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Sei Jin Chang 16 Articles
Correlates of Self-rated Fatigue in Korean Employees.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Gun Kang, Sook Jung Hyun, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Jun Ho Park, Seong Ah Kim, Dong Mug Kang, Seong Sil Chang, Kyung Jae Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Mina Ha, Jong Min Woo, Jung Jin Cho, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Sun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):71-81.
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OBJECTIVE
To elucidate the correlates of self-rated fatigue in Korean employees. METHODS: The data for 10, 176 (men, 7, 984; women, 2, 192; mean age, 34.2; SD: 8.8) employees recruited from a nationwide sample were examined. A structured questionnaire was used to measure the participants' fatigue, sociodemographics (sex, age, education, and marital status), job-related characteristics (work duration, grade at work, work hours, shiftwork, employment type, and magnitude of workplace), and health-related habits (smoking, drinking, coffee intake, and exercise). Two types of measurement for fatigue were used to evaluate the magnitude of fatigue: self-rated question and a standardized measurement tool (Multidimensional Fatigue Scale: MFS). RESULTS: According to the self-rated fatigue, 32% of employees reported that they felt fatigue for the past two weeks, and 9.6% of males and 8.7% of females had experienced excessive fatigue (6 months or more). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that fatigue measured by MFS was more common in women, younger, college or more graduated, single, and employees who do not regularly exercise. Fatigue was also associated with long work hours, and the size of the workplace (< 1, 000 employees). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that fatigue has been considered as a common complaint, and that it is affected by job-related factors like work hours and the workplace size as well as sociodemographics or health-related behaviors. Further research is needed to clarify the effects of fatigue on adverse health outcomes, work performance, work disability, sick absence and medical utilization, and to examine the relationship of job characteristics (e.g.: work demand, decision latitude) to fatigue.
Summary
Epidemiology of Psychosocial Distress in Korean Employees.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Gun Kang, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Sook Jung Hyun, Jun Ho Park, Seong Ah Kim, Dong Mug Kang, Seong Sil Chang, Kyung Jae Lee, Eun Hee Ha, Mina Ha, Jong Min Woo, Jung Jin Cho, Hyeong Su Kim, Jung Sun Park
J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38(1):25-37.
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OBJECTIVE
To estimate the magnitude of psychosocial distress and examine eligible factors associated with the development of psychosocial distress in Korean employees, using a nationwide sample. METHODS: A total of 6, 977 workers were recruited from 245 companies. A structured questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job characteristics, social support at work, personality traits (locus of control, type A behavior pattern), self-esteem, and psychosocial distress. RESULTS: The results showed that 23 % of workers were categorized as high stress, 73% as moderate, and 5% as normal. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that psychosocial distress was more common in younger workers, both male and female. Regular exercise was negatively associated with increase of psychosocial distress. In job characteristics, as expected, low decision latitude, high job insecurity, and low social support at work were related to high psychosocial distress. Personality traits such as locus of control and type A behavior pattern, and self-esteem were more powerful predictors of psychosocial distress than general characteristics, health-related behavior, and job characteristics. There were some gender differences. While men who are less educated and single (unmarried, divorced, and separated) experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who are educated and married, women who feel high job demand experienced higher levels of psychosocial distress than those who feel low job demand. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of the high stress group was higher than expected, and psychosocial factors like social support and personality characteristics (e. g. locus of control, type A behavior pattern and self-esteem) were more significant factors for psychosocial distress than other variables. This finding suggests that some psychosocial factors, especially inadequate social support, low self-esteem and lack of internal locus of control for the development of psychosocial distress, will also operate as an intervention strategy in the worksite stress reduction program. It is strongly required that worksite stress reduction programs should be established in at both occupational and level as well as in individual levels.
Summary
The Impact of New Work Organizational System on Job Strain, and Psychosocial Distress.
Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Byeong Hwan Sun, Dong Muk Kang, Mia Son, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2003;36(1):71-76.
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OBJECTIVES
New organizational work systems, and their impact on the mental health of employees, are considered to beone of the most important topics in the area of industrial health. This study was conducted to compare job characteristics (job demand and decision latitude) levels, and psychosocial distress of workers in acompany introducing to new organizational work systems, to those of workers managed by traditional work systems. METHODS: A study sample of 627 shipbuilding workers (446the new work organizational system and 181the traditional system) were recruited for this study. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, job characteristics (work demand, decision latitude), and psychosocial distress. RESULTS: The decision latitude was not significantly higher in the new work system compared to the traditional system. However, the job demand was significantly higher in the new work system than in the traditional system. The psychosocial distress was higher within the new work system than the traditional system, but no significant relationships were found. The proportion of increased strain was significantly greater with the new system than the traditional system. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increases in the decision latitude did not sufficiently compensate for higher job strain or increased work intensity. If the increase in the decision latitude was temporary, with the typical job demand remaining high, such work can be still be considered to have a job strain. Future research should consider psychosocial distress and fatigue as important problems caused by new work organizational systems, and should be performed to assess their impact through out industry.
Summary
The Effect of Social Support on Chronic Stress and Immune System in Male Manufacturing Workers.
Sei Jin Chang, Sang Baek Koh, Jong Ku Park, Bong Suk Cha
Korean J Prev Med. 2002;35(4):287-294.
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OBJECTIVES
To examine whether cumulative chronic stress influences the immune status, and to verify the effect of social support on the relationship between these two dimensions in male manufacturing workers. METHODS: A total of 39 workers were recruited for this study. A structured-questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, job characteristics (work demand and decision latitude), psychosocial distress, and social support. The serum levels of CD4 and CD8 were measured as immune markers, and were collected between 8:00 and 10:00am in order to standardize the markers. Nonparametric statistics were used to estimate the differences between job characteristics and the immune markers. RESUJLTS: General characteristics, and health-related behaviors, were not associated with CD4, CD8 or CD4/CD8. No relationships were found between job characteristics and the mean levels of immune reactivity. These results were consistent, even after controlling for social support. Social support failed to modify the relationship toward work demand, decision latitude or psychosocial distress to CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8. CONCLUSION: Cumulative chronic life stress might not influence the immune status, and the effects of social support on the immune function under chronic stress, may not play a crucial role in modifying the relationships. This implication supports that the effect of stress on the immune function may be determined by the characteristics of that stress. Further research should effectively considers the type, magnitude and timing of a stress event, and modifiable factors, such as personality traits, coping style, and hormone excretion levels, on the alteration of immune status.
Summary
Comparative Hepatotoxicity Assessment of Cadmium and Nickel with Isolated Perfused Rat Liver(IPRL).
Bong Suk Cha, Seung Jun Wang, Sei Jin Chang, Jung Woo Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(1):117-124.
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OBJECTIVES
It is the objective of this study to compare hepatotoxicity of nickel chloride and cadmium chloride with each other through IPRL(Isolated Perfused Rat Liver) method. METHODS: Biochemical indicator of hepatic function such as AST(aspartate aminotransferase), ALT(alanine aminotransferase), LDH(lactate dehydrogenase) and perfusion flow rate were used as the indicator of hepatotoxicity. Oxygen consumption rate were used as viability indicator. 300(+/-50) g - weighted rats were allocated randomly to each group(0 micrometer, 50 micrometer, 200 micrometer NiCl2 and CdCl2 exposure) by 5, totally 25. After Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer solution flowed into the portal vein and passed the liver cell, it flowed out of vena cava. Liver was administered with each NiCl2 and CdCl2 of each concentration and observed with buffer solution sampling time. Buffer which got out of liver was sampled and then biochemical indicator of hepatotoxicity was measured. RESULTS: AST, ALT, and LDH in buffer increased with sampling time much more in CdCl2 exposure group than NiCl2 exposure group in both 50 and 200 micrometer and statistical significance was verified with 2-way repeated ANOVA. Viability was decreased more and more in all substances during passed time. CONCLUSIONS: It is inferred that CdCl2 has stronger hepatotoxicity than NiCl2. IPRL method would be used widely for acute hepatotoxicity when considerating the benefit of it.
Summary
Effects of Job Strains on Absenteeism from Work.
Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Hong Ryul Choi, Hyong Sik Kim
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(4):505-512.
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OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between job strains and absenteeism from work. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional, and the study subjects consisted of 1,166 workers who were employed in the small-sized industries. A self administered questionnaire was used to measure the general characteristics, job characteristics(job demand, job control), and social support(coworker support, supervisor support) at work. The Job Content Questionnaire(JCQ) was used to assess job demand(2 items) and decision lattitude(10 items). Social support at work (10 items) was measured using JCQ. Sick absence was collected using self-report and were rechecked by the attendance record of their company. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between job strain and sick absence were estimated. The modifying effect of social support was evaluated by stratification. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between job strain and sick absence. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, the variables related to sick absence were age, marital status, occupation, job demand. Four distinctly different kinds of level of job strain were generated by the combination of job demand and job control: low strain group, high strain group, active group, and passive group. The crude odds ratio of high job strain was 1.78(95% CI: 1.26-2.53), and those of active group and passive group were 1.33(95% CI: 1.07-1.66) and 1.13 (95% CI: 0.88-1.47), respectively. The odds ratio of high job strain after adjusting for age and occupation were still significant. The odds ratio of high job strain in low social support was 5.96(95% CI: 2.45-14.51), but that in high social support was 0.73(95% CI: 0.26-2.01). CONCLUSIONS: Job strain was associated with increased risk of absenteeism from work, and social support at work modified the association between job strain and sick absence.
Summary
What Factors Affect Mortality over the Age of 40?.
Jong Ku Park, Sang Baek Koh, Chun Bae Kim, Myung Guen Kang, Kee Ho Park, Seung Jun Wang, Sei Jin Chang, Soon Ae Sin
Korean J Prev Med. 1999;32(3):383-394.
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OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to identify the factors influencing the mortality of Koreans over the age of 40 by a nested case-control study. METHODS: The cohort consisted of the beneficiaries of Korea Medical Insurance Corporation for Government Employees & Private School Teachers and Staff(KMIC) who received health examinations of KMIC in 1992 and 1993 retrospectively. At that time, they were more than 40 years old. The cases were 19,258 cohort members who had died until December 31, 1997. The controls were 19,258 cohort members who were alive until December 31, 1997. Controls were matched with age and sex distribution of the cases. The data used in this study were the funeral expenses requesting files, and the files of health examinations and health questionnaires gathered in 1992 and 1993. To assess the putative risk factors of death, student t-test, chi-square test, multiple logistic regression analysis were used. RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression analysis, independent risk factors of death were as follows; systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, AST, urine glucose, urine protein, alcohol drinking(frequency), cigarette smoking and perceived health status, intake of restoratives and blood transfusion showed positive associations with death; coffee consumption showed negative associations with death; and body mass index and serum total cholesterol showed J-shaped association with death. CONCLUSIONS: Regarding the direction of association, the result of analysis on the data restricted to '96-'97 was same as that of '93-'97. But in some variables such as obesity, serum cholesterol, the odds ratios of death in the data of '96-'97 were higer than those of '93-'94, which suggested that the data of '93-'94 was bearing effect-cause relationship. We concluded that it suggested further researches using long-term follow-up data to be needed in this area.
Summary
The Association between Job Characteristics, Psychosocial Distress and Homocysteine.
Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):719-727.
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This study was carried out to assess the relationship between jobstrain, psychosocial distress and homocysteine. The study design was cross-sectional, and included 152 industrial workers in middle sized city. A self-adminstered questionnaire measured general characteristic, job strain and psychosocial distress. Blood was drawn into EDTA tube, and total plasma homocysteine was measured by HPLC. Homocysteine in the high job demand group was significantly higher than that in the low job demand. Cholesterol in the high job control group was significantly higher than that in the low job control. Homocysteine was significantly higher in the high job strain group than that in the other group. Folate and vitamin B12 showed a significantly negative correlation with homocysteine. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether the psychosocial distress and other variable contributed to explaining the homocysteine. Stress correlates with the homocysteine.
Summary
Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Psychosicial Distress and Occupational Risks.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Jong Ku Park, Sang Baek Ko, Myung Guen Kang, Sang Yul Ko
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(3):540-554.
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The effects of cigarette smoking on the psychosocial distress, the absenteeism, the occupational injuries, and on the prevalence for the accidents were assessed in 795 male workers who had been employed since March 1994. The results show that the prevalence of current smokers were higher in young men, lower educational level, lower income, single men(unmarried or divorced), alcohol drinkers, and blue collar workers. In the bivariate analyses, the workers with the high job demand and low work control were more likely to smoke, although the relationship was not strong. Those who reported lower satisfaction on his job tended to smoke more. Mean scores of psychosocial well-being Index(PWI) were higher in current smokers than nonsmokers. For the hierarchical multiple regression analyses, interaction terms between cigarette smoking and job stressors(job demand and work control) were not significant. For smokers, the odds ratios for the occupational injuries, and the accidents were 1.40(95% confidence interval 0.77-2.57) and 1.96 (95% confidence interval 0.75-5.09), respectively. The mean absent day were 4.13 for smokers, 3.65 for nonsmokers, although the differences were not statistically significant. It seems that cigarette smoking had not caused any crucial effects on the psychosocial well-being status and the occupational risks. Some considerations for the further research on the relationship of cigarette smoking on the mental health status and the occupational risks were also discussed.
Summary
Reliability and Validity on Measurement Instrument for Health Status Assessment in Occupational Workers.
Sang Baek Koh, Sei Jin Chang, Myung Guen Kang, Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(2):251-266.
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In order to test scaling assumption, and to assess the validity, reliability, and acceptability of the Short Form 36(SF-36) health survey questionnaire, we conducted a survey. Samples were 296 workers who had been employed in small sized companies. All scale passed for item internal consistency(100% sucess rate) and item discriminant validity(100% success rate). Reliability coefficients were ranged from a low of 0.51 to a high of 0.85. For 87.5% of the total workers, inconsistent responses were not observed. Only 3.0% of the total workers failed two or more checks. Factor analysis was performed using principal axis factor method and quartimax rotation. In this survey, the SF-36 retained available psychometric properties even when used in a generally healthy worker group. But further study with some consideration to develope health status measurement is expected ; first, the definition of health status should be rationalized. Second, the measurement of outcome is an important consideration in evaluations of quality of care. But ambiguities hinder understanding of this important topic. Third, internal consistency should be interpreted with caution as an indication reliability because it ignores potentially important sources of variation that can occur over time.
Summary
Association between Job characteristics and Psychosocial Distress of Industrial Workers.
Sei Jin Chang, Bong Suk Cha, Sang Baek Koh, Myung Geun Kang, Sang Ryul Koh, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1997;30(1):129-144.
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This study was carried out to assess the relationship between job characteristics(job strain) and psychosocial distress, and to find out the effect of social support on psychosocial distress. The study design was cross-sectional, and included 1,211 industrial workers in middle-sized city. A self-administered questionnaire measured job characteristics(jod demand, job control), and social support(coworker support, supervisor support) at work. Psychosocial distress was measured using PWI(Psychosocial Well-being Index), a 45-item self-administered instrument. Among the 1,211 respondents, the prevalence of psychosocial distress was 24.8%. High job strain (high job demand + low job control) was present in 8% of the subjects. The crude odds ratio of high job strain was 4.76 (95% CI : 2.60-8.74), and those of active group and passive group were 3.81(95% CI : 1.82-3.95) and 2.64(95% CI : 1.77-3.94), respectively. The odds ratios of each group adjusted for sex, age, support, and religion were still significant. Our results supported the association between job strain and psychosocial distress. Social support at work, although significantly associated with psychosocial distress, did not modify the association between job strain and psychosocial distress.
Summary
The Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors of Cerebrovascular Diseases and Coronary heart Diseases.
Jong Ku Park, Hun Joo Kim, Keum Soo Park, Sung Su Lee, Sei Jin Chang, Kye Chul Shin, Sang Ok Kwon, Sang Baek Ko, Eun kyoung Lee
Korean J Prev Med. 1996;29(3):639-656.
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Cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease are the first and the fourth common causes of death among adults in Korea. Reported risk factors of one of these diseases may prevent other diseases. Therefore, we tried to compare and discriminate the risk factors of these diseases. We recruited four case groups and four control groups among the inpatients who were admitted to Wonju Christian Hospital from March, 1994 to November, 1995. Four control groups were matched with each of four case groups by age and sex. The number of patients in each of four case and control groups were 106 and 168 for acute myocardial infarction(AMI), 84 and 133 for subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH), 102 and 148 for intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH), and 91 and 182 for ischemic stroke(IS) respectively. Factors whose levels were significantly higher in AMI and IS than in responding control group(RCG) were education, economic status, and triglyceride. Factors whose levels were significantly lower in hemorrhagic stroke than in RCG were age of menarch, and prothrombin time. The factor whose level was higher in AMI than in RCG was uric acid. The factor whose level was higher in AMI, ICH, and SAH than in RCG was blood sugar. Factors whose levels were significantly higher in all the case groups than in RCG were earlobe crease, Quetelet index, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and total cholesterol. The list of risk factors were somewhat different among the four diseases, though none of the risk factors to the one disease except prothrombin time acted as a preventive factor to the other diseases. The percent of grouped cases correctly classified was higher in the discrimination of ischemic diseases(AMI and IS) from hemorrhagic diseases(SAH and ICH) than in the discrimination of cerebrovascular disease from AMI. The factors concerned in the discrimination of ischemic diseases from hemorrhagic diseases were prothrombin time, earlobe crease, gender, age uric aci, education, albumin, hemoglobin, the history of taking steroid, total cholesterol, and hematocrit according to the selection order through forward selection.
Summary
Social support and phychosocial distress among white-collar workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(4):429-447.
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The effects and roles of social support and stressors (stressful life events and chronic strains) on psychosocial distress were examined in a model with data from a sample of the white-collar workers (N = 416) in Korea. The findings of this study present that mean levels of psychosocial distress were higher' in the female, youth, unmarried and divorced, and low economic status (monthly income). The analysis also shows that, as expected, stressful life and chronic strains as stressors are positively related to occurrence of psychosocial distress, and social support is negatively related to psychosocial distress. Further, the contribution of social support to predicting psychosocial distress is greater in magnitude than that of stressful events, chronic strains, and sociodemographic variables. There is no evidence that social support buffers the impacts of stressors on psychosocial distress, rather social support takes a role of main or direct effects on psychosocial distress. Therefore, the strength of the social support is an important and meaningful strategy to prevent from stress and mental, physical illness.
Summary
Effects of Multiple Exposures to Pesticides on Plasma Cholinesterase Activity and p-nitrophenol Excretion in Rats.
Bong Suk Cha, Jung Gyun Park, Jong Ku Park, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1992;25(2):180-188.
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The effects of multiple exposures to pesticides on plasma cholinesterase(ChE) activities and urinary p-nitrophenol excretion were evaluated in rats. Rats were received single dose i.p. with LD50/100(mg/kg) of organophosphorous(OP), organophosphorous-organochroline(OP-OC), organophosphorous-carbamate(OP-CAB), organophosphorous-organoarsenate(OP-OA) pesticides for 4 consecutive days. In repeated administration of pesticides, plasma ChE activities were decreased, but urinary p-nitrophenol were increased after the first injection and then decreased gradually. The recovery rates of ChE activities and p-nitrophenol excretion at 48 hours after the fourth infection were delayed in comparison with the baseline value of 24 hours before the first injection. Statistical significances were found between OP and other groups except OP-OA group after the second injection in plasma ChE activities, but in urinary p-nitrophenol excretion there was statistical significance only between OP and OP-CAB.
Summary
Research on work stress and mental health status of the industrial workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Sei Jin Chang, Myung Keyn Lee, Jong Ku Park
Korean J Prev Med. 1989;22(1):90-101.
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Recently concerns on work stress and mental health status of industrial workers were increased. The purpose of this study was to investigate the work stress measured by PSI (psychiatric symptom index) according to socio-demographic variables. The study population was consisted with two types of group; manual and clerical workers. The, major findings of this study were as follows; Mean scores of psychiatric symptom in manual workers were higher in female, youth, educated, unmarried and divorced, noisy condition, that in clerical workers was higher in aged. Mean scores of psychiatric symptom were highly affected by degree of work autonomy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy in both groups. The higher the work autonomy, self-esteem, and self-efficacy, the lower the mean scores of work stress it showed. Psychiatric symptom index was explained with the work autonomy, self-esteem, self-efficacy through multiple stepwise regression. The annual admission rates were high in highly ranked groups on each psychiatric symptom dimension.
Summary
Work Stress and Mental Health of the Industrial Workers.
Bong Suk Cha, Jong Ku Park, Myung Keyn Lee, Sei Jin Chang
Korean J Prev Med. 1988;21(2):365-373.
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Information on work stress and mental health status of industrial workers was required for optimum staffing and health care management. This study dealt with the relationship between mental health status examined by PSI(psychiatric symptom index) and socio-demographic variables. Especially this study attempted to find relevant determinants of the stress and mental health through multiple stepwise regression analysis based on data obtained from 687 occupational workers. The findings of this study were as follows; Mean scores of symptom dimension were higher in youth, female, more educated, unmarried and divorced, and workers in the noisy condition and short duration in job. And it showed high scores in long duration in job for anxiety; college educated for anger; unmarried for cognitive disturbance. The factors affecting the mean scores of psychiatric symptom index were varied according to the types of symptom; age, sex and duration in job for anxiety; age, sex, living with parent, education and marital status for anger; sex and marital status for depression; noisy condition and sex for cognitive disorder.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health