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JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health

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Sang Gu Yi 3 Articles
The State of the Art of Preventive Medicine in North Korea With Reference to the Content Analysis of a Medical Textbook.
Sang Gu Yi, Ok Ryun Moon, Sin Jae Lee, Jung chul Kim, Wen Yong, Piao Song Lin
Korean J Prev Med. 2000;33(3):373-382.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
OBJECTIVES
The most frequently cited health related slogan in North Korea is that socialistic medicine is preventive medicine. It implies that North Korea puts preventive medicine at the operational center of its national health care system. This study aimed at examining and comparing preventive medicine practices in North Korea with those of South Korea. METHODS: Efforts have been made to obtain a textbook for analysis its contents. Many people have iassisted in the study by joining the interview. Some of these people are as follows: a former professor of PyongYang Medical School, NK physicians living in South Korea, WHO staffs, diplomatic officials, etc. The major items of analysis consisted of industrial medicine and hygiene, nutrition, school health, epidemiology, health statistics and heath policy & management. RESULTS: Public health philosophy is finely rooted and well integrated in the operation of the North Korean national health care system, particularly in the area of industrial medicine and hygiene. Preventive medicine with a strong health surveillance system spanning a number of broad social organizations is a major tool to improve the health of the people in North Korea. The emphasis on preventive medicine has a close relationship with the 'Juche Philosophy' and the shortage of pharmaceuticals and medical equipment. To cope with the shortage problem, North Korean health workers are encouraged to grow medicinal herbs. We have found that they put little effort into teaching newly emerging diseases, such as AIDS, VDT syndrome, hazards of EMF, and agricultural chemical poisonings. Of the subjects of the preventive medicine text, 78.9% coincide with those of South Korean industrial health manuals and 34.2% with South Korean epidemiology texts. However, an absolute difference was found to exist between the heath policies and management systems. CONCLUSION: In North Korea, the concept of preventive medicine functions as the basic philosophic strategy of the national health care system. It differs greatly from the South Korean system in both practice and educational content. Its contribution to society is simply incomparable to that of South Korea. More communication and further study is called for in order to improve the preventive medicine practices in the future.
Summary
A Study on Service Characteristics of Directors of Health Centers in Korea.
Jae Won Yoo, Ok Ryun Moon, Sang Yi Lee, Chul Woung Kim, Sang Gu Yi
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(4):786-800.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This study has attempted to show general characteristics of health centre directors who have served the post of directorship during the last 40 years. Of 3,000 such health centre directors, information on about 2,500 directors was collected. While average length of service for health center directors has increased, that of vacancy period has decreased. Rural areas have a shorter average length of service than the urban area. Rural areas have twice longer length of vacancy period per health center. Kangwon-do has the longest average length of vacancy period since 1980(2.79 months/year), and Daejeon has the shortest length of vacancy period(0.21 months/year). Chung-buk has no physician directors. The civil servant's rank for the directorship has promoted from the fifth level to the fourth level since 1990. A comparison between the physician director and non-physician director was made as follows : First, the proportion of physician directors had maintained rather high before 1980s ; 62.5% in 1963, 78.3% in 1970, 70.4% in 1980. It decreased to 44.1% in 1990 and 47.6% in 1997. Instead, non-physician directors has abruptly increased since 1980s(12.4% in 1980, 55.4% in 1990 and 50.8% in 1997). Second, physician directors mainly locate in the urban area(58.0% in 1997), but non-physician directors mainly in the rural area(67.2% in 1997). Third, since 1980, the average length of service for physician directors and for non-physician directors has become similar. Fourth, the mean age of physician directors is 45.1 years, and that of non-physician directors 55.7 years. The latter is 10 years older than the former.
Summary
A Study on Estimation of Caring Demand for Extended Care Facilities by Activities of Daily Living.
Chul Woung Kim, Ok Ryun Moon, Sang Yi Lee, Jae Won Yoo, Sang Gu Yi
Korean J Prev Med. 1998;31(3):564-578.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Most extended care facilities have admitted both the healthy and unhealthy elderly, among which members' average caring demand vary. The Aged Welfare Law, however, currently provides no reasonable basis on the staffing policy for extended care facilities. It just reflects the admitted number of the elderly rather than differences in members' average caring demand among facilities. This study is designed to estimate the need for caring staff on the basis of the correlation between the individual health status measured by various tools including Activities of Daily Living and caring demand by actual service time for each one. The sample included all of the admitted elderly(187 persons) in 4 extended care facilities, two in Seoul and the other two in KangWon-Do over the survey period October 5 through October 20, 1996. The survey process consisted of 3 stages. (1) The current staffing information was collected through self-completed written questionnaires left for head official in each facility. (2) Six graduate students at School of Public Health interviewed all residents to collect information on their health status and sociodemographics. The response rate for the interview was relatively high(85%). (3) Information on direct and indirect caring time consumed for each residents came from self-completed written questionnaires given to nurses and helpers in each target facilities. Analysis of the data was made using Pearson's correlation and multiple regression technique through SAS program. Based on this procedure, the following was found. 1. No facility meet the staffing standard in the Aged Welfare Law completely. 2. It is actual service time that is most correlated with ADL(Activities of daily living). 3. When all of the elderly are divided by four groups based on the level of ADL, the mean values of needed caring time in each group are 15, 21, 36 and 88 minutes respectively. 4. There is no significant difference among facilities in distribution of elderly person by group. 5. No facility meets the estimated number of nurses and helpers which reflects health status of the admitted elderly. Therefore, it is required that severity of the admitted elderly be considered in establishing staffing standard for extended care facility.
Summary

JPMPH : Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health