2,297, 3,738, and 3,283), age-standardized participation rates were calculated according to education level, equivalized household income, and job status. Odds ratios and the relative inequality index (RII) were also calculated after controlling for age. RESULTS: Women with lower education levels were less likely to attend the screening test, and the disparities by education level were most pronounced among women aged 60 years and older. The RIIs among women 60 years and older were 3.64, 4.46, and 8.64 in 1995, 1998, and 2001, respectively. Higher rates of participation were reported among those in the highest income category, which was more notable among the middle aged women (40s and 50s). An inconsistent trend in the rate of participation in cervical cancer screening by occupational level was found. CONCLUSIONS: Indicators of socioeconomic position seem to have varying impacts on the inequalities in the rates of participation in cervical cancer screening according to age group. These results demonstrate the need for more aggressive and age-based interventions and policy programs to eliminate the remaining inequalities.
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A Review on Socioeconomic Position Indicators in Health Inequality Research.
Yong Jun Choi, Baek Geun Jeong, Sung Il Cho, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Soong Nang Jang, Minah Kang, Young Ho Khang
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(6):475-486.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.6.475
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
Socioeconomic position (SEP) refers to the socioeconomic factors that influence which position an individual or group of people will hold within the structure of a society. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of various indicators of SEP, including education level, occupation-based SEP, income and wealth, area SEP, lifecourse SEP, and SEP indicators for women, elderly and youth. METHODS AND RESULTS: This report provides a brief theoretical background and discusses the measurement, interpretation issues, advantages and limitations associated with the use of each SEP indicator. We also describe some problems that arise when selecting SEP indicators and highlight the indicators that appear to be appropriate for health inequality research. Some practical information for use in health inequality research in South Korea is also presented. CONCLUSIONS: Investigation into the associations between various SEP indicators and health outcomes can provide a more complete understanding of mechanisms between SEP and health. The relationship between specific SEP indicators and specific health outcomes can vary by country due to the differences in the historical, socioeconomic, and cultural contexts of the SEP indicators.
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Disparities in Participation in Health Examination by Socio-economic Position among Adult Seoul Residents.
Eun Jeong Chun, Soong Nang Jang, Sung Il Cho, Youngtae Cho, Ok Ryun Moon
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(5):345-350.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.5.345
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To determine the disparity in the rate people undergo health examinations according to socioeconomic position (SEP) and the changes in this disparity with time. METHODS: Seoul citizens}health profile data from 1997 to 2005 were analyzed. The study subjects were 40 years old and over, and the total number of subjects was 6,601 in 1997, 8,994 in 2001, and 8,819 in 2005. Those aged 60 years and over were eliminated from the analysis of subjects}occupation. We used education, family income and occupation as indicators of SEP. The age-standardized health examination attendance rate for each year was calculated according to the education, family income and occupation. The odds ratios (ORs) from multiple logistic regressions were adjusted for age. RESULTS: The disparity in the rate of attendance according to the SEP decreased from 1997 to 2005 but still existed. Even though the disparities among the subgroups according to education, family income and occupation were not that high, the disparity between the group with the highest SEP and the other groups was considerable. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that unequal access to health examination services according to socioeconomic position still exists. This disparity has decreased recently but the disparity according to level of education was the greatest.
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Validity of Expired Carbon Monoxide and Urine Cotinine Using Dipstick Method to Assess Smoking Status.
Su San Park, Ju Yul Lee, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(4):297-304.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.4.297
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the validity of the dipstick method (Mossman Associates Inc. USA) and the expired CO method to distinguish between smokers and nonsmokers. We also elucidated the related factors of the two methods. METHODS: This study included 244 smokers and 50 exsmokers, recruited from smoking cessation clinics at 4 local public health centers, who had quit for over 4 weeks. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity and Kappa coefficient of each method for validity. We obtained ROC curve, predictive value and agreement to determine the cutoff of expired air CO method. Finally, we elucidated the related factors and compared their effect powers using the standardized regression coefficient. RESULTS: The dipstick method showed a sensitivity of 92.6%, specificity of 96.0% and Kappa coefficient of 0.79. The best cutoff value to distinguish smokers was 5-6ppm. At 5 ppm, the expired CO method showed a sensitivity of 94.3%, specificity of 82.0% and Kappa coefficient of 0.73. And at 6 ppm, sensitivity, specificity and Kappa coefficient were 88.5%, 86.0% and 0.64, respectively. Therefore, the dipstick method had higher sensitivity and specificity than the expired CO method. The dipstick and expired CO methods were significantly increased with increasing smoking amount. With longer time since the last smoking, expired CO showed a rapid decrease after 4 hours, whereas the dipstick method showed relatively stable levels for more than 4 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The dipstick and expired CO methods were both good indicators for assessing smoking status. However, the former showed higher sensitivity and specificity and stable levels over longer hours after smoking, compared to the expired CO method.
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    Journal of the Korean Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco.2021; 12(1): 24.     CrossRef
  • Short-Term Success Rates of Smoking Cessation Support Programs and Factors Predicting Smoking Relapse: Using Data from a Smoking Cessation Clinic in a Hospital
    Seung-Hyun Yu, Myeong-Jun Kim, Jin Jeon, Hoon-Ki Park, Hwan-Sik Hwang, Kye-Yeung Park
    Korean Journal of Family Medicine.2019; 40(6): 373.     CrossRef
  • Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma by age, sex, and liver disorder status: A prospective cohort study in Korea
    Sang‐Wook Yi, Ja‐Sung Choi, Jee‐Jeon Yi, Yong‐ho Lee, Ki Jun Han
    Cancer.2018; 124(13): 2748.     CrossRef
  • Factors Affecting Smoking Cessation Success during 4-week Smoking Cessation Program for University Students
    Sang Mee Koo, Jeong Hee Kang
    Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing.2017; 28(2): 165.     CrossRef
  • Tuberculosis, smoking and risk for lung cancer incidence and mortality
    Seri Hong, Yejin Mok, Christina Jeon, Sun Ha Jee, Jonathan M. Samet
    International Journal of Cancer.2016; 139(11): 2447.     CrossRef
  • Effects of a Smoking Cessation Program including Telephone Counseling and Text Messaging using Stages of Change for Outpatients after a Myocardial Infarction
    Jung-Hyeon Kong, Yeongmi Ha
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing.2013; 43(4): 557.     CrossRef
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    Tobacco Control.2013; 22(e1): e73.     CrossRef
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    Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.2013; 14(11): 6919.     CrossRef
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    Dane Shiltz, Angie Paniagua, James E. Hastings
    Journal of Smoking Cessation.2011; 6(1): 65.     CrossRef
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  • Smoking and Risk of Tuberculosis Incidence, Mortality, and Recurrence in South Korean Men and Women
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    American Journal of Epidemiology.2009; 170(12): 1478.     CrossRef
Strategy Considerations in Genome Cohort Construction in Korea.
Joohon Sung, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2007;40(2):95-101.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.2007.40.2.95
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Focusing on complex diseases of public health significance, strategic issues regarding the on-going Korean Genome Cohort were reviewed: target size and diseases, measurements, study design issues, and followup strategy of the cohort. Considering the epidemiologic characteristics of Korean population as well as strengths and drawbacks of current research environment, we tried to tailor the experience of other existing cohorts into proposals for this Korean study. Currently 100,000 individuals have been participating the new Genome Cohort in Korea. Target size of de novo collection is recommended to be set as between 300,000 to 500,000. This target size would allow acceptable power to detect genetic and environmental factors of moderate effect size and possible interactions between them. Family units and/or special subgroups are recommended to parallel main body of adult individuals to increase the overall efficiency of the study. Given that response rate to the conventional re-contact method may not be satisfactory, successful follow-up is the main key to the achievement of the Korean Genome Cohort. Access to the central database such as National Health Insurance data can provide enormous potential for near-complete case detection. Efforts to build consensus amongst scientists from broad fields and stakeholders are crucial to unleash the centralized database as well as to refine the commitment of this national project.
Summary
Socioeconomic Differentials in Health and Health Related Behaviors: Findings from the Korea Youth Panel Survey.
Young Ho Khang, Sung Il Cho, Seungmi Yang, Moo Song Lee
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(4):391-400.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This study examined the socioeconomic differentials for the health and health related behaviors among South Korean middle school students. METHODS: A nationwide cross-sectional interview survey of 3, 449 middle school second-grade students and their parents was conducted using a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method. The response rate was 93.3%. The socioeconomic position indicators were based on selfreported information from the students and their parents: parental education, father's occupational class, monthly family income, out-of-pocket expenditure for education, housing ownership, educational expectations, educational performance and the perceived economic hardships. The outcome variables that were measured were also based on the self-reported information from the students. The health measures included self-rated health conditions, psychological or mental problems, the feelings of loneliness at school, the overall satisfaction of life and the perceived level of stress. The health related behaviors included were smoking, alcohol drinking, sexual intercourse, violence, bullying and verbal and physical abuse by parents. RESULTS: Socioeconomic differences for the health and health related behaviors were found among the eighth grade boys and girls of South Korea. However, the pattern varied with gender, the socioeconomic position indicators and the outcome measures. The prevalence rates of the overall dissatisfaction with life for both genders differed according to most of the eight socioeconomic position indicators. All the health measures were significantly different according to the perceived economic hardship. However, the socioeconomic differences in the self-rated health conditions and the psychosocial or mental problems were not clear. The students having higher socioeconomic position tended to be a perpetrator of bullying while those students with lower socioeconomic position were more likely to be a victim. CONCLUSIONS: The perceived economic hardships predicted the health status among the eighth graders of South Korea. The overall satisfaction of life was associated with the socioeconomic position indicators. Further research efforts are needed to explore the mechanisms on how and why the socioeconomic position affects the health and health related behaviors in this age group.
Summary
Does Non-standard Work Affect Health?.
Il Ho Kim, Do myung Paek, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):337-344.
  • 2,067 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
Job insecurity, such as non-standard work, is reported to have an adverse impact on health, regardless of health behaviors. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between non-standard employment and health in Korea. METHODS: We analyzed a representative weighted sample, which consisted of 2, 112 men and 1, 237 women, aged 15-64, from the 1998 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Non-standard employment included part-time permanent, short time temporary and daily workers. Self-reported health was used as a health indicator. RESULTS: This study indicated that women were more likely to report poorer health than men with standard jobs. Of all employees, 20.3% were female manual workers. After adjusting for potential confounders, such as age, education, equivalent income, marital, social and selfreported economic status and health behavior factors, nonstandard employment was found to be significantly associated with poor health among female manual workers (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.24 to 2.79). No significant association was found in other working groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among female manual workers, nonstandard employees reported significantly poorer health compared with standard workers. This result raises concern as there are increasing numbers of non-standard workers, particularly females.
Summary
Distribution of Calcaneal Bone Density According to the Mechanical Strain of Exercise and Calcium Intake in Premenarcheal Girls.
Eun Kyung Shin, Ki Suk Kim, Hee Young Kim, In Sook Lee, Hyo Jee Joung, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(3):291-297.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
The effects of exercise on bone density have been found to be inconsistent in previous studies. We conducted a cross-sectional study in premenarcheal girls to test two hypotheses to explain these inconsistencies. Firstly, "the intensity of mechanical strain, in terms of the ground reaction force (GRF), has more important effects on the bone mass at a weight-bearing site", and secondly, "calcium intake modifies the bone response to exercise". METHODS: The areal bone mineral density was measured at the Os calcis, using peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, in 91 premenarcheal girls aged between 9 and 12 years. The intensity of mechanical strain of exercise was assessed by a self-report questionnaire and scored by the GRF as multiples of body weight, irrespective of the frequency and duration of exercise. The energy and calcium intake were calculated from the 24-hour dietary recall. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to determine the interaction and main effects of exercise and calcium on the bone density, after adjusting for age, weight, height and energy intake. RESULTS: The difference in the bone density between moderate and low impact exercise was more pronounced in the high than low calcium intake group. The bone density for moderate impact exercise and high calcium intake was significantly higher than that for low impact exercise (p=0.046) and low calcium intake, after adjusting for age, weight, height and energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the bone density at a weight-bearing site is positively related to the intensity of mechanical loading exercise, and the calcium intake may modify the bone response to exercise at the loaded site in premenarcheal girls.
Summary
The Association between Bone Density at Os Calcis and Body Composition in Healthy Children Aged 9-12 Years.
Eun Kyung Shin, Ki Suk Kim, Hee Young Kim, In Sook Lee, Hyo Jee Joung, Sung Il Cho
J Prev Med Public Health. 2004;37(1):72-79.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVE
This cross-sectional study aimed to quantify the relationship between the bone mineral density at the os calcis and the body mass composition in healthy children. METHODS: The areal bone mineral density was measured at the os calcis with peripheral dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The fat free mass, fat mass and percentage fat mass were measured using bioelectric impedance, in 237 Korean children, aged 9 to 12 years. The sexual maturity was determined by self assessment, using standardized series of the 5 Tanner stage drawings, accompanied by explanatory text. RESULTS: From multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, sexual maturity and height, the fat free mass was found to be the best predictor of the calcaneal bone mineral density in both sexes. About 15 and 20% variabilities were found in the calcaneal bone mineral densities of the boys and girls, respectively, which can be explained by the fat free mass. After weight adjustment, the percentage fat mass was negatively associated with the calcaneal bone mineral density in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the fat free mass, among the body compositions, is the major determinant of bone mineral density at the os calcis in Korean children aged 9 to 12 years. Obesity, defined as the percentage fat mass, is assumed to have a negative effect on the calcaneal bone density in children of the same weight.
Summary
The Association between the Psychosocial Well-being Status and Adverse Lipid Profiles in a Rural Korean Community.
Chang Hoon Kim, Myoung Hee Kim, Sung Il Cho, Jung Hyun Nam, Bo Youl Choi
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(1):24-32.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
To identify the psychosocial well-being status in a rural community, and examine the association between the psychosocial well-being status and adverse lipid profile. METHOD: In 2001, we surveyed 575 subjects in Yangpyoung, Kyounggido, including medical examination, fasting-blood sample and questionnaires for the psychosocial well-being status, socioeconomic position and behavioral risk factors. The logistic regression analysis was used to examine explanatory factors of the psychosocial well-being status, and association between the psychosocial well-being status and adverse lipid profiles. RESULT: The association between the psychosocial well-being status and adverse lipid profiles was not strong. The total cholesterol and triglyceridelevels were associated with psychosocial well-being. The adjusted odds ratio for moderate psychosocial well-being relating to total cholesterol was 1.90 (95%CI, 0.82-4.04), but that for triglyceride was 0.65 (95%CI, 0.36-1.21). The HDL-Cholesterol and LDL-Cholesterol level were not associated with the psychosocial well-being status. CONCLUSION: The total cholesterol and psychosocial well-being status were weakly associated, but the between the psychosocial well-being status and adverse lipid profiles were not consistent.
Summary
Environmental pullution related health problems reported in newspapers.
Soo Hun Cho, Sun Min Kim, Sung Il Cho
Korean J Prev Med. 1993;26(1):126-136.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
To understand the possible hazards to health from the environmental pollution in Korea, the articles reported in 16 daily newspapers were collected and analyzed. From 1980 to 1991, ninety three cases were reported. Statistics show that, during the last 2 years, there has been a remarkable increases of health problems reported. The main sources of pollution were plants and the transportation facilities. Except the noise, the exact causative factors were, for the most part, not clearly described. Although many residents complained of neurological symptoms, the exact effects on health were not clearly investigated. The responses of the residents were diverse in the contents of the demand and the method of its pushing, however, the government did not show immediate and consistent counterplans.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health